WorldCat Identities

Richards, Whitman

Works: 44 works in 157 publications in 2 languages and 2,772 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Editor, Compiler, Author of introduction, Other
Classifications: QP441, 612.808
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Whitman Richards
Perception: mechanisms and models; readings from Scientific American by Robert Sekuler( Book )

15 editions published between 1970 and 1972 in English and held by 769 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent progress in perception : readings from Scientific American( Book )

10 editions published between 1964 and 1976 in English and held by 541 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Natural computation by Whitman Richards( Book )

17 editions published between 1988 and 1994 in 3 languages and held by 372 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Perception as Bayesian inference( Book )

13 editions published between 1996 and 2008 in English and held by 285 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This book provides an introduction to and critical analysis of the Bayesian paradigm. Chapters by leading researchers in computational theory and experimental visual science introduce new theoretical frameworks for building perceptual theories, discuss the implications of the Bayesian paradigm for psychophysical studies of human perception, and describe specific applications of the approach. The editors have created a critical dialogue of ideas through the authors' commentaries on each others' chapters, conveying to the reader a unique appreciation for the issues and ideas raised in the book
Anigrafs : experiments in cooperative cognitive architecture by Whitman Richards( Book )

4 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 148 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision research for flight simulation by Whitman Richards( Book )

8 editions published between 1982 and 1983 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report is based on a workshop organized by the Committee on Vision of the National Research Council and by the Operations Training Division of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory at Williams AFB in June 1980. The workshop brought together vision scientists from academia and government scientists concerned with research on visual displays for flight simulation. The principal objective was to provide recommendations concerning fruitful approaches for the conduct of research on what visual information is needed for simulation and how it might best be presented. Low-level flight was used as a focus for discussion of problem-solving approaches. The technical report prepared by the steering group provides examples of particular research strategies that might help elucidate several of the long-range issues in visual simulation
Image understanding : 1985-86 by W Richards( Book )

8 editions published between 1984 and 1990 in English and held by 57 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Image understanding : 1989 by Shimon Ullman( Book )

3 editions published between 1990 and 1991 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Experiments in texture perception : annual report by Whitman Richards( Book )

8 editions published between 1975 and 1978 in English and Undetermined and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Visual textures may be described completely by their spatial frequency components. For one-dimensional textures whose luminance varies only along the X-axis of the display, the descriptive elements are gratings that have sinusoidal modulations of luminance. Although any arbitrary 1-dimensional 'blurred' texture may require a large number of sinusoidal components for its complete physical description, only 4 components are needed to create a texture that appears the same to the human observer. The human visual system seems does not act like a spectral analyser, but rather appears to process spatial frequency information by filtering operations, at least for 1-dimensional texture patterns. In the more general case, textures will have luminance distributions varying in both X and Y dimensions. A new graphics display is being built to test for the minimum number of spatial frequencies required to simulate 2-dimensional texture patterns. The apparatus will permit on-line control of the amplitude (contrast) of the (X, Y) frequency (Fourier) components that make up the texture displayed. The observer can generate a texture that appears identical to another having a different and more complex spatial frequency content. If it is found that only 4 spatial frequency components are necessary to simulate all 2-dimensional textures, one may design a scheme to transmit visual information about textures that offers considerable saving in channel capacity
Image understanding 1984( Book )

5 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide


4 editions published between 1970 and 1975 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The report describes ongoing work on certain factors that affect depth perception. Of particular interest is that a sizeable portion (30%) of the population are unable to make full use of the binocular parallax cue for judging the distance of objects. These individuals are said to be stereoanomalous. Work over the past year has shown that these individuals localize objects in space in a manner different from other individuals who possess the full stereoscopic capability. A considerable effort has been spent in developing a simple, portable test for diagnosing the presence of stereoanomalies. Tests based upon random dot patterns appear to be satisfactory. One important distinction that emerges concerns two separate systems for stereopsis in the normal observer: one sensitive to positional changes in depth, and a second parallel system that requires object motion
Image understanding 1985-1986( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision algorithms and psychophysics : final report by Whitman Richards( Book )

