WorldCat Identities

Clancey, William J.

Overview
Works: 95 works in 266 publications in 1 language and 3,794 library holdings
Genres: Conference proceedings  Book reviews 
Roles: Editor
Classifications: BF311, 153
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about  William J Clancey Publications about William J Clancey
Publications by  William J Clancey Publications by William J Clancey
Most widely held works about William J Clancey
 
Most widely held works by William J Clancey
Conceptual coordination how the mind orders experience in time by William J Clancey ( )
7 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,138 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book bridges the gap between models of human behavior that are based on cognitive task analysis and those based on neural networks. The author argues that these approaches are incomplete and not properly related to each other. His synthesis reconcile
Working on Mars voyages of scientific discovery with the Mars exploration rovers by William J Clancey ( )
10 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 624 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Geologists in the field climb hills and hang onto craggy outcrops; they put their fingers in sand and scratch, smell, and even taste rocks. Beginning in 2004, however, a team of geologists and other planetary scientists did field science in a dark room in Pasadena, exploring Mars from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) by means of the remotely operated Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). Clustered around monitors, living on Mars time, painstakingly plotting each movement of the rovers and their tools, sensors, and cameras, these scientists reported that they felt as if they were on Mars themselves, doing field science. The MER created a virtual experience of being on Mars. In this book, William Clancey examines how the MER has changed the nature of planetary field science. NASA cast the rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, as "robotic geologists," and ascribed machine initiative ("Spirit collected additional imagery ... ") to remotely controlled actions. Clancey argues that the actual explorers were not the rovers but the scientists, who imaginatively projected themselves into the body of the machine to conduct the first overland expedition of another planet. The scientists have since left the darkened room and work from different home bases, but the rover-enabled exploration of Mars continues. Drawing on his extensive observations of scientists in the field and at the JPL, Clancey investigates how the design of the rover mission enables field science on Mars, explaining how the scientists and rover engineers manipulate the vehicle and why the programmable tools and analytic instruments work so well for them. He shows how the scientists felt not as if they were issuing commands to a machine but rather as if they were working on the red planet, riding together in the rover on a voyage of discovery
Situated cognition : on human knowledge and computer representations by William J Clancey ( Book )
11 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 396 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book is about recent changes in the design of intelligent machines. New computer models of vision and navigation in animals suggest a different way to build machines. Cognition is viewed not just in terms of high-level "expertise," but in terms of the ability to find one's way around the world, to learn new ways of seeing things, and to coordinate activity. This approach is called situated cognition. Situated Cognition differs from other purely philosophical treatises in that Clancey, who has built expert systems for twenty years, explores the limitations of existing computer programs and compares them to human memory and learning capabilities. He examines the implications of situated action from the perspective of artificial intelligence specialists interested in building robots and cognitive scientists seeking to relate descriptive models to neural and social views of knowledge
Knowledge-based tutoring : the GUIDON program by William J Clancey ( Book )
11 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 382 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Readings in medical artificial intelligence : the first decade ( Book )
7 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 354 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Artificial intelligence and learning environments by William J Clancey ( Book )
8 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 281 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Contemplating minds : a forum for artificial intelligence ( Book )
7 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 218 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Questions like these arise for people curious about themselves, the nature of mind, and our thinking place in the universe. They are also at the core of research in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. However, the scholarly debate on these questions has resided in research papers, inaccessible to most people. One place where the scientific debate has been written for a broad audience is in the book review column of the international journal Artificial Intelligence, which has evolved from simple reviews to a multidisciplinary forum where reviewers and authors debate the latest, often competing, theories of human and artificial intelligence. Contemplating Minds brings together a selection of these reviews in a form suitable for the general scientific reader, seminar organizer, or student wanting a critical introduction that synthesizes and compares some of the most important and influential books and ideas to have emerged in AI over the past decade
Intelligent tutoring systems 11th international conference, ITS 2012, Chania, Crete, Greece, June 14-18, 2012 : proceedings by Stefano A Cerri ( )
4 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, ITS 2012, held in Chania, Crete, Greece, in June 2012. The 28 revised full papers, 50 short papers, and 56 posters presented were carefully viewed and selected from 177 submissions. The specific theme of the ITS 2012 conference is co-adaption between technologies and human learning. Besides that, the highly interdisciplinary ITS conferences bring together researchers in computer science, informatics, and artificial intelligence on the one side - and cognitive science, educational psychology, and linguistics on the other side. The papers are organized in topical sections on affect/emotions, affect/signals, games/motivation and design, games/empirical studies, content representation, feedback, non conventional approaches, conceptual content representation, assessment constraints, dialogue, dialogue/questions, learner modeling, learning detection, interaction strategies for games, and empirical studies thereof in general
Applying a qualitative modeling shell to process diagnosis : the caster system by Timothy F Thompson ( Book )
7 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The purpose of knowledge engineering is to develop partial-qualitative models for solving practical problems. These models--called knowledge bases in expert systems--must have appropriate diagnostic knowledge to deal with the real-world problems. In general, solutions to diagnostic problems can be either selected from a set of preenumerated alternatives (for known conditions) or constructed (for novel problems or those that combine multiple, interacting disorders in an unforeseen way). While engineering design is often thought of as a constructive problem-solving process, diagnosis is typically thought of as a selection or classification problem. But the solution method is not inherent in the task itself. Instead, it depends on the problem solver's previous knowledge, requirements for customization, and the like. Nevertheless, useful programs can be developed that solve diagnostic problems by selection alone. We believe that starting with a well-defined classification procedure and a relational language for stating the classification model eases the development of a program that diagnosis by selection. To test this thesis. we built an expert system, called Caster, that addresses a particular diagnostic problem: malfunctions in industrial sandcasting. Our goal was to demonstrate that these control structures, developed for a medical diagnosis problem, are general and applicable to engineering applications
