WorldCat Identities

Richards, Whitman

Works: 47 works in 185 publications in 2 languages and 3,179 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Editor, Compiler, Other, Author of introduction
Classifications: QP441, 612.808
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Whitman Richards
Perception: mechanisms and models; readings from Scientific American by Richard Held( Book )

15 editions published between 1970 and 1972 in English and held by 756 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent progress in perception : readings from Scientific American( Book )

10 editions published between 1964 and 1976 in English and held by 523 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Natural computation by Whitman Richards( Book )

17 editions published between 1988 and 1994 in 3 languages and held by 370 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Perception as Bayesian inference( Book )

15 editions published between 1996 and 2008 in English and held by 291 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This book provides an introduction to and critical analysis of the Bayesian paradigm. Chapters by leading researchers in computational theory and experimental visual science introduce new theoretical frameworks for building perceptual theories, discuss the implications of the Bayesian paradigm for psychophysical studies of human perception, and describe specific applications of the approach. The editors have created a critical dialogue of ideas through the authors' commentaries on each others' chapters, conveying to the reader a unique appreciation for the issues and ideas raised in the book
Anigrafs : experiments in cooperative cognitive architecture by Whitman Richards( Book )

9 editions published in 2015 in English and Undetermined and held by 157 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In this book, Whitman Richards offers a novel and provocative proposal for understanding decision making and human behavior. Building on Valentino Braitenberg's famous 'vehicles,' Richards describes a collection of mental organisms that he calls 'daemons'--virtual correlates of neural modules. Daemons have favored choices and make decisions that control behaviors of the group to which they belong, with each daemon preferring a different outcome. Richards arranges these preferences in graphs, linking similar choices, which thus reinforce each other. 'Anigrafs' refers to these two components--animals, or the mental organisms (agents or daemons), and the graphs that show similarity relations. Together these two components are the basis of a new cognitive architecture. In Richards's account, a collection of daemons compete for control of the cognitive system in which they reside; the challenge is to get the daemons to agree on one of many choices. Richards explores the results of group decisions, emphasizing the Condorcet voting procedure for aggregating preferences. A neural mechanism is proposed. Anigrafs presents a series of group decisions that incorporate simple and complex movements, as well as aspects of cognition and belief. Anigrafs concludes with a section on 'metagrafs,' which chart relationships between different anigraf models"--MIT CogNet
Image understanding : 1985-86 by Whitman Richards( Book )

10 editions published between 1984 and 1990 in English and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision research for flight simulation by Whitman Richards( Book )

6 editions published between 1982 and 1983 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report is based on a workshop organized by the Committee on Vision of the National Research Council and by the Operations Training Division of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory at Williams AFB in June 1980. The workshop brought together vision scientists from academia and government scientists concerned with research on visual displays for flight simulation. The principal objective was to provide recommendations concerning fruitful approaches for the conduct of research on what visual information is needed for simulation and how it might best be presented. Low-level flight was used as a focus for discussion of problem-solving approaches. The technical report prepared by the steering group provides examples of particular research strategies that might help elucidate several of the long-range issues in visual simulation
Image understanding : 1989 by Shimon Ullman( Book )

4 editions published between 1990 and 1991 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Study guide to accompany Perception : mechanisms and models : readings from Scientific American by John P. J Pinel( Book )

1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision research for flight simulation : a report on a workshop on simulation of low-level flight( Book )

2 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

What is a percept? by Allan Jepson( Book )

4 editions published between 1991 and 1993 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Image understanding 1984( Book )

5 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide


4 editions published between 1970 and 1975 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The report describes ongoing work on certain factors that affect depth perception. Of particular interest is that a sizeable portion (30%) of the population are unable to make full use of the binocular parallax cue for judging the distance of objects. These individuals are said to be stereoanomalous. Work over the past year has shown that these individuals localize objects in space in a manner different from other individuals who possess the full stereoscopic capability. A considerable effort has been spent in developing a simple, portable test for diagnosing the presence of stereoanomalies. Tests based upon random dot patterns appear to be satisfactory. One important distinction that emerges concerns two separate systems for stereopsis in the normal observer: one sensitive to positional changes in depth, and a second parallel system that requires object motion
Experiments in texture perception : annual report by Whitman Richards( Book )

