WorldCat Identities

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences

Works: 300 works in 310 publications in 1 language and 864 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  Maps  Observations 
Roles: Researcher, Publisher
Classifications: QE511, 551.13
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works about Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Most widely held works by Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data semiannual report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the period, 1 August 1984-31 December 1985 by Thomas H Jordan( Book )

2 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 122 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Lateral variation in upper mantle temperature and composition beneath mid-ocean ridges inferred from shear-wave propagation, geoid, and bathymetry by Anne Frances Sheehan( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 87 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mechanisms of interannual ocean-atmosphere interactions final technical report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the grant NAG 5-137 by Claude J Frankignoul( Book )

1 edition published in 1984 in English and held by 54 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Global ocean surface temperature atlas "Gosta" by M BOTTOMLEY( )

4 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Modern methodology in precise engineering and deformation surveys-II : proceedings Deformation Measurements Workshop, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, October 31-November 1, 1986 by Deformation Measurements Workshop( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Stochastic modeling of seafloor morphology by John Anson Goff( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

At scale lengths less than 100 km or so, statistical descriptions of seafloor morphology can be usefully employed to characterize processes which form and reshape abyssal hills, including ridge crest volcanism, off-axis tectonics and volcanism, mass wasting, sedimentation, and post-depositional transport. The objectives of this thesis are threefold: (1) to identify stochastic parameterizations of small-scale topography that are geologically useful, (2) to implement procedures for estimating these parameters from multibeam and side-scan sonar surveys that take into account the finite precision, resolution, and sampling of real data sets, and (3) to apply these techniques to the study of marine geological problems. The seafloor is initially modeled as a stationary, zero-mean, Gaussian random field completely specified by its two-point covariance function. An anisotropic two-point covariance function is introduced that has five free parameters describing the amplitude, orientation, characteristic width and length, and Hausdorff (fractal) dimension of seafloor topography. The general forward problem is then formulated relating this model to the statistics of an ideal multibeam echo sounder, in particular the along-track autocovariance functions of individual beams and the cross- covariance functions between beams of arbitrary separation
High sensitivity monitoring of resistivity and self-potential variations in the Palmdale and Hollister areas for earthquake prediction studies : final report by Theodore R Madden( Book )

4 editions published between 1983 and 1986 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analysis of central California network data for earthquake prediction : final technical report by Keiiti Aki( Book )

2 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Composition, deep structure, and evolution of continents by Robert D Van der Hilst( Book )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The ensemble of manuscripts presented in this special volume captures the stimulating cross-disciplinary dialogue from the International Symposium on Deep Structure, Composition, and Evolution of Continents, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 15-17 October 1997. It will provide an update on recent research developments and serve as a starting point for research of the many outstanding issues. After its formation at mid-oceanic spreading centers, oceanic lithosphere cools, thickens, and subsides, until it subducts into the deep mantle beneath convergent margins. As a result of this continuous recycling process oceanic lithosphere is typically less than 200 million years old (the global average is about 80 Myr). A comprehensive, multi-disciplinary study of continents involves a wide range of length scales: tiny rock samples and diamond inclusions may yield isotope and trace element signatures diagnostic for the formation age and evolution of (parts of) cratons, while geophysical techniques (e.g., seismic and electromagnetic imaging) constrain variations of elastic and conductive properties over length scales ranging from several to many thousand kilometers. Integrating and reconciling this information is far from trivial and, as several papers in this volume document, the relationships between, for instance, formation age and tectonic behavior on the one hand and the seismic signature, heat flow, and petrology on the other may not be uniform but may vary both within as well as between cratons. These observations complicate attempts to determine the variations of one particular observable (e.g., heat flow, lithosphere thickness) as a function of another (e.g., crustal age) on the basis of global data compilations and tectonic regionalizations. Important conclusions of the work presented here are that (1) continental deformation, for instance shortening, is not restricted to the crust but also involves the lithospheric mantle; (2) the high wavespeed part of continental lithospheric mantle is probably thinner than inferred previously from vertically travelling body waves or form global surface-wave models; and (3) the seismic signature of ancient continents is more complex than expected from a uniform relationship with crustal age
High sensitivity monitoring of resistivity and self-potential variations in the Palmdale and Hollister areas for earthquake studies by Theodore R Madden( Book )

