WorldCat Identities

National Research Council (U.S.). Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Overview
Works: 174 works in 442 publications in 1 language and 74,984 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  Surveys 
Classifications: HE8700.62, 384.3
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by National Research Council (U.S.).
Broadband : bringing home the bits by National Research Council Committee on Broadband Last Mile Technology( Book )

3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 296 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using remote sensing in state and local government : information for management and decision making by National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Space Applications and Commercialization( Book )

3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An assessment of non-lethal weapons science and technology by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Non-lethal weapons (NLWs) are designed to minimize fatalities and other undesired collateral damage when used. Events of the last few years including the attack on the USS Cole have raised ideas about the role NLWs can play in enhancing support to naval forces. In particular to what extent and in what areas should Department of the Navy (DoN) -sponsored science and technology (S & T) provide a research base for developing NLW capabilities? To assist with this question and to evaluate the current NLWs program, the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) requested the National Research Council perform an assessment of NLWs science and technology. The report presents the results of that assessment. It discusses promising NLW S & T areas, development accomplishments and concerns about NLW, and series of recommendations about future NLW development and application
The potential impact of high-end capability computing on four illustrative fields of science and engineering by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

6 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many federal funding requests for more advanced computer resources assume implicitly that greater computing power creates opportunities for advancement in science and engineering. This has often been a good assumption. Given stringent pressures on the federal budget, the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) are seeking an improved approach to the formulation and review of requests from the agencies for new computing funds. The study considered, as examples, four fields of science and engineering to determine which of their major challenges are critically dependent on high-end capability computing (HECC): atmospheric science, astrophysics, chemical separations, evolutionary biology. While this study does identify the potential impact of HECC in these four fields, and thus implicitly identifies some potential funding opportunities, that is not the goal, and this study is no substitute for competitive review of specific proposals. Rather, the study is meant to illustrate the sort of examination that any field or federal agency could undertake in order to analyze the HECC infrastructure it needs to support progress toward its research goals, within the context of other means of attacking those goals
Preventing the forward contamination of Mars( Book )

6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 111 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent spacecraft and robotic probes to Mars have yielded data that are changing our understanding significantly about the possibility of existing or past life on that planet. Coupled with advances in biology and life-detection techniques, these developments place increasing importance on the need to protect Mars from contamination by Earth-borne organisms. To help with this effort, NASA requested that the NRC examine existing planetary protection measures for Mars and recommend changes and further research to improve such measures. This report discusses policies, requirements, and techniques to protect Mars from organisms originating on Earth that could interfere with scientific investigations. It provides recommendations on cleanliness and biological burden levels of Mars-bound spacecraft, methods to reach those levels, and research to reduce uncertainties in preventing forward contamination of Mars
The owner's role in project risk management by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Effective risk management is essential for the success of large projects built and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE), particularly for the one-of-a-kind projects that characterize much of its mission. To enhance DOE's risk management efforts, the department asked the NRC to prepare a summary of the most effective practices used by leading owner organizations. The study's primary objective was to provide DOE project managers with a basic understanding of both the project owner's risk management role and effective oversight of those risk management activities delegated to contractors
Modeling the economics of greenhouse gas mitigation : summary of a workshop by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

5 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 101 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Models are fundamental for estimating the possible costs and effectiveness of different policies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is a wide array of models to perform such analysis, differing in the level of technological detail, treatment of technological progress, spatial and sector details, and representation of the interaction of the energy sector to the overall economy and environment. These differences impact model results, including cost estimates. More fundamentally, these models differ as to how they represent fundamental processes that have a large impact on policy analysis--such as how different models represent technological learning and cost reductions that come through increasing production volumes, or how different models represent baseline conditions. Reliable estimates of the costs and potential impacts on the United States economy of various emissions reduction and other mitigation strategies are critical to the development of the federal climate change research and development portfolio. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Academies organized a workshop, summarized in this volume, to consider some of these types of modeling issues."--Publisher's description
Proceedings of a workshop on deterring cyberattacks : informing strategies and developing options for U.S. policy by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

