Saunders, Sam C.
Overview
Works:  47 works in 85 publications in 1 language and 575 library holdings 

Genres:  Exhibition catalogs 
Roles:  Author 
Classifications:  TA169, 620.00452 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by
Sam C Saunders
Reliability, life testing and the prediction of service lives : for engineers and scientists by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
15 editions published between 2007 and 2011 in English and held by 158 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book is intended for students and practitioners who have had a calculusbased statistics course and who have an interest in safety considerations such as reliability, strength, and durationofload or service life. Many persons studying statistical science will be employed professionally where the problems encountered are obscure, what should be analyzed is not clear, the appropriate assumptions are equivocal, and data are scant. Yet tutorial problems of this nature are virtually never encountered in coursework. In this book there is no disclosure with many of the data sets what type of investigation should be made or what assumptions are to be used. Most reliability practitioners will be employed where personal interaction between disciplines is a necessity. A section is included on communication skills to facilitate model selection and formulation based on verifiable assumptions, rather than favorable conclusions. However, whether the answer is "right" can never be ascertained. Past and current applications of stochastic modeling to lifelength can only be a guide for future adaptations under different conditions, with new materials in unknown usages. This book unifies the study of cumulativedamage distributions, namely, Wald and Tweedie (i.e., inverseGaussian and its reciprocal) with "fatiguelife." These distributions are most useful when the coefficientofvariation is more appropriate than is the variance as a measure of dispersion. It is shown, uniquely, that the same hyperbolicsine transformation of each life length variate has a Chisquare onedf distribution. This property is useful in the sample statistics. These IHRA distributions realistically model lifelength, strength or duration of load under linear cumulative damage and can be combined as approximations in nonlinear situations. Sam C. Saunders has served as a research engineer for 17 years at the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories, 20 years as a consultant to the Advisory Committee for Nuclear Safeguards, 10 years as a consultant to NIST, was a principal in the consulting firms Mathematical Analysis Research Corporation and Scientific Consulting Service; and was for 26 years a professor of Applied Mathematics/Statistics at Washington State University. He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a former editor of Technometrics
15 editions published between 2007 and 2011 in English and held by 158 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book is intended for students and practitioners who have had a calculusbased statistics course and who have an interest in safety considerations such as reliability, strength, and durationofload or service life. Many persons studying statistical science will be employed professionally where the problems encountered are obscure, what should be analyzed is not clear, the appropriate assumptions are equivocal, and data are scant. Yet tutorial problems of this nature are virtually never encountered in coursework. In this book there is no disclosure with many of the data sets what type of investigation should be made or what assumptions are to be used. Most reliability practitioners will be employed where personal interaction between disciplines is a necessity. A section is included on communication skills to facilitate model selection and formulation based on verifiable assumptions, rather than favorable conclusions. However, whether the answer is "right" can never be ascertained. Past and current applications of stochastic modeling to lifelength can only be a guide for future adaptations under different conditions, with new materials in unknown usages. This book unifies the study of cumulativedamage distributions, namely, Wald and Tweedie (i.e., inverseGaussian and its reciprocal) with "fatiguelife." These distributions are most useful when the coefficientofvariation is more appropriate than is the variance as a measure of dispersion. It is shown, uniquely, that the same hyperbolicsine transformation of each life length variate has a Chisquare onedf distribution. This property is useful in the sample statistics. These IHRA distributions realistically model lifelength, strength or duration of load under linear cumulative damage and can be combined as approximations in nonlinear situations. Sam C. Saunders has served as a research engineer for 17 years at the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories, 20 years as a consultant to the Advisory Committee for Nuclear Safeguards, 10 years as a consultant to NIST, was a principal in the consulting firms Mathematical Analysis Research Corporation and Scientific Consulting Service; and was for 26 years a professor of Applied Mathematics/Statistics at Washington State University. He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a former editor of Technometrics
A study of meteorological processes important in the degradation of materials through surface temperature by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
5 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 141 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
