WorldCat Identities

Blau, Francine D.

Works: 122 works in 641 publications in 2 languages and 9,435 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  Cross-cultural studies  Handbooks and manuals 
Roles: Author, Editor, Thesis advisor, Other
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Francine D Blau
The economics of women, men, and work by Francine D Blau( Book )

65 editions published between 1986 and 2018 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,687 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Economics of Women, Men, and Work, Fifth Edition, defines the study of women, men, and work in the labor market and the household. Blau, Ferber, and Winkler comprehensively analyzed recent developments in the labor market and their consequences for men and women, to again provide a single volume with the most current summary and synthesis of research and data on gender issues in the labor market."--Jacket
Gender and family issues in the workplace by Francine D Blau( Book )

14 editions published between 1996 and 2000 in English and held by 768 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Others caution that the current design of "family-friendly policies" may promote gender inequality by reinforcing the traditional division of labor within families. The various points of view combine to form an innovative and up-to-date investigation into women's chances for success and equality in the modern economy
The declining significance of gender? by Francine D Blau( Book )

14 editions published between 2006 and 2009 in English and held by 758 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The last half-century has witnessed substantial change in the opportunities and rewards available to men and women in the workplace. While the gender pay gap narrowed and female labor force participation rose dramatically in recent decades, some dimensions of gender inequality--most notably the division of labor in the family--have been more resistant to change, or have changed more slowly in recent years than in the past. These trends suggest that one of two possible futures could lie ahead: an optimistic scenario in which gender inequalities continue to erode, or a pessimistic scenario where contemporary institutional arrangements persevere and the gender revolution stalls. In The Declining Significance of Gender?, editors Francine Blau, Mary Brinton, and David Grusky bring together top gender scholars in sociology and economics to make sense of the recent changes in gender inequality, and to judge whether the optimistic or pessimistic view better depicts the prospects and bottlenecks that lie ahead. It examines the economic, organizational, political, and cultural forces that have changed the status of women and men in the labor market. The contributors examine the economic assumption that discrimination in hiring is economically inefficient and will be weeded out eventually by market competition. They explore the effect that family-family organizational policies have had in drawing women into the workplace and giving them even footing in the organizational hierarchy. Several chapters ask whether political interventions might reduce or increase gender inequality, and others discuss whether a social ethos favoring egalitarianism is working to overcome generations of discriminatory treatment against women. Although there is much rhetoric about the future of gender inequality, The Declining Significance of Gender? provides a sustained attempt to consider analytically the forces that are shaping the gender revolution. Its wide-ranging analysis of contemporary gender disparities will stimulate readers to think more deeply and in new ways about the extent to which gender remains a major fault line of inequality."--Publisher's website
At home and abroad : U.S. labor-market performance in international perspective by Francine D Blau( Book )

9 editions published between 2002 and 2007 in English and Undetermined and held by 632 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Topics include labour-market institutions and unemployment, relative wages and employment, gender pay gap, policy implications and future research directions
Equal pay in the office by Francine D Blau( Book )

8 editions published in 1977 in English and German and held by 434 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Gender, inequality, and wages by Francine D Blau( Book )

17 editions published between 2012 and 2016 in English and held by 258 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In all Western societies women earn lower wages on average than men. The gender wage gap has existed for many years, although there have been some important changes over time. This volume of collected papers contains extensive research on progress made by women in the labor market, and the characteristics and causes of remaining gender inequalities. It also covers other dimensions of inequality and their interplay with gender, such as family formation, wellbeing, race, and immigrant status. The author was awarded the 2010 IZA Prize in Labor Economics for this research. Part I comprises an Introduction by the Editors. Part II probes and quantifies the explanations for the gender wage gap, including differential choices made in the labor market by men and women as well as labor market discrimination and employment segregation. It also delineates how the gender wage gap has decreased over time in the United States and suggests explanations for this narrowing of the gap and the more recent slowdown in wage convergence. Part III considers international differences in the gender wage gap and wage inequality and the relationship between the two. Part IV considers a variety of indicators of gender inequality and how they have changed over time in the United States, painting a picture of significant gains in women's relative status across a number of dimensions. It also considers the trends in female labor supply and what they indicate about changing gender roles in the United States and considers a successful intervention designed to increase the relative success of academic women. Part V focuses on inequality by race and immigrant status. It considers not only race difference in wages and the differential progress made by African-American women and men in reducing the race wage gap, but also race differences in wealth which are considerably larger than differences in wages. It also examines immigrant-native differences in the use of transfer payments, and the impact of gender roles in immigrant source countries on immigrant women's labor market assimilation in the U.S. labor market."--Publisher
Wage inequality : international comparisons of its sources by Francine D Blau( Book )