2 editions published between 1987 and 1990 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Climate controls on coral growth in the Caribbean by Sara A Bosshart( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Accurate predictions of Caribbean coral reef responses to global climate change are currently limited by a lack of knowledge of the dominant environmental controls on coral growth. Corals exhibit significant responses to environmental variability occurring on multi-annual to decadal timescales, which are significantly longer than the duration of typical laboratory and field-based experiments. Skeletal growth records, which provide annually-resolved histories spanning several centuries, enable links to be established between coral growth and both long term trends and low-frequency oscillations in environmental conditions. We used 3-D CT scan and imaging techniques to quantify the growth of 3 massive corals (Siderastrea siderea) from the US Virgin Islands (USVI) over the period 1950-2009 and compared these growth rates to other records collected from the USVI, Puerto Rico, the Yucatan, Belize and the Bahamas. While coral growth rates were inversely correlated to sea surface temperature (SST) in the Western Caribbean basin (Yucatan, Belize, Bahamas), we found no significant relationship between SST and coral growth in the Eastern basin (USVI, Puerto Rico). Instead, we found a significant inverse relationship between coral growth in the Western Caribbean and changes in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and a significant positive relationship between coral growth in the Eastern Caribbean Region and shifts in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Using data from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) we compared the wind field anomalies during periods of positive coral growth in both regions with the wind field anomalies during phases of these climactic modes that are conducive to coral growth. We find that both the AMO and the PDO play a significant role in shifting the mean wind patters in these Caribbean regions, with the PDO primarily affecting wind patters in the Eastern Basin and the AMO affecting wind patterns in the Western basin. We suggest that the altered wind patterns associated with these modes may induce upwelling favorable conditions in their respective regions of influence, increasing the availability of nutrients for coral growth
Evaluating mantle and crustal processes using isotope geochemistry by Alberto Edgardo Saal( Book )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Geochemical studies are fundamental for understanding how the dynamic Earth works and evolves. These studies place constraints on the composition, formation, age, distribution, evolution and scales of geochemically distinct reservoirs such as the Earth's crust, mantle and core. In this dissertation the strategy has been to work on a broad range of topics to evaluate crustal and mantle processes. This study presents Re-Os systematics to constrain the composition, formation and age of the lower continental crust and the mantle lithosphere, examines melt inclusion from oceanic island basalts to evaluate the scale of the mantle heterogeneities, and uses U-series isotope to constrain geodynamic parameters, such as the upwelling velocities and porosities of mantle plumes. The lower continental crust plays a pivotal role in understanding the composition and evolution of the continental crust and the petrogenesis of continental basalts. This chapter presents Re/Os isotope measurements which allow us to further our understanding of these problems. Two well-characterized suites of lower crustal xenoliths from Northern Queensland, Australia, which have average major and trace element compositions similar to bulk lower crust, were analyzed for Re/Os isotope systematics. From this data, we infer that the lower crust has 1 to 2 times as much Os, about half of the Re and is less radiogenic in 1870s/1880s than the upper continental crust. Our data show that assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) are important processes in the formation of the lower crust and lead to dramatic changes in the Os isotopic composition of basalts that pond and fractionate there. Because of this, the Re-Os system cannot be relied upon to yield accurate mantle extraction ages for continental rocks. Chapter 2 examines the Re-Os isotopic composition of the Horoman massif, Japan. These data indicate that the Os isotope composition is controlled by the Re content, through radiogenic ingrowth, while the Re content is governed by the extent of depletion in "basaltic component" of the ultramafic rocks. Re-Os systematics suggest that depletion model ages of = 1.8 Ga represent the age of the melting event. The colinearity between mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Re-Os isochron diagram defines an apparent age of = 1 Ga. The similar "ages" determined by Re-Os and Sm-Nd isotopes and the high Re/Os ratios in the most fertile peridotites plotting to the right of the geochron, indicate that the mafic layers and the ultramafic rocks are genetically related by a refertilization process which took place = 1 Ga ago. The Re-Os systematics for other ophiolitic massifs indicate that refertilization of the lithospheric mantle seems to be a more widespread process than previously thought. Previous studies have suggested that melting processes are responsible for the trace element variability observed in olivine-hosted basaltic melt inclusions. Melt inclusions from four individual lava samples representing three mantle end-members HIMU, EMI and EMII (two from Mangaia, Cook Islands, one from Pitcairn, Gambier chain, and one from Tahaa, Society chain), have heterogeneous Pb isotopic compositions, even though the erupted lavas are isotopically homogeneous. The range of Pb isotopic compositions from individual melt inclusions in a single lava flow spans 50% of the