5 editions published between 1984 and 1990 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision by man or machine is the construction of useful symbolic descriptions from images of the world. Studies of the human visual system provide valuable insights into the kinds of descriptions that will be the most useful, but little insight into the computational problems involved in deriving and manipulating these descriptions. This research examines several computational problems associated with aspects of two- and three-dimensional vision. The solution to these problems includes the design and implementation of particular algorithms. Their efficiency and flexibility is compared with that of the human visual processor. Keywords: Image understanding, visual pattern recognition, biological information processing
Equation counting and the interpretation of sensory data by Whitman Richards( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many problems in biological information processing require the solution to a complex system of equations in many unknown variables. An equation-counting procedure is described for determining whether such a system of equations will indeed have a unique solution, and under what conditions the solution should be interpreted as 'correct'. Three examples of the procedure are given for illustration, one for auditory signal processing and two from vision. (Author)
The influence of oculomotor systems on visual perception : final report by Whitman Richards( Book )

4 editions published between 1968 and 1969 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report describes ongoing work on the influence of the oculomotor systems upon visual perception. Three different problems are being considered: (1) Saccadic suppression, (2) Size-scaling, and (3) The 'corridor' illusion. Of particular interest is whether or not efferent or outflow mechanisms play a significant role in these perceptual phenomena. A 'perspective' illusion of depth has been examined in order to show that planar illusions involve mechanisms different from those underlying size/depth invariances. (Author)
Color vision and image intensities : when are changes material? by John M Rubin( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Marr has emphasized the difficulty in understanding a biological system or its components without some idea of its goals. In this paper, a preliminary goal for color vision is proposed and analyzed. That goal is to determine where changes of material occur in a scene (using only spectral information). This goal is challenging for two reasons. First, the effects of many processes (shadowing, shading from surface orientation changes, highlights, variations in pigment density) are confounded with the effects of material changes in the available image intensities. Second, material changes are essentially arbitrary. We are consequently led to a strategy of rejecting the presence of such confounding processes. We show there is a unique condition, the spectral crosspoint, that allows rejection of the hypothesis that measured image intensities arise from one of the confounding processes. (If plots are made of image intensity versus wavelength from two image regions, and the plots intersect, we say that there is a spectral crosspoint.) We restrict our attention to image intensities measured from regions on opposite sides of an edge because material changes almost always cause edges. Also, by restricting our attention to luminance discontinuities, we can avoid peculiar conspiracies of confounding processes that might mimic a material change. Our crosspoint conjecture is that biological visual systems interpret spectral crosspoints across edges as material changes. A circularly symmetric operator is designed to detect crosspoints; it turns out to resemble the double-opponent cell which is commonplace in biological color vision systems. (Author)
From Waltz to Winston : (via the connection table) by Whitman Richards( Book )

4 editions published in 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Inferring 3D shapes from 2D codons by Whitman Richards( Book )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A lightness scale from image intensity distributions by Whitman Richards( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A lightness scale is derived from a theoretical estimate of the probability distribution of image intensities for natural scenes. The derived image intensity distribution considers three factors: reflectance, surface orientation and illumination, and surface texture (or roughness). The convolution of the effects of these three factors yields the theoretical probability distribution of image intensities. A useful lightness scale should be the integral of this probability density function, for then equal intervals along the scale are equally probable and carry equal information. The result is a scale similar to that used in photography, or by the nervous system as its transfer function. (Author)
Top-Down Influences on Bottom-Up Processing( )

4 editions published between 1991 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Perception is not simply a bottom-up process, but involves inductive inferences that use top-down knowledge to interpret image data. In computational vision, typically this knowledge appears in the form of constraints such as rigidity, viewpoint consistency, smoothness, etc. However these constraints are fallible - they do not always apply, and hence the perceptual process entails inductive reasoning. A major theoretical thrust of our work is to provide a formal lattice framework for organizing the plausible states of this reasoning aspect of perception (Jepson & Richards). The proposal makes strong predictions, given a set of constraints and a particular picture as to what interpretations or percepts will be seen. Consequently we have a series of experiments underway to (1) understand which constraints (or premises) are typically invoked in the interpretation of simple line drawings and (2) to show that the 'lattice framework specifies all of these interpretations, placing them in proper rank order. In parallel, we are also exploring two other models for merging bottom-up and top-down information, both of which are neural-based. One, called sequence- seeking (Ullman), proposes a network hierarchy where a sequence of transformations of both the input data and the target model occur in parallel, searching for the proper mapping that brings each into register. The proposal makes a special effort to incorporate what we currently know about cortical machinery, and also has triggered psychophysical experiments. (We have not yet explored the relations between the lattice and sequence-seeking proposals.) Finally, there are some studies related to our ability to switch between sets of premises, or to alter our models
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Audience level: 0.49 (from 0.34 for Natural co ... to 1.00 for Top-Down I ...)

Natural computation
Alternative Names
Richards, W.

Richards, Whitman

リチャーズ, ホイットマン

English (110)

Japanese (7)

Perception as Bayesian inference