WorldCat Identities

Marr, David 1945-1980

Overview
Works: 34 works in 136 publications in 3 languages and 3,112 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: QP475, 152.1402854
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by David Marr
Vision : a computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information by David Marr( Book )

43 editions published between 1982 and 2010 in 3 languages and held by 1,279 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"David Marr's posthumously published Vision (1982) influenced a generation of brain and cognitive scientists, inspiring many to enter the field. In Vision, Marr describes a general framework for understanding visual perception and touches on broader questions about how the brain and its functions can be studied and understood. Researchers from a range of brain and cognitive sciences have long valued Marr's creativity, intellectual power, and ability to integrate insights and data from neuroscience, psychology, and computation. This MIT Press edition makes Marr's influential work available to a new generation of students and scientists. In Marr's framework, the process of vision constructs a set of representations, starting from a description of the input image and culminating with a description of three-dimensional objects in the surrounding environment. A central theme, and one that has had far-reaching influence in both neuroscience and cognitive science, is the notion of different levels of analysis--in Marr's framework, the computational level, the algorithmic level, and the hardware implementation level. Now, thirty years later, the main problems that occupied Marr remain fundamental open problems in the study of perception. Vision provides inspiration for the continuing efforts to integrate knowledge from cognition and computation to understand vision and the brain."--MIT CogNet
Early processing of visual information by David Marr( Book )

8 editions published between 1975 and 1976 in English and Undetermined and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The article describes a symbolic approach to visual information proessing, and set out four principles that appear to govern the design of comples symbolic information processing systems. A computational theory of early visual information is presented, which extends to about the level of figure-ground separation. It includes a process-oriented theory of texture vision. Most of the theory has been implemented, and examples are shown of the analysis of several natural images. This replaces AIM-324 and AIM 334
From the retina to the neocortex : selected papers of David Marr by David Marr( Book )

4 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three dimensional shapes by David Marr( Book )

5 editions published between 1976 and 1977 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The human visual process can be studied by examining the computational problems associated with deriving useful information from retinal images. In this paper, we apply this approach to the problem of representing three- dimensional shapes for the purpose of recognition. Three criteria, accessibility, scope and uniqueness, and stability and sensitivity, are presented for judging the usefulness of a representation for shape recognition. Three aspects of a representation's design are considered, use an object-centered coordinate system, include volumetric primitives of varied sizes, and have a modular organization. A representation based on a shape's natural axes (for example the axes identified by a stick figure) follows directly from these choices. The basic process for deriving a shape description in this representation must involve: a means for identifying the natural axes of a shape in its image and a mechanism for transforming viewer-centered axis specifications in an object-centered coordinate system. (Author)
A life by David Marr( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Representing visual information by David Marr( Book )

7 editions published between 1977 and 1978 in English and Undetermined and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision is the construction of efficient symbolic descriptions from images of the world. An important aspect of vision is the choice of representations for the different kinds of information in a visual scene. In the early stages of the analysis of an image, the representations used depend more on what it is possible to compute from an image than on what is ultimately desirable, but later representations can be more sensitive to the specific needs of recognition. This essay surveys recent work in vision at M.I.T. from a perspective in which the representational problems assume a primary importance. An overall framework is suggested for visual information processing, in which the analysis proceeds through three representations; (1) the primal sketch, which makes explicit the intensity changes and local two-dimensional geometry of an image, (2) the 2 1/2-D sketch, which is a viewer-centered representation of the depth, orientation and discontinuities of the visible surfaces, and (3) the 3-D model representation, which allows an object-centered description of the three-dimensional structure and organization of a viewed shape. Recent results concerning processes for constructing and maintaining these representations are summarized and discussed. (Author)
Theory of edge detection by David Marr( Book )

3 editions published between 1979 and 1980 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A theory of edge detection is presented. (1) Intensity changes, which occur in a natural image over a wide range of scales, are detected separately at different scales. At a given scale, this is best done by finding the zero-crossings of gradient-squared G(x, y) * (I(x, y) for image I, where G(x, y) is a two-dimensional gaussian distribution, and gradient-squared is the Laplacian. (2) The physical phenomena that give rise to the intensity changes are localized. This allows one to construct rules for combining information from the different scales into a primitive description of the image. A physiological model for zero-crossing detection is proposed. (Author)
The recognition of sharp, closely spaced edges by David Marr( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recognition of sharp edges from edge- and bar-mask convolutions with an image is studied for the special case where the separation of the edges is of the order of the masks' panel-widths. Desmearing techniques are employed to separate the items in the image. Attention is also given to parsing de-smeared mask convolutions into edges and bars; to detecting edge and bar terminations; and to the detection of small blobs
Analysis of occluding contour by David Marr( Book )

4 editions published in 1976 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Almost nothing can be deduced about a general 3-D surface given only its occluding contours in an image, yet contour information is easily and effectively used by us to infer the shape of a surface. Therefore, implicit in the perceptual analysis of occluding contour must lie various assumptions about the viewed surfaces. The assumptions that seem most natural are (a) that the distinction between convex and concave segments reflects real properties of the viewed surface; and (b) that contiguous portions of contour arise from contiguous parts of the viewed surface--i.e., there are no invisible obscuring edges. It is proved that, for smooth surfaces, these assumptions are essentially equivalent to assuming that the viewed surface is a generalized cone. Methods are defined for finding the axis of such a cone, and for segmenting a surface constructed of several cones into its components, whose axes can then be found separately. These methods, together with the algorithms for implementing them devised by Vatan and Marr (1977), provide one link between an uninterpreted figure extracted from an image, and the 3-D representation theory of Marr and Nishihara (1977). (Author)
Bijon( Book )