6 editions published in 1996 in English and Undetermined and held by 198 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Comparative analysis of labor market outcomes : lessons for the US from international long-run evidence by Giuseppe Bertola( Book )

25 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 81 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze a 1960-96 panel of OECD countries to explain why the US moved from relatively high to relatively low unemployment over the last three decades. We find that while macroeconomic and demographic shocks and changing labor market institutions explain a modest portion of this change, the interaction of these shocks and labor market institutions is the most important factor explaining the shift in US relative unemployment. Our finding of the central importance of these interactions is consistent with Blanchard and Wolfers (2000). We also show that, controlling for country- and time-specific effects, high employment is associated with low wage levels and high levels of wage inequality. These findings suggest that US relative unemployment has fallen in recent years in part because its more flexible labor market institutions allow shocks to affect real and relative wages to a greater degree than is true in other countries. Disaggregating, we find that the employment of both younger and older people fell sharply in other countries relative to the United States since the 1970s, with much smaller differences in outcomes among the prime-aged. In the late 1990s, the US had lower unemployment than our models predict, suggesting exceptionally favorable recent US experience
Labor market institutions and demographic employment patterns by Giuseppe Bertola( Book )

20 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 79 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using data from 17 OECD countries over the 1960-96 period, we investigate the impact of institutions on the relative employment of youth, women, and older individuals. Theoretically, we show that labor market institutions meant to improve workers' income share imply larger disemployment effects for groups whose labor supply is more elastic. Using an empirical model that allows us to control for unmeasured country-specific factors that affect relative employment and unemployment, we find that, for both men and women, more extensive involvement of unions in wage-setting significantly decreases the employment rate of young and older individuals relative to the prime-aged, with no significant effects on the relative unemployment of these groups. In contrast, a larger role for unions has insignificant effects on male-female employment differentials, but raises female unemployment relative to male unemployment. These results suggest that union wage-setting policies price the young and elderly out of employment and drive disemployed individuals in these groups to non-labor-force (education, retirement) states. A possible scenario for women is that high union wages encourage female labor force participation, but that women who would otherwise be disemployed by high wage floors are able to find work in unregulated sectors or are absorbed by public employment
Do cognitive test scores explain higher US wage inequality? by Francine D Blau( Book )

18 editions published between 2001 and 2004 in English and held by 77 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using microdata from the 1994-8 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) for nine countries, we examine the role of cognitive skills in explaining higher wage inequality in the United States. We find that while the greater dispersion of cognitive test scores in the United States plays a part in explaining higher U.S. wage inequality, higher labor market prices (i.e., higher returns to measured human capital and cognitive performance) and greater residual inequality still play important roles, and are, on average, quantitatively considerably more important than differences in the distribution of test scores in explaining higher U.S. wage inequality
Gender and youth employment outcomes : the US and West Germany, 1984-91 by Francine D Blau( Book )

13 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This paper examines gender differences in labor market outcomes for hard-to-employ youth in the US and West Germany during the 1984-91 period. We find that young, less educated American men and especially women are far less likely to be employed than their German counterparts. Moreover, less educated young women and men in the United States have lower earnings relative to more highly educated youth in their own country, and also fare much worse than less educated German youth in absolute terms, correcting for purchasing power. The relatively high employment rates of less educated German youth combined with their relatively high wages raise the question of how they are successfully absorbed into the labor market. We present evidence that the large public sector in Germany in effect functions as an employer of last resort, absorbing some otherwise unemployable low skilled youth. Our findings also suggest that the US welfare system accounts for very