WorldCat Identities

Poutvaara, Panu

Works: 114 works in 413 publications in 2 languages and 1,061 library holdings
Roles: Creator
Classifications: HD5701, 362.296
Publication Timeline
Publications about  Panu Poutvaara Publications about Panu Poutvaara
Publications by  Panu Poutvaara Publications by Panu Poutvaara
Most widely held works by Panu Poutvaara
Smoking and social interaction by Panu Poutvaara ( )
16 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms affect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smoking areas does not overcome this specific inefficiency. We conclude that smoking bans may represent a required (second-best) policy
Selfish and prospective: theory and evidence of pocketbook voting by Mikael Elinder ( )
14 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present and test a theory of prospective and retrospective pocketbook voting. Focusing on two large reforms in Sweden, we establish a causal chain from policies to sizeable individual gains and losses and then to voting. The Social Democrats proposed budget cuts affecting parents with young children before the 1994 election, but made generous promises to the same group before the 1998 election. Since parents with older children were largely unaffected we use a difference-in-differences strategy for identification. We find clear evidence of prospective pocketbook voting. Voters respond to campaign promises but not to the later implementation of the reforms. -- Elections ; Economic voting ; Pocketbook voting ; Self-interest ; Prospective voting ; Retrospective voting ; Child care
Firms' ethics, consumer boycotts, and signalling by Amihai Glazer ( )
12 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper develops a theory of consumer boycotts. Some consumers care not only about the products they buy but also about whether the firm behaves ethically. Other consumers do not care about the behavior of the firm but yet may like to give the impression of being ethical consumers. Consequently, to affect a firm's ethical behavior, moral consumers refuse to buy from an unethical firm. Consumers who do not care about ethical behavior may join the boycott to (falsely) signal that they do care. In the firm's choice between ethical and unethical behavior, the optimality of mixed and pure strategies depends on the cost of behaving ethically. In particular, when the cost is (relatively) low, ethical behavior arises from a prisoners' dilemma as the firm's optimal strategy
Public education in an integrated Europe studying to migrate and teaching to stay? by Panu Poutvaara ( )
8 editions published between 2004 and 2006 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
An increasing international applicability of a given type of education encourages students to invest more effort when studying. Governments, on the other hand, face an incentive to divert the provision of public education away from internationally applicable education toward country-specific skills. This would mean educating too few engineers, economists and doctors, and too many lawyers. If the total tax rate is kept constant, then replacing part of existing wage taxes with graduate taxes, collected also from migrants, would improve efficiency. It could even allow for a Pareto-improvement
Flexible outsourcing and the impacts of labour taxation in European welfare states by Erkki Koskela ( )
12 editions published in 2008 in English and German and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In European Welfare States, low-skilled workers are typically unionized, while the wage formation of high-skilled workers is more competitive. To focus on this aspect, we analyze how flexible international outsourcing and labour taxation affect wage formation, employment and welfare in dual domestic labour markets. Higher productivity of outsourcing, lower cost of outsourcing and lower factor price of outsourcing increase wage dispersion between the high-skilled and low-skilled workers. Increasing wage tax progression of lowskilled workers decreases the wage rate and increases the labour demand of low-skilled workers. It decreases the welfare of low-skilled workers and increases both the welfare of high-skilled workers and the profit of firms. -- Flexible outsourcing ; dual labour market ; impacts of labour taxation ; welfare state
Unemployment and gang crime: could prosperity backfire? by Panu Poutvaara ( )
11 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Empirical evidence reveals that unemployment tends to increase property crime but that it has no effect on violent crime. To explain these facts, we examine a model of criminal gangs and suggest that there is a substitution effect between property crime and violent crime at work. In the model, non-monetary valuation of gang membership is private knowledge. Thus the leaders face a trade-off between less crime per member in large gangs and more crime per member in small gangs. Unemployment increases the relative attractiveness of large and less violent gangs engaging more in property crime
The expansion of higher education and time consistent taxation by Panu Poutvaara ( )
11 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes educational choices and political support for subsidies to higher education in the presence of a time-consistency problem in income redistribution. There may be political support for so generous subsidization that it motivates the median voter to obtain higher education. As a result of increasing own income, the median voter prefers in the future lower taxes than without higher education. Therefore, the expansion of participation in higher education during the second half of the 20th century may have partly been driven by the aim to limit the political support for overly generous income redistribution
The political economy of conscription by Panu Poutvaara ( )
9 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Though in decline recently, military conscription is still a widely used mode of staffing armies. Since not many valid economic, social or military arguments in favor of the draft can be put forward, the question emerges why societies choose to rely on it. In this survey we explain the political allure of military conscription by its specific intra- and intergenerational incidence as a tax. From a public choice perspective, there is always a vast majority of people in favor of the introduction and maintenance of military draft, as compared to a professional army. Empirical evidence for this conclusion appears to be mixed, however. Political preferences with respect to conscription involve concerns about its unfairness and questionable record on social accounts. Special interests may also matter
Outsourcing and labor taxation in dual labor markets by Erkki Koskela ( )
10 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We evaluate the effects of international outsourcing and labor taxation on wage formation and equilibrium unemployment in dual labor markets. Outsourcing promotes wage dispersion between the high-skilled and low-skilled workers. Higher domestic low-skilled wage tax, higher payroll tax and lower wage tax exemption increase optimal outsourcing. Outsourcing will reduce equilibrium unemployment of low-skilled workers both in the presence and absence of labor taxation. In the presence of outsourcing, wage tax, tax exemption and payroll tax have an ambiguous effect on equilibrium unemployment. Increasing the degree of tax progression decreases the wage rate and increases the demand of low-skilled workers. -- Outsourcing ; dual labor markets ; labor taxation ; equilibrium unemployment
Pay for politicians and candidate selection an empirical analysis by Kaisa Kotakorpi ( )