world-wide range observed for ocean island basalts (OIB). The melt inclusion data can be explained by two-component mixing for each island. Our data imply that magmas with different isotopic compositions existed in the volcanic plumbing system prior to or during melt aggregation. Evaluation of U-series disequilibrium, trace element composition and He, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes of Galapagos lavas indicates that magma mixing between plume and asthenospheric melts has been the main process responsible for the geochemical variation observed in the archipelago. Correlations between He isotopes and Ti/Ti*, K/Rb and Nb/La ratios suggest that the mantle plume has positive anomalies of Nb and Ti and negative anomalies of K. 230Th excesses measured in the lavas indicate that the basalts from Galapagos originated completely or partially in the garnet stability field. Mantle upwelling velocity for the Galapagos plume (Fernandina) ranges from= 1 to 3 cm/y with a maximum porosity of 0.3%, indicating that Galapagos is a mildly buoyant plume. Very slow mantle upwelling rates and very low porosity for Pinta (0.5 to 1 cm/y and 0.1%) and Floreana (0.1 cm/year and <0.1%) islands, support the hypothesis that the movement of the plume across the 91050' transform fault into a younger and thinner lithosphere produced slow upwelling and small extents of melting
Strength recovery in rocks and minerals : collaborative research by Brian Evans( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Adaptive error estimation in linearized ocean general circulation models by Michael Y Chechelnitsky( Book )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Data assimilation methods, such as the Kalman filter, are routinely used in oceanography. The statistics of the model and measurement errors need to be specified a priori. In this study we address the problem of estimating model and measurement error statistics from observations. We start by testing the Myers and Tapley (1976, MT) method of adaptive error estimation with low-dimensional models. We then apply the MT method in the North Pacific (5°-60° N, 132°-252° E) to TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level anomaly data, acoustic tomography data from the ATOC project, and the MIT General Circulation Model (GCM). A reduced state linear model that describes large scale internal (baroclinic) error dynamics is used. The MT method, closely related to the maximum likelihood methods of Belanger (1974) and Dee (1995), is shown to be sensitive to the initial guess for the error statistics and the type of observations. It does not provide information about the uncertainty of the estimates nor does it provide information about which structures of the error statistics can be estimated and which cannot. A new off-line approach is developed, the covariance matching approach (CMA), where covariance matrices of model-data residuals are "matched" to their theoretical expectations using familiar least squares methods. This method uses observations directly instead of the innovations sequence and is shown to be related to the MT method and the method of Fu et al. (1993). The CMA is both a powerful diagnostic tool for addressing theoretical questions and an efficient estimator for real data assimilation studies. It can be extended to estimate other statistics of the errors, trends, annual cycles, etc. Twin experiments using the same linearized MIT GCM suggest that altimetric data are ill-suited to the estimation of internal GCM errors, but that such estimates can in theory be obtained using acoustic data. After removal of trends and annual cycles, the low frequency /wavenumber (periods> 2 months, wavelengths> 16°) TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level anomaly is of the order 6 cm2. The GCM explains about 40% of that variance. By covariance matching, it is estimated that 60% of the GCM-TOPEX/POSEIDON residual variance is consistent with the reduced state linear model. The CMA is then applied to TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level anomaly data and a linearization of a global GFDL GCM. The linearization, done in Fukumori et al.(1999), uses two vertical mode, the barotropic and the first baroclinic modes. We show that the CMA method can be used with a global model and a global data set, and that the estimates of the error statistics are robust. We show that the fraction of the GCMTOPEX/ POSEIDON residual variance explained by the model error is larger than that derived in Fukumori et al.(1999) with the method of Fu et al.(1993). Most of the model error is explained by the barotropic mode. However, we find that impact of the change in the error statistics on the data assimilation estimates is very small. This is explained by the large representation error, i.e. the dominance of the mesoscale eddies in the TIP signal, which are not part of the 20 by 10 GCM. Therefore, the impact of the observations on the assimilation is very small even after the adjustment of the error statistics. This work demonstrates that simultaneous estimation of the model and measurement error statistics for data assimilation with global ocean data sets and linearized GCMs is possible. However, the error covariance estimation problem is in general highly underdetermined, much more so than the state estimation problem. In other words there exist a very large number of statistical models that can be made consistent with the available data. Therefore, methods for obtaining quantitative error estimates, powerful though they may be, cannot replace physical insight. Used in the right context, as a tool for guiding the choice of a small number of model error parameters, covariance matching can be a useful addition to the repertory of tools available to oceanographers
Final report on fault stressing, surface deformation, and gravity anomaly associated with aseismic slilppages [sic] on shallow detachment patches by Victor Li( Book )

