WorldCat Identities

Strauch, Ralph E.

Overview
Works: 33 works in 120 publications in 1 language and 1,257 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: AS36, 355.48
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Ralph E Strauch
Strategic warning and general war : a look at the conceptual issues by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

7 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 102 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Explores conceptual issues related to strategic warning of general nuclear war. A 'threat/response cycle' is proposed as a conceptual model of warning situations and used to explore the differences between tactical and strategic warning. Response to strategic warning is discussed, as is the assessment of the utility of strategic warning. (Author)
The reality illusion : how we create the world we experience by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

4 editions published between 1983 and 1989 in English and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Combat operations decisionmaking in tactical air command and control by R. Stockton Gaines( Book )

5 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This note examines the Combat Operations function in tactical air command and control, and explores some of the human and organizational issues related to the use of technology (particularly automation) to support and enhance that function. Command and control of tactical air power involves a combination of people and technology, principally communications and data processing technology, In this note, 'people' issues, and the relationships between the human organizations which comprise the command and control system and the technical systems which support them are examined. The authors focus on the command and control process occurring in the Combat Operations section of a Tactical Air Control Center (TACC). This includes monitoring and managing planned air operations as they occur, and modifying those operations to adjust to changing circumstances. TACC can be thought of as a decisionmaking entity in which incoming information about the state of an ongoing conflict is used to manage the employment of airpower resources. (Author)
A computer aided exercise facility for tactical air command and control evaluation : concepts and design overview by Monti Callero( Book )

5 editions published between 1979 and 1980 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The evaluation of tactical air command and control systems and processes is a difficult and demanding task for which current tools are seriously flawed. This note suggests a new tool for that purpose, a Computer Aided Exercise Facility (CAEF) combining characteristics of computer modeling and of existing military exercises in a way which allows the strengths of each to balance out the weaknesses of the other. The rationale for development of such a facility is discussed. and a preliminary conceptual design proposed. (Author)
Information and perception in limited strategic conflict : some U.S. and Soviet differences by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

7 editions published between 1970 and 1981 in English and held by 80 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The major focus of U.S. strategic planning has long been on general nuclear war, conceived of as a rapid and massive exchange of most of the U.S. and Soviet Union strategic arsenals. Lesser forms of strategic conflict have received attention from academic strategic theorists, but until recently were not considered seriously in U.S. defense planning. With President Nixon's oft quoted question in 1970 of whether or not the President should have more than one option to deal with nuclear attack on the U.S. in 1970, however, the focus slowly began to change. More recently, with ex-Defense Secretary Schlesinger's interest in the subject as an impetus, issues related to limited strategic conflict have come to figure increasingly in U.S. defense planning. This paper addresses some broad questions concerning the role of information and perception in limited strategic conflict, and the defferences between the U.S. and the Soviet Union relative to those questions. A broad perspective is adopted, in part because the subject itself is so ill-defined and squishy that it is not obvious how it could be sharply narrowed in a meaningful way. Narrow, technical comparisons of, say, reconnaissance or command and control systems, can be made, but without a broader context, the question of what such comparisons really mean remains open. Limited strategic conflict is, after all, an event outside the range of prior experience
The operational assessment of risk : a case study of the Pueblo mission : a report prepared for United States Air Force Project Rand by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

5 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An analysis of the operational assessment of risk in situations in which risk is ill-defined and inherently unquantifiable. The vehicle for the analysis is a case study of the risk assessment process for the mission on which the USS Pueblo was seized in January 1968. Background material on that mission, and the surface surveillance program of which it was a part, are summarized from 1969 Congressional hearings. The risk assessment process prior to the mission is described, and compared with a set of standards derived from conceptual principles used in the theoretical analysis of risk assessment problems. The deficiencies noted stem in part from the assumption (made in the analysis) that the objective of the risk assessment process was the assessment of risk. An alternative objective, verification that the risk appeared negligible, is also discussed
A critical assessment of quantitative methodology as a policy analysis tool by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