4 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 100 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Examines governmental, economical, technical, legal, and psychological challenges involved in deterring cyber attacks."--Publisher's website
Toward a sustainable and secure water future : a leadership role for the U.S. Geological Survey by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 100 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Toward a Sustainable and Secure Water Future reviews the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Water Resource Discipline (WRD), one of the nation's foremost water science organizations. This book provides constructive advice to help the WRD meet the nation's water needs over the coming decades. Of interest primarily to the leadership of the USGS WRD, many findings and recommendations also target the USGS leadership and the Department of Interior (DOI), because their support is necessary for the WRD to respond to the water needs of the nation
Decadal survey of civil aeronautics : foundation for the future by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 97 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The U.S. air transportation system is very important for our economic well-being and national security. The nation is also the global leader in civil and military aeronautics, a position that needs to be maintained to help assure a strong future for the domestic and international air transportation system. Strong action is needed, however, to ensure that leadership role continues. To that end, the Congress and NASA requested the NRC to undertake a decadal survey of civil aeronautics research and technology (R & T) priorities that would help NASA fulfill its responsibility to preserve U.S. leadership in aeronautics technology. This report presents a set of strategic objectives for the next decade of R & T. It provides a set of high-priority R & T challenges--characterized by five common themes--for both NASA and non-NASA researchers, and an analysis of key barriers that must be overcome to reach the strategic objectives. The report also notes the importance of synergies between civil aeronautics R & T objectives and those of national security
Experimentation and rapid prototyping in support of counterterrorism by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 86 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The U.S. military forces currently face a nontraditional threat from insurgents and terrorists who primarily employ improvised explosive devices, and have shown a cycle of adaptation of less than 12 months to responses by U.S. forces to counter these attacks. This constantly evolving threat requires U.S. military forces to adapt and respond more rapidly with modified tactics, technologies, and/or equipment. In response to this need for new technologies, the Rapid Reaction Technology Office (RRTO) was established in 2006 to develop technologies that can mature in 6 to 18 months for purposes of counterterrorism. Although RRTO appears to be successfully fulfilling its mission, the agency seeks to understand and address barriers to and opportunities for meeting future counterterrorism needs--including the need to accelerate the transition of technologies for counterterrorism with an eye to countering emerging and anticipated threats. This book reviews RRTO approaches and provides a set of recommendations for potential improvements to help meet these needs for rapid technology development"--Publisher's description
Assessment of planetary protection requirements for Mars sample return missions by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