8 editions published between 1975 and 1978 in English and Undetermined and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Visual textures may be described completely by their spatial frequency components. For one-dimensional textures whose luminance varies only along the X-axis of the display, the descriptive elements are gratings that have sinusoidal modulations of luminance. Although any arbitrary one-dimensional 'blurred' texture may require a very large number of sinusoidal components for its complete physical description, only four components are needed to create a texture that appears equivalent to the human observer. Thus, the human visual system does not act like a spectral analyzer, but rather appears to process spatial frequency information by filtering operations similar to that performed in color vision. In the more general case, textures will have luminance distributions varying in two dimensions (i.e. in both X and Y). If a two-dimensional texture is created with orthogonal luminance profiles (whereby the axis orientations of X and Y are 90 deg apart), then the X and Y profiles are independent and four spatial frequencies will be needed for X and four for Y. The most general case of texture equivalence, where many orientations are present in a texture, has not yet been solved. However, preliminary experiments (by M. Riley) show that orientation equivalence can be attained by utilizing only four independent orientations. This constraint suggests an upper bound of sixteen on the number of fixed spatial frequencies required to create an equivalence to any two-dimensional texture pattern. However, where control over the maximum visual angle can be maintained, twelve spatial frequencies may suffice for practical purposes, especially if the basic waveform of the primary components can be pre-programmed
Image understanding 1985-1986( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision algorithms and psychophysics : final report by Whitman Richards( Book )

5 editions published between 1984 and 1990 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vision by man or machine is the construction of useful symbolic descriptions from images of the world. Studies of the human visual system provide valuable insights into the kinds of descriptions that will be the most useful, but little insight into the computational problems involved in deriving and manipulating these descriptions. This research examines several computational problems associated with aspects of two- and three-dimensional vision. The solution to these problems includes the design and implementation of particular algorithms. Their efficiency and flexibility is compared with that of the human visual processor. Keywords: Image understanding, visual pattern recognition, biological information processing
Equation counting and the interpretation of sensory data by Whitman Richards( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many problems in biological information processing require the solution to a complex system of equations in many unknown variables. An equation-counting procedure is described for determining whether such a system of equations will indeed have a unique solution, and under what conditions the solution should be interpreted as 'correct'. Three examples of the procedure are given for illustration, one for auditory signal processing and two from vision. (Author)
Color vision and image intensities : when are changes material? by John M Rubin( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Marr has emphasized the difficulty in understanding a biological system or its components without some idea of its goals. In this paper, a preliminary goal for color vision is proposed and analyzed. That goal is to determine where changes of material occur in a scene (using only spectral information). This goal is challenging for two reasons. First, the effects of many processes (shadowing, shading from surface orientation changes, highlights, variations in pigment density) are confounded with the effects of material changes in the available image intensities. Second, material changes are essentially arbitrary. We are consequently led to a strategy of rejecting the presence of such confounding processes. We show there is a unique condition, the spectral crosspoint, that allows rejection of the hypothesis that measured image intensities arise from one of the confounding processes. (If plots are made of image intensity versus wavelength from two image regions, and the plots intersect, we say that there is a spectral crosspoint.) We restrict our attention to image intensities measured from regions on opposite sides of an edge because material changes almost always cause edges. Also, by restricting our attention to luminance discontinuities, we can avoid peculiar conspiracies of confounding processes that might mimic a material change. Our crosspoint conjecture is that biological visual systems interpret spectral crosspoints across edges as material changes. A circularly symmetric operator is designed to detect crosspoints; it turns out to resemble the double-opponent cell which is commonplace in biological color vision systems. (Author)
From Waltz to Winston : (via the connection table) by Whitman Richards( Book )

5 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The influence of oculomotor systems on visual perception : final report by Whitman Richards( Book )

4 editions published between 1968 and 1969 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report describes ongoing work on the influence of the oculomotor systems upon visual perception. Three different problems are being considered: (1) Saccadic suppression, (2) Size-scaling, and (3) The 'corridor' illusion. Of particular interest is whether or not efferent or outflow mechanisms play a significant role in these perceptual phenomena. A 'perspective' illusion of depth has been examined in order to show that planar illusions involve mechanisms different from those underlying size/depth invariances. (Author)
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Audience level: 0.44 (from 0.33 for Anigrafs : ... to 0.88 for Vision alg ...)

Natural computation
Alternative Names
Richards, W.

Richards, Whitman

Richards, Whitman, 1932-

リチャーズ, ホイットマン

English (119)

Japanese (7)

Perception as Bayesian inference