3 editions published in 1987 in Japanese and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

From understanding computation to understanding neural circuitry by David Marr( Book )

3 editions published in 1976 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The CNS needs to be understood at four nearly independent levels of description: (1) that at which the nature of a computation is expressed; (2) that at which the algorithms that implement a computation are characterized; (3) that at which an algorithm is committed to particular mechanisms; and (4) that at which the mechanisms are realized in hardware. In general, the nature of a computation is determined by the problem to be solved, the mechanisms that are used depend upon the available hardware, and the particular algorithms chosen depend on the problem and on the available mechanisms. Examples are given of theories at each level. (Author)
A theory of human stereo vision by David Marr( Book )

3 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An algorithm is proposed for solving the stereoscopic matching problem. The algorithm consists of five steps: (1) Each image is filtered with bar masks of four sizes that vary with eccentricity; the equivalent filters are about one octave wide. (2) Zero-crossings of the mask values are localized, and positions that correspond to terminations are found; (3) For each mask size, matching takes place between paris of zero-crossings or terminations of the same sign in the two images, for a range of disparities up to about the width of the mask's central region; (4) Wide masks can control vergence movements, thus causing small masks to come into correspondence; and (5) When a correspondence is achieved, it is written into a dynamic buffer, called the 2-1/2-D sketch. It is shown that this proposal provides a theoretical framework for most existing psychophysical and neurophysiological data about stereopsis. Several critical experimental predictions are also made, for instance about the size of Panum's area under various conditions. The results of such experiments would tell us whether, for example, cooperativity is necessary for the fusion process
The low-level symbolic representation of intensity changes in an image by David Marr( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A family of symbols is defined by which much of the useful information in an image may be represented, and its choice is justified. The family includes symbols for the various commonly occurring intensity profiles that are associated with the edges of objects, and symbols for the gradual luminance changes that provide clues about a surface's shape. It is shown that these descriptors may readily be computed from measurements similar to those made by simple cells in the visual cortex of the cat. (Author)
Cooperative computation of stereo disparity by David Marr( Book )

4 editions published in 1976 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The extraction of stereo disparity information from two images depends upon establishing a correspondence between them. This article analyzes the nature of the correspondence computation, and derives a cooperative algorithm that implements it. It is show that this algorithm successfully extracts information from random-dot stereograms, and its implications for the psychophysics and neurophysiology of the visual system are briefly discussed
Spatial disposition of axes in a generalized cylinder representation of objects that do not encompass the viewer by David Marr( Book )

2 editions published in 1975 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It is proposed that the 3-D representation of an object is represented primarily by a stick-figure configuration, where each stick represents one or more axes in the object's generalized cylinder representation. The loosely hierarchical description of a stick figure is interpreted by a special-purpose processor, able to maintain two vector and the gravitational vertical relative to a Cartesian space-frame. It delivers information about the appearance of these vectors
A note on the computation of binocular disparity in a symbolic, low-level visual processor by David Marr( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The goals of the computation that extracts disparity from pairs of pictures of a scene are defined, and the constraints imposed upon that computation by the three-dimensional structure of the world are shown to be inadequate. A precise expression of the goals of the computation is possible in a low-level symbolic visual processor: the constraints translate in this environment to pre-requisites on the binding of disparity values to low-level symbols. The outline of a method based on this is given
On the purpose of low-level vision by David Marr( Book )

3 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The article advances the thesis that the purpose of low-level vision is to encode symbolically all of the useful information contained in an intensity array, using a vocabulary of very low-level symbols. Subsequent processes should have access only to this symbolic description. The reason is one of computational expediency. It allows the low-level processes to run almost autonomously; and it greatly simplifies the application of criteria to an image, whose representation in terms of conditions on the initial intensities, or on simple measurements made from them, is very cumbersome
An essay on the primate retina by David Marr( Book )

3 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A review of the known physiology, anatomy, histology, and psychophysics of the retina is given. Land's retinex theory of colour vision is summarized. It is proposed that one function of the retina is to compute lightness using a two-dimensional parallel algorithm. There are three stages: (1) a centre-surround difference operation; (2) a threshold applied to the difference signal; (3) the inverse of (1), whose output is lightness. The operation of the midget bipolar - midget ganglion channel is analysed in detail, and a functional interpretation of various retinal structures is given. Requirements of the theory are stated concerning the arrangement and connexions of cells, and the signs of the synapses, in the inner plexiform layer
Analyzing natural images : a computational theory of texture vision by David Marr( Book )

4 editions published in 1975 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A theory of early and intermediate visual information processing is given, which extends to about the level of figure-ground separation. Its core is a computational theory of texture vision. Evidence obtained from perceptual and from computational experiments is adduced in its support. A consequence of the theory is that high-level knowledge about the world influences visual processing later and in a different way from that currently practiced in machine vision
Some comments on a recent theory of stereopsis by David Marr( Book )

2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

 
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Vision : a computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information
Alternative Names
David Marr Brits wiskundige

David Marr englischer Psychologe, Informatiker und Mathematiker

Marr, David C. 1945-1980

Marr, David Courtnay

Marr, David Courtnay 1945-1980

Марр, Дэвид Кортни

דייוויד מאר

ديفيد مار

데이비드 마아

デビッド・マー

マー, デビッド

大衛·馬爾

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