7 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

NASA maintains a planetary protection policy to avoid the forward biological contamination of other worlds by terrestrial organisms, and back biological contamination of Earth from the return of extraterrestrial materials by spaceflight missions. Forward-contamination issues related to Mars missions were addressed in a 2006 National Research Council (NRC) book, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars. However, it has been more than 10 years since back-contamination issues were last examined. Driven by a renewed interest in Mars sample return missions, this book reviews, updates, and replaces the planetary protection conclusions and recommendations contained in the NRC's 1997 report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations. The specific issues addressed in this book include the following: the potential for living entities to be included in samples returned from Mars; scientific investigations that should be conducted to reduce uncertainty in the above assessment; the potential for large-scale effects on Earth's environment by any returned entity released to the environment; criteria for intentional sample release, taking note of current and anticipated regulatory frameworks; and the status of technological measures that could be taken on a mission to prevent the inadvertent release of a returned sample into Earth's biosphere
Evaluation of quantification of margins and uncertainties methodology for assessing and certifying the reliability of the nuclear stockpile by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Maintaining the capabilities of the nuclear weapons stockpile and performing the annual assessment for the stockpile's certification involves a wide range of processes, technologies, and expertise. An important and valuable framework helping to link those components is the quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) methodology. In this book, the National Research Council evaluates: how the national security labs were using QMU, including any significant differences among the three labs; its use in the annual assessment; and whether the applications of QMU to assess the proposed reliable replacement warhead (RRW) could reduce the likelihood of resuming underground nuclear testing. This book presents an assessment of each of these issues and includes findings and recommendations to help guide laboratory and NNSA implementation and development of the QMU framework. It also serves as a guide for congressional oversight of those activities."--Publisher's description
Achieving effective acquisition of information technology in the Department of Defense by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In the military, information technology (IT) has enabled profound advances in weapons systems and the management and operation of the defense enterprise. A significant portion of the Department of Defense (DOD) budget is spent on capabilities acquired as commercial IT commodities, developmental IT systems that support a broad range of warfighting and functional applications, and IT components embedded in weapons systems. The ability of the DOD and its industrial partners to harness and apply IT for warfighting, command and control and communications, logistics, and transportation has contributed enormously to fielding the world's best defense force. However, despite the DOD's decades of success in leveraging IT across the defense enterprise, the acquisition of IT systems continues to be burdened with serious problems. To address these issues, the National Research Council assembled a group of IT systems acquisition and T & E experts, commercial software developers, software engineers, computer scientists and other academic researchers. The group evaluated applicable legislative requirements, examined the processes and capabilities of the commercial IT sector, analyzed DOD's concepts for systems engineering and testing in virtual environments, and examined the DOD acquisition environment. The present volume summarizes this analysis and also includes recommendations on how to improve the acquisition, systems engineering, and T & E processes to achieve the DOD's network-centric goals."--Publisher's description
Review of goals and plans for NASA's space and earth sciences( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 52 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Both the President s commission on how to implement the President s space exploration initiative and Congress asked the NRC undertake an assessment and review of the science proposed to be carried out under the initiative. An initial response to that request was the NRC February 2005 report, Science in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. While that report s preparation, NASA created capabilities and strategy roadmapping efforts which became the object of the next phase of the NRC review. The new NASA administrator modified that NASA activity resulting in changes in the NRC review effort. This report provides a review of six science strategy roadmaps: robotic and human exploration of Mars; solar system exploration; universe exploration; search for earth-like planets; earth science and applications from space; and sun-earth system connection. In addition, an assessment of cross-cutting and integration issues is presented
Principal-investigator-led missions in the space sciences by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Principal Investigator-Led (PI-led) missions are an important element of NASA & rsquo;s space science enterprise. While several NRC studies have considered aspects of PI-led missions in the course of other studies for NASA, issues facing the PI-led missions in general have not been subject to much analysis in those studies. Nevertheless, these issues are raising increasingly important questions for NASA, and it requested the NRC to explore them as they currently affect PI-led missions. Among the issues NASA asked to have examined were those concerning cost and scheduling, the selection process, relationships among PI-led team members, and opportunities for knowledge transfer to new PIs. This report provides a discussion of the evolution and current status of the PIled mission concept, the ways in which certain practices have affected its performance, and the steps that can carry it successfully into the future. The study was done in collaboration with the National Academy of Public Administration
University research centers of excellence for homeland security : a summary report of a workshop by Alan C Shaw( Book )

3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Asking the right questions about electronic voting( Book )

4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Many election officials look to electronic voting systems as a means for improving their ability to more effectively conduct and administer elections. At the same time, many information technologists and activists have raised important concerns regarding the security of such systems. Policy makers are caught in the midst of a controversy with both political and technological overtones. The public debate about electronic voting is characterized by a great deal of emotion and rhetoric. Asking the Right Questions About Electronic Voting describes the important questions and issues that election officials, policy makers, and informed citizens should ask about the use of computers and information technology in the electoral process--focusing the debate on technical and policy issues that need resolving. The report finds that while electronic voting systems have improved, federal and state governments have not made the commitment necessary for e-voting to be widely used in future elections. More funding, research, and public education are required if e-voting is to become viable
Severe space weather events : understanding societal and economic impacts : a workshop report by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

2 editions published between 2008 and 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As a first step toward determining the socioeconomic impacts of extreme space weather events and addressing the questions of space weather risk assessment and management, a public workshop was held in May 2008. The workshop brought together representatives of industry, the government, and academia to consider both direct and collateral effects of severe space weather events, the current state of the space weather services infrastructure in the United States, the needs of users of space weather data and services, and the ramifications of future technological developments for contemporary society's vulnerability to space weather. The workshop concluded with a discussion of un- or underexplored topics that would yield the greatest benefits in space weather risk management
Computational technology for effective health care : immediate steps and strategic directions by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite a strong commitment to delivering quality health care, persistent problems involving medical errors and ineffective treatment continue to plague the industry. Many of these problems are the consequence of poor information and technology (IT) capab
 
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