1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analysis of space geodetic measurements for studying the dynamics of the solid earth by T Herring( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"During the last decade, there has been an unprecedented improvement in both the accuracy and the temporal resolution of Earth rotation measurements. Determination of the position of the Earth's rotation axis both in inertial space and with respect to the crust with accuracies of about 0.3 milliarcseconds (mas) are now routine. In recent years, there has been an emphasis on the determination of short-period (daily and less) variations in Earth rotation. Two space based geodetic systems, very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and the global positioning system (GPS) have proved to be very successful in this endeavor. Results for the tidally coherent part of the subdaily Earth rotation variations determined from the analysis of VLBI data are discussed. The magnitude of other subdaily variations are also considered"--Page 1
The influence of ridge geometry at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (9°-25°E) : basalt composition sensitivity to variations in source and process by Jared Jeffrey Standish( Book )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Between 90-25° E on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge lie two sharply contrasting supersegments. One 630 km long supersegment erupts N-MORB that is progressively enriched in incompatible element concentrations from east to west. The second 400 km long supersegment contains three separate volcanic centers erupting E-MORB and connected by long amagmatic accretionary segments, where mantle is emplaced directly to the seafloor with only scattered N-MORB and E-MORB erupted. Rather than a major break in mantle composition at the discontinuity between the supersegments, this sharp contrast in geometry, physiography, and chemistry reflects "source" versus "process" dominated generation of basalt. Robust along-axis correlation of ridge characteristics (i.e. morphology, upwelling rate, lithospheric thickness), basalt chemistry, and crustal thickness (estimated from gravity) provides a unique opportunity to compare the influence of spreading geometry and rate on MORB generation. What had not been well established until now is the importance of melting processes rather than source at spreading rates <20 mm/yr
Plagioclase preferred orientation in the layered mylonites : evaluation of flow laws for the lower crust by Luc Mehl( Book )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Gulf stream temperature, salinity and transport during the last millennium by David Charles Lund( Book )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

(Cont.) The simplest explanation of the [delta]18Ow, data is southward migration of the Atlantic Hadley circulation during the LIA. Scaling of the [delta]18Ow records to salinity using the modern low-latitude 180,w-S slope produces an unrealistic reversal in the salinity gradient between the two sites. Only if [delta]18Ow is scaled to salinity using a high-latitude [delta]18Ow-S slope can the records be reconciled. Changes in atmospheric 14C paralleled shifts in Dry Tortugas [delta]18Ow, suggesting that variable solar irradiance paced centennial-scale Hadley cell migration and changes in Florida Current salinity during the last millennium
CSDP : the seismology of continental thermal regimes. Final technical report, January 1, 1975-December 31, 1984( )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Research progress is reported in the development of new seismological tools to define and characterize the geometry, mechanical construction and mass transport process of a geothermal system, and their application to various geothermal systems including the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock System, New Mexico, Kilauea and Kilauea Iki, Hawaii, Mt. St. Helens, Washington, and Long Valley, California. (ACR)
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Composition, deep structure, and evolution of continents
Alternative Names

controlled identityMassachusetts Institute of Technology

controlled identityMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

controlled identityMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography

Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences

English (34)