The knowledge engineer as student : metacognitive bases for asking good questions by William J Clancey ( Book )
5 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Knowledge engineers are efficient, active learners. They systematically approach domains and acquire knowledge to solve routine, practical problems. By modeling their methods, we may develop a basis for teaching other students how to direct their own learning. In particular, a knowledge engineer is good at detecting gaps in knowledge base and asking focused questions to improve an expert system's performance. This ability stems from domain. General knowledge, about: problem-solving procedures, the categorization of routine problem-solving knowledge, and domain and task differences. This paper studies these different forms of metaknowledge, and illustrates its incorporation in an intelligent tutoring system. A model of learning is presented that describes how the knowledge engineer detects problem solving failures and tracks them back to gaps in domain knowledge, which are then reformulated as questions to ask a teacher. We describe how this model of active learning is being developed and tested in a knowledge acquisition program for an expert system. Keywords: Learning, Knowledge engineering, Knowledge acquisition, Metaknowledge
Viewing knowledge bases as qualitative models by William J Clancey ( Book )
5 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Knowledge base refinement by monitoring abstract control knowledge by David C Wilkins ( Book )
4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Representing control knowledge as abstract task and metarules by William J Clancey ( Book )
7 editions published between 1985 and 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A poorly designed knowledge base can be as cryptic as an arbitrary program and just as difficult to maintain. Representing inference procedures abstractly, separately from domain facts and relations, makes the design more transparent and explainable. The combination of abstract procedures and a relational language for organizing domain knowledge provides a generic framework for constructing knowledge bases for related problems in other domains and also provides a useful starting point for studying the nature of strategies. In HERACLES inference procedures are represented as abstract metarules, expressed in a form of the predicate calculus, organized and controlled at rule sets. A compiler converts the rules into Lisp code and allows domain relations to be encoded as arbitrary data structures for efficiency. Examples are given of the explanation and teaching capabilities afforded by this representation. Different perspectives for understanding HERACLES' inference procedure and how it defines a relational knowledge base are discussed in some detail. Keywords: Control knowledge, Metaknowledge, Strategy, Procedural Knowledge, Explanation, Logic
Intelligent tutoring systems : a tutorial survey by William J Clancey ( Book )
5 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Using and evaluating differential modeling in intelligent tutoring and apprentice learning systems by David C Wilkins ( Book )
7 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A powerful approach to debugging and refining the knowledge structures of a problem solving agent is to differentially model the actions of the agent against a gold standard. This paper proposes a framework for exploring the inherent limitations of such an approach when a problem solver is differentially modeled against an expert system. A procedure is described for determining a performance upper bound for debugging via differential modeling, called the synthetic agent method. The synthetic agent method systematically explores the space of near miss training instances and expresses the limits of debugging in terms of the knowledge representation and control language constructs of the expert system. Keywords: Learning, Knowledge acquisition, Tutoring, Debugging, Differential modeling
Acquiring, representing, and evaluating a competence model of diagnostic strategy by William J Clancey ( Book )
8 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and Undetermined and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
NEOMYCIN is a computer program that models one physician's diagnostic reasoning within a limited area of medicine. NEOMYCIN's diagnostic procedure is represented in a well-structured way, separately from the domain knowledge it operates upon. We are testing the hypothesis that such a procedure can be used to simulate both expert problem-solving behavior and a good teacher's explanations of reasoning. The model is acquired by protocol, analysis, using a framework that separates an expert's causal explanations of evidence from his descriptions of knowledge relations and strategies. The model is represented by a procedural network of goals and rules that are stated in terms of the effect the problem solver is trying to have on his evolving model of the world. The model is evaluated for sufficiency by testing it in different settings requiring expertise, such as providing advice and teaching. The model is evaluated for plausibility by arguing that the constraints implicit in the diagnostic procedure are imposed by the task domain and human computational capability. This paper discussed NEOMYCIN's diagnostic procedure in detail, viewing it as a memory aid, as a set of operators, as proceduralized constraints, and as a grammar
Review of Winograd and Flores' understanding of computers and cognition : a favorable interpretation by William J Clancey ( Book )
5 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Review of Sowa's "Conceptual structures" by William J Clancey ( Book )
6 editions published in 1985 in English and Undetermined and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Qualitative student models by William J Clancey ( Book )
7 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
From GUIDON to NEOMYCIN and HERACLES in twenty short lessons by William J Clancey ( Book )
8 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The idea of developing a tutoring program from the MYCIN knowledge base was first described by Ted Shortliffe (1974). In fact it was the mixed-initiative dialogue of the SCHOLAR teaching program (Carbonell, 1970) that inspired Shortliffe to produce the consultation dialogue of MYCIN. He conceived of it as a question-answer program in SCHOLAR's style, using a semantic network of disease knowledge. Shortly after I joined the MYCIN project in early 1975, Bruce Buchanan and I decided that developing a tutoring program would be my thesis project. The GUIDON program was operational in early 1979. This review describes the key ideas in GUIDON and the important developments of the following six years as research continued under funding from the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and the Army Research Institute. The first three years were covered briefly in an earlier report (Clancey & Buchanan 1982). In general, only publications from this project are cited; many other references appear in the cited publications. Reprints; computer programs
 
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Alternative Names
Clancey, W. J. (William J.)
Languages
English (130)
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