5 editions published between 1970 and 1974 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Under a variety of names (e.g., operations analysis, systems analysis, and cost-benefit analysis) quantitative tools and methods have come to have a large and pervasive role in the analysis of public policy issues. The amount of effort devoted to quantitative analysis and the influence that this analysis has in the government planning and decision process make the question of what the role of quantitative methodology should be a question of legitimate concern for those who do, use, or rely on this type of analysis. This paper presents a critical assessment of that role, focusing primarily on the limitations of quantitative methodology as a tool for the analysis of soft and 'squishy' (i.e., without any well-defined mathematical formulation that unambiguously captures the substantive problem) problems and on the distortions that result when those limitations are neglected. This assessment is followed by a preliminary attempt to outline a theory of judgmental analysis intended to explore the difficulties more fully and suggest directions for their resolution
Risk assessment as a subjective process by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

4 editions published between 1971 and 1980 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Most extant approaches to risk assessment stress methodological and procedural solutions to the problem, in part because method and procedure are viewed as bulwarks against the fallibilities and limitations of human judgment. This paper examines the other side of that coin, the use of judgment and intuition as bulwarks against the fallibilities and limitations of formal methodology. Those limitations are described, and capabilities which judgment and intuition provide to compensate for them discussed. The paper calls for a greater synthesis of judgment and methodology, in which they aid and support each other instead of competing
Some thoughts on the use and misuse of statistical inference by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

8 editions published between 1968 and 1970 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The document contains a discussion of the abuse of techniques of statistical inference resulting from inadequate attention to the relationship between the model used and the real world problem being addressed, and inappropriate interpretation of conclusions in the light of that relationship. The basic principle underlying all statistical inference is that one attempts to distinguish between alternatives by comparing observed behavior with that predicted by predictive models of those alternatives. The use of predictive models which do not describe the behavior of the alternatives between which one wishes to distinguish is a clear violation of that principle. The principle is illustrated in a discussion of sampling from an urn. The technique of causal inference through partial correlation analysis is discussed as an example of the violation of this principle. On the surface this technique appears to have wide applicability in analyses in support of policy studies, but further examination shows its applicability to be somewhere between highly questionable and totally specious. (Author)
"Squishy" problems and quantitative methods by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

5 editions published between 1970 and 1974 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Some of the dimensions of the increasing trend toward use of quantitative methods in government policy analysis is outlined
Strategic planning as a perceptual process by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

5 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Like any complex human endeavor, the sort of broad scope or long range organizational planning often referred to as strategic planning can be viewed from different perspectives and characterized in different ways. Different perspectives will bring different aspects of the process into focus, while neglecting other aspects. No single characterization can possibly capture the full richness of what goes on in real life planning, so there can be no single 'best' way of defining what 'planning is.' The purpose is to examine planning from a somewhat different perspective than it is usually viewed, as an organizational perceptual process rather than as a problem-solving activity, to see what lessons can be learned from that perspective which might be of use to planners and managers concerned with broad scope strategic planning
Battle simulation for command and control training by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

5 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Air Force is exploring the development of a Tactical Force Management Training and Analysis Facility (TFMTAF). The center would probably use computer support to provide a realistic and challenging simulated combat environment. It is questionable whether such an environment can be created by pitting the players against a fully automated computer model of combat. This paper emphasizes the training function of the TFMTAF. Section II outlines the concept of training underlying the ideas presented in the paper. Section III examines some of those aspects and concludes that computerized combat models provide poor representations of them. Section IV outlines some of the major characteristics a hybrid simulator might have and suggests directions in which its development might proceed. The last section examines these functions in the light of the earlier analysis and argues that they would also be better served by a hybrid simulator than by one dependent on simulation based on conventional combat models
A countable policy set for sequential decision problems by John E Rolph( Book )

5 editions published between 1969 and 1972 in English and held by 49 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In denumerable state, denumerable action sequential decision problems in which the reward function has uniformly bounded 2nd moment, the optimal reward for the decisionmaker who restricts himself to the countable set of stationary policies consisting of those which choose some arbitrary action at all but a finite number of states will be the same as the optimal reward for the decisionmaker who optimizes over all stationary policies. Under some further restriction, he can do almost as well simply by solving a large finite state truncation of the original problem. (Author)
A methodology for the analysis of collocated hard site defense by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

4 editions published between 1971 and 1972 in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A mathematical model is given for analyzing the survivability of hard targets protected by adjoining radar and interceptor defenses softer than the targets themselves. The model assumes pure missile attacks without decoys or countermeasures, and a one-on-one defensive firing doctrine. Penetration methods are leakage and defense exhaustion. The probability of target survival is derived as a function of the number of attacking reentry vehicles, considering the differential hardness of target and defense and the reliability of the attacking missiles. The effect of defense randomization is considered. It the attacker has 2 kinds of RV, it is better for him to send all the poorer ones first. Two methods are given for optimal allocation of a fixed-attack force: linear programming, which is well adapted to computer processing; and false pricing, which is suitable for hand calculation. Defense optimization is not considered. (Author)
Winners and losers : a conceptual barrier in our strategic thinking by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

4 editions published between 1969 and 1972 in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The report discusses the defense planning of the United States and points out inadequacies of the defense concept in its ability to deal with problems of limited conflict between nations with comparable nuclear capabilities
The fallacy of causal analysis by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

5 editions published between 1969 and 1971 in English and held by 42 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The technique of causal analysis--the use of correlation coefficients as a tool to distinguish between alternative causal patterns among variables--is a popular one in the social sciences. The heuristic justification for t e technique is superficially convincing and indeed, can be hown to have some theoretical foundation in a rather straightforward mathematical model. Moreover, the assumptions made in this model often appear to be reasonable first approxima ions to the structure of interest in the real world. The fallacy of the technique, however, stems from the way in which the assumptions drive the conclusions reached. The conclusions are driven not by the linear relationships chosen to approximate the real world relationships of interest, but rather by a specific detail in the model chosen as a mathematical convenience--the assumption of statistical independence of the residual terms in the systems of equations (causal pattern) which makes the residuals appear most nearly independent. (Author)
Measure theoretic structures for sequential decision models by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

4 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An expository paper is presented, concerning the elements which must be represented in probabilistic models of general state space sequential decision problems. These elements are described, and the ways they are represented in two such models, a dynamic programming model due to Blackwell and a gambling model due to Dubins and Savage, are examined. If the set of possible positions in which the decisionmaker might find himself is uncountable, then a measure theoretic structure connecting the basic elements of the problem is required in order to ensure adequate definitions of the overall dynamics of the problem and the value to the decisionmaker of his overall behavior. The dynamic programming model uses a countably additive measure structure based on metric considerations, while the gambling model uses finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of the basic space. (Author)
When a queue looks the same to an arriving customer as to an observer by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

4 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 28 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It seems intuitively reasonable that a queue with a Poisson arrival distribution should appear the same to an arriving customer as it does to an external observer, since the intuitive meaning of the Poisson arrival distribution is that the arrival of each customer is independent of anything else going on in the queue. This result has been used by various authors, but there does not appear to be a rigorous proof of it in the literature. The purpose of this note is to provide such a proof. (Author)
Backscatter limitations in active night-vision systems by Rand Corporation( Book )

4 editions published between 1965 and 1968 in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study explores atmospheric backscatter as a fundamental limitation in using an artificial light source for night viewing. A mathematical model of an active night-vision system is constructed, and formulas are derived for the signal received from a target and the backscatter caused by the intervening atmosphere. Signal-to-noise ratio is defined, and its use as a measure of system performance is discussed. Several hypothetical systems are evaluated, and graphs of the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range are presented. Additional graphs show the power that would be required by the systems to achieve a given signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range. (Author)
"Shell game" aspects of mobile terminal ABM systems by Ralph E Strauch( Book )

4 editions published between 1965 and 1967 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A two-person zero-sum game is used to model the mobile defense problem in order to examine, in the context of terminal ballistic missile defense, the advantages that accrue to the defender from being able to deny the attacker knowledge of the defense deployment. The marginal exchange ratio is shown to be quite favorable to the defender using mobile interceptors if the fraction of the target system that he wishes to protect is small. A combination of mobile defense and deceptive basing appears to be an extremely attractive defense option, since the mobile defense raises the price the attacker must pay to destroy a single target, while the deceptive basing increases the number of targets at which he must pay that price
 
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Alternative Names
Strauch, R. E.

Strauch, R. E. (Ralph E.)

Strauch, Ralph

Languages
English (99)