5 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 141 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A model for aerial surveillance of moving objects when errors of observation are multivariate normal by
Ingram Olkin(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1978 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents a general theorem on the invariant behavior of a certain function of a matrix. It then shows the importance of this result principally by using it to derive properties of certain maximum likelihood estimates which arise when considering problems such as the location of a moving object being surveyed from a moving observatory when all data on location are subject to stochastic error. This problem is important in tracking objects either from an observatory satellite or from a transport plane bearing ground seeking radar. Some applications to this situation are made. (Author)
3 editions published in 1978 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents a general theorem on the invariant behavior of a certain function of a matrix. It then shows the importance of this result principally by using it to derive properties of certain maximum likelihood estimates which arise when considering problems such as the location of a moving object being surveyed from a moving observatory when all data on location are subject to stochastic error. This problem is important in tracking objects either from an observatory satellite or from a transport plane bearing ground seeking radar. Some applications to this situation are made. (Author)
Sequential and randomized distributionfree tolerance limits by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
4 editions published in 1956 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
4 editions published in 1956 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Swords of the Samurai : Japanese arms and armor from Northwest collections(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
2 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Estimation for a family of life distributions with applications to fatigue by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The estimation problem is studied for a new twoparameter family of life length distributions which has been previously derived from a model of fatigue crack growth. Maximum likelihood estimates of both parameters are obtained and iterative computing procedures are given and examined. A simple estimate of the median life is exhibited, shown to be consistent and then compared, favorably, with the maximum likelihood estimate. More importantly the asymptotic distribution of this estimate is shown to be within the same class of distributions as the observations themselves. This model, and these estimation procedures, are tried by fitting this distribution to several extensive sets of fatigue data and then some comparisons of practical significance are made. (Author)
3 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The estimation problem is studied for a new twoparameter family of life length distributions which has been previously derived from a model of fatigue crack growth. Maximum likelihood estimates of both parameters are obtained and iterative computing procedures are given and examined. A simple estimate of the median life is exhibited, shown to be consistent and then compared, favorably, with the maximum likelihood estimate. More importantly the asymptotic distribution of this estimate is shown to be within the same class of distributions as the observations themselves. This model, and these estimation procedures, are tried by fitting this distribution to several extensive sets of fatigue data and then some comparisons of practical significance are made. (Author)
The Theory Relating the Woehler Equation to Cumulative Damage in the Distribution Fatigue Life by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A theoretical model which is able to encompass the observed fatigue growth phenomena of crack acceleration or crack deceleration, crack arrest, and crack jump at a change of load level, is proposed for the expected incremental crack growth rate under programmed loads. The parameters are calculated by techniques which match the crack growth rate using earlier data on striation counts obtained by electron fractography for an aluminum alloy. The implications of this model for determining an appropriate distribution of fatigue life are noted. (Author)
2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A theoretical model which is able to encompass the observed fatigue growth phenomena of crack acceleration or crack deceleration, crack arrest, and crack jump at a change of load level, is proposed for the expected incremental crack growth rate under programmed loads. The parameters are calculated by techniques which match the crack growth rate using earlier data on striation counts obtained by electron fractography for an aluminum alloy. The implications of this model for determining an appropriate distribution of fatigue life are noted. (Author)
A Synthesis of Crack Growth Theories in Fatigue into Some Statistical Distributions of Fatigue Life by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1975 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The proposed model for fatigue life is a synthesis of the distributional properties of three separate phases of fatigue crack growth. The convolved distribution of life contains three estimable parameters and a function disposable within a restricted class. The problem of estimating all three parameters using the method of maximum likelihood is examined and shown to be impossible of solution in certain cases. This indicates that one of the parameters must be determined a priori from concepts of strength of materials or fracture mechanics
2 editions published in 1975 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The proposed model for fatigue life is a synthesis of the distributional properties of three separate phases of fatigue crack growth. The convolved distribution of life contains three estimable parameters and a function disposable within a restricted class. The problem of estimating all three parameters using the method of maximum likelihood is examined and shown to be impossible of solution in certain cases. This indicates that one of the parameters must be determined a priori from concepts of strength of materials or fracture mechanics
Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Two Parameter Decreasing Failure Rate Distributions Using Censored Data by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
2 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Problems of maximum likelihood estimation, for shape and scale parameters from certain decreasing hazard rate distributions which are typically mixedexponential or workhardened, are discussed. Sufficient conditions on the mixing distribution are given that guarantee regular behavior of the hazard rate; this ensures, even with highly censored data, that the MLE's exist whenever the sample satisfies a certain condition quite likely in samples from DHR distribution; otherwise a constant hazard rate is assumed. Some computational methods are discussed and applications made. (Author)
2 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Problems of maximum likelihood estimation, for shape and scale parameters from certain decreasing hazard rate distributions which are typically mixedexponential or workhardened, are discussed. Sufficient conditions on the mixing distribution are given that guarantee regular behavior of the hazard rate; this ensures, even with highly censored data, that the MLE's exist whenever the sample satisfies a certain condition quite likely in samples from DHR distribution; otherwise a constant hazard rate is assumed. Some computational methods are discussed and applications made. (Author)
On the behavior of certain maximum likelihood estimators from large, randomly censored samples by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1981 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 1981 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A Review of Miner's Rule and Subsequent Generalizations for Calculating Expected Fatigue Life by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The paper reexamines the physical assumptions which were made by the originators of the MinerPalgren Rule for the calculation of fatigue life and cites publications which show that these assumptions, called the linear cumulative damage hypotheses, are contrary to our present knowledge about actual fatigue behavior. However, work is also discussed which provides evidence that Miner's Rule is better on the average in engineering applications than any other rule for fatigue life which has been advanced. The recent technical papers which resolve this supposed contradiction are referenced and the implications of their results explained in full detail. (Author)
2 editions published in 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The paper reexamines the physical assumptions which were made by the originators of the MinerPalgren Rule for the calculation of fatigue life and cites publications which show that these assumptions, called the linear cumulative damage hypotheses, are contrary to our present knowledge about actual fatigue behavior. However, work is also discussed which provides evidence that Miner's Rule is better on the average in engineering applications than any other rule for fatigue life which has been advanced. The recent technical papers which resolve this supposed contradiction are referenced and the implications of their results explained in full detail. (Author)
A family of random variables closed under reciprocation by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
On confidence limits for the performance of a system when few failures are ecountered by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1967 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In some situations encountered today the components are so reliable that no failures are observed within the time available for testing. This can pose a problem in data analysis and interpretation. Consideration is given to the problem of determining lower confidence bounds on the reliability of a complex system, such as the Saturn 1C, when each component is assumed to have an exponential life and different components have different multiplicities within the system. We discuss and compare the confidence limits obtainable from various interpretations of the data and several theories such as asymptotic likelihood ratio, asymptotic maximum likelihood, the Bayesian method and the new method presented here utilizing the conditional probabilities of malfunction of the components given that a malfunction in the system has occurred. (Author)
2 editions published in 1967 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In some situations encountered today the components are so reliable that no failures are observed within the time available for testing. This can pose a problem in data analysis and interpretation. Consideration is given to the problem of determining lower confidence bounds on the reliability of a complex system, such as the Saturn 1C, when each component is assumed to have an exponential life and different components have different multiplicities within the system. We discuss and compare the confidence limits obtainable from various interpretations of the data and several theories such as asymptotic likelihood ratio, asymptotic maximum likelihood, the Bayesian method and the new method presented here utilizing the conditional probabilities of malfunction of the components given that a malfunction in the system has occurred. (Author)
On the supply of spares to insure adequate testing by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1961 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The problem of providing the minimum number of spares for one equipment which is to be tested for a given number of hours is considered. A sufficient number of breakdowns or replacements to exhaust a stock of spares with probability not greater than a specified level is determined. Note that unless a guarantee period (i.e. an initial period of life in which breakdown cannot occur) is known, it is not ever possible to provide enough spares to insure i.e. with probability zero that breakdowns and replacements will not exhaust the stock. (Author)
2 editions published in 1961 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The problem of providing the minimum number of spares for one equipment which is to be tested for a given number of hours is considered. A sufficient number of breakdowns or replacements to exhaust a stock of spares with probability not greater than a specified level is determined. Note that unless a guarantee period (i.e. an initial period of life in which breakdown cannot occur) is known, it is not ever possible to provide enough spares to insure i.e. with probability zero that breakdowns and replacements will not exhaust the stock. (Author)
On maximum likelihood estimators of shape and scale parameters and their application in constructing confidence contours by
Sam C Saunders(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In a paper by Thoman, Baine and Antle, it was shown that certain pivotal functions of the maximum likelihood estimators for parameters in the Weibull family have distributions which are parameterfree. By using Monte Carlo methods, this basic result made possible the production of tables of the percentile points of these distributions so that confidence intervals for the parameters can be determined. In turn this makes possible tests of hypotheses regarding the parameters. It is the purpose of this note to generalize this result in several respects. Firstly, to point out that for any given continuous distribution with support on the positive line and unknown shape and scale parameters the same pivotal functions of the maximum likelihood estimators are parameterfree. Secondly, that the same conclusion holds for incomplete samples censored under certain conditions or terminated at a given ordered observation. (Author)
2 editions published in 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In a paper by Thoman, Baine and Antle, it was shown that certain pivotal functions of the maximum likelihood estimators for parameters in the Weibull family have distributions which are parameterfree. By using Monte Carlo methods, this basic result made possible the production of tables of the percentile points of these distributions so that confidence intervals for the parameters can be determined. In turn this makes possible tests of hypotheses regarding the parameters. It is the purpose of this note to generalize this result in several respects. Firstly, to point out that for any given continuous distribution with support on the positive line and unknown shape and scale parameters the same pivotal functions of the maximum likelihood estimators are parameterfree. Secondly, that the same conclusion holds for incomplete samples censored under certain conditions or terminated at a given ordered observation. (Author)
A NEW FAMILY OF LIFE DISTRIBUTIONS by
Z. W Birnbaum(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A new twoparameter family of life length distributions is presented which is derived from a model for fatigue. This derivation follows from considerations of renewal theory for the number of cycles needed to force a fatigue crack extension to exceed a critical value. Some closure properties of this family are given and some comparisons made with other families such as the lognormal which have been previously used in fatigue studies
2 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A new twoparameter family of life length distributions is presented which is derived from a model for fatigue. This derivation follows from considerations of renewal theory for the number of cycles needed to force a fatigue crack extension to exceed a critical value. Some closure properties of this family are given and some comparisons made with other families such as the lognormal which have been previously used in fatigue studies
On invariant confidence intervals for the parameters of a new life distribution by
Nancy R Mann(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper the problem of obtaining confidence intervals and tests of hypotheses for the parameters of a new distribution derived by Birnbaum and Saunders is explored. The maximumlikelihood estimators of the shape and scale parameters are investigated and shown, for samples of size two, to be such that they cannot provide invariant confidence intervals for either of the parameters. A statistic which is asymptotically independent of the shape parameter alpha is shown to be capable of providing confidence bounds for the scale parameter beta. These bounds, however, are subsequently shown to exhibit invariance with respect to alpha only for samples of size fifty or larger. Finally, three statistics based on maximal invariants for tests and confidence sets independent of alpha are investigated in terms of accuracy of confidence bounds for (power of tests concerning beta. Percentage points of the statistics yielding the most accurate confidence bounds for beta, among those investigated, are tabulated for samples of size n, n = 2(1)5. (Author)
2 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper the problem of obtaining confidence intervals and tests of hypotheses for the parameters of a new distribution derived by Birnbaum and Saunders is explored. The maximumlikelihood estimators of the shape and scale parameters are investigated and shown, for samples of size two, to be such that they cannot provide invariant confidence intervals for either of the parameters. A statistic which is asymptotically independent of the shape parameter alpha is shown to be capable of providing confidence bounds for the scale parameter beta. These bounds, however, are subsequently shown to exhibit invariance with respect to alpha only for samples of size fifty or larger. Finally, three statistics based on maximal invariants for tests and confidence sets independent of alpha are investigated in terms of accuracy of confidence bounds for (power of tests concerning beta. Percentage points of the statistics yielding the most accurate confidence bounds for beta, among those investigated, are tabulated for samples of size n, n = 2(1)5. (Author)
On the use of a distributionfree property in determining a transformation of one variate such that it will exceed another
with a given probability(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1961 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 1961 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
On the determination of a safe life for classes of distributions classified by failure rate(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1966 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Using a lower tolerance bound as the derated life provides a guaranteed service period with the confidence level as a measure of safety in situations where mass production is contemplated. However, when only a limited number of items are to be produced, the probability of no failures among the fleet of specified size provides a better measure of assurance. Assuming that the life distribution is one of a specified set of subclasses of those distributions which have increasing failure rates we find those derating functions which can be used to provide lower tolerance bounds of given confidence or a safe service life with specified fleet assurance. A method of finding such derating functions is exhibited and the calculation of a lower bound for the probability of no failure in the fleet is carried out when such derating functions are used. The confidence in the tolerance bound and the assurance of no fleet failure are compared when using bounds obtained from these derating functions. (Author)
1 edition published in 1966 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Using a lower tolerance bound as the derated life provides a guaranteed service period with the confidence level as a measure of safety in situations where mass production is contemplated. However, when only a limited number of items are to be produced, the probability of no failures among the fleet of specified size provides a better measure of assurance. Assuming that the life distribution is one of a specified set of subclasses of those distributions which have increasing failure rates we find those derating functions which can be used to provide lower tolerance bounds of given confidence or a safe service life with specified fleet assurance. A method of finding such derating functions is exhibited and the calculation of a lower bound for the probability of no failure in the fleet is carried out when such derating functions are used. The confidence in the tolerance bound and the assurance of no fleet failure are compared when using bounds obtained from these derating functions. (Author)
Methodologies for predicting the service lives of coating systems by
Jonathan W Martin(
)
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
more
fewer
Audience Level
0 

1  
Kids  General  Special 
Related Identities
 Martin, Jonathan W.
 Jensen, Mark A.
 National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.)
 BOEING SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LABS SEATTLE WASH MATHEMATICS RESEARCH LAB
 Myhre, Janet M.
 Birnbaum, Z. W. Author
 WASHINGTON STATE UNIV PULLMAN Dept. of PURE AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS
 BOEING SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LABS SEATTLE WASH
 Olkin, Ingram Author
 Donald Sheehan Gallery
Associated Subjects
Algebra Artificial satellites Computer science Distribution (Probability theory) Fourier analysis Fracture mechanics Invariants Japan Longevity MaterialsDeteriorationMathematical models MaterialsFatigue MaterialsFatigueMathematical models Mathematical statistics Multivariate analysis Nonparametric statistics Operating systems (Computers) Pacific Northwest Parameter estimation Probabilities Protective coatingsEvaluation Reliability Reliability (Engineering) Reliability (Engineering)Mathematical models Reliability (Engineering)Mathematics Reliability (Engineering)Statistical methods Samurai Service life (Engineering) Service life (Engineering)Mathematical models Spare parts Statistical hypothesis testing Statistical tolerance regions Statistics Strains and stresses Surveillance radar Sword mountings Sword mountingsPrivate collections Swords SwordsPrivate collections System safety Testing Topology Transformations (Mathematics)