8 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A growing theoretical literature on the effect of politicians' salaries on the average level of skills of political candidates yields ambiguous predictions. In this paper, we estimate the effect of pay for politicians on the level of education of parliamentary candidates. We take advantage of an exceptional reform where the salaries of Finnish MPs were increased by 35 % in the year 2000, intended to make the pay for parliamentarians more competitive. A difference-in-differences analysis, using candidates in municipal elections as a control group, suggests that the higher salary increased the fraction of candidates with higher education among female candidates, while we find no significant effect for male candidates
The looks of a winner: beauty, gender and electoral success by Niclas Berggren ( )
8 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"We study the role of beauty in politics. For the first time, focus is put on differences in how women and men evaluate female and male candidates and how different candidate traits relate to success in real and hypothetical elections. We have collected 16,218 assessments by 2,772 respondents of photos of 1,929 Finnish political candidates. Evaluations of beauty explain success in real elections better than evaluations of competence, intelligence, likability, or trustworthiness. The beauty premium is larger for female candidates, in contrast to findings in previous labor-market studies"--Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit web site
Should old age benefits be earnings tested? by Niku Määttänen ( )
10 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 28 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We study the welfare effects of earnings testing flat-rate old-age benefits in a quantitative overlapping generations model with idiosyncratic labor income risk. In our model economy, even a moderate earnings testing reduces individuals' expected lifetime utility, whenever other taxes are taken into account. Moreover, it also lowers the realized lifetime utilities of those at the bottom of the lifetime utility distribution. Social security; Retirement; Means-testing
Does military draft discourage enrollment in higher education? evidence from OECD countries by Katarina Keller ( )
7 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 28 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Using data from 1960-2000 for OECD countries, we analyze the impact of compulsory military service on the demand for higher education, measured by students enrolled in tertiary education as a share of the working-age population. Based on a theoretical model, we hypothesize that military draft has a negative effect on education. Empirically, we confirm this for the existence of conscription, albeit usually at low statistical significance. However, the intensity of its enforcement, measured by the share of the labor force conscripted by the military and the duration of service, significantly reduces enrollment in higher education
School shootings and student performance by Panu Poutvaara ( )
8 editions published in 2010 in English and German and held by 28 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for women
The Right Look Conservative Politicians Look Better and Their Voters Reward It by Niclas Berggren ( )
6 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in 3 languages and held by 24 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Previous research has established that good-looking political candidates win more votes. We extend this line of research by examining differences between parties on the left and on the right of the political spectrum. Our study combines data on personal votes in real elections with a web survey in which 2,513 non-Finnish respondents evaluated the facial appearance of 1,357 Finnish political candidates. We find that political candidates on the right are better looking in both municipal and parliamentary elections and that they have a larger beauty premium in municipal, but not in parliamentary, elections. As municipal candidates are relatively unknown, the beauty-premium gap indicates that voters - especially those to the right - use beauty as a cue for candidate ideology or quality in the municipal elections
Pareto-improving bequest taxation by Volker Grossmann ( )
7 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Altruistic parents may transfer resources to their offspring by providing education, and by leaving bequests. We show that in the presence of wage taxation, a small bequest tax may improve efficiency in an overlapping-generations framework with only intended bequests, by enhancing incentives of parents to invest in their children's education. This result holds even if the wage tax rate is held constant when introducing bequest taxation. We also calculate an optimal mix of wage and bequest taxes with alternative parameter combinations. In all cases, the optimal wage tax rate is clearly higher than the optimal bequest tax rate, but the latter is generally positive when the required government revenue in the economy is sufficiently high
Social security incentives and human capital investment by Morten I Lau ( Book )
6 editions published between 2001 and 2006 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Hooliganism and police tactics should tear gas make crime preventers cry? by Panu Poutvaara ( )
4 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Hooliganism is on the rise and different countries use different strategies to combat it. We introduce a model where hooligans reap utility from violence and social identity and study the effects of different police strategies. We find that an increase in discriminative policy, provided by intelligence units, for example, always reduces violence. Under the right circumstances, it may also lead to larger supporter clubs and a significant drop in violence. Indiscriminate policing, such as the use of teargas or random jailing of potential law breakers, may, however, backfire and result in smaller and more brutal groups
Income taxes, property values, and migration by Amihai Glazer ( Book )
9 editions published between 2003 and 2008 in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We consider taxation by a Leviathan government and by a utilitarian government in the presence of heterogenous locations within a country, when migration from one country to another is and is not possible. In a closed economy, a utilitarian government may transfer income from the poor to the rich to reduce rents earned by absentee landlords. When the rich are mobile, a tax on them induces little migration because the tax will reduce the rents on land inhabited by the rich. A race to the bottom need not appear
Is there scope for gains from revenue neutral labor tax reforms with flexible outsourcing? by Erkki Koskela ( )
5 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We study the effects of revenue-neutral labor tax reforms in an imperfectly competitive domestic labor market under Nash wage bargaining and flexible outsourcing. A revenue-neutral increase in the wage tax progression will decrease the negotiated wage rate, increase domestic labor demand and decrease international outsourcing. In the presence of wage tax exemption, a lower payroll tax and a higher wage tax will increase domestic labor demand and decrease international outsourcing. The effect on the negotiated wage rate is positive with sufficiently strong labor market imperfections, and ambiguous with sufficiently weak labor market imperfections. -- Flexible outsourcing ; wage bargaining ; employment ; tax-revenue neutral labor tax reforms
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Audience level: 0.42 (from 0.35 for Unemployme ... to 0.59 for Income tax ...)
Alternative Names
Poutvaara, P. 1973-
English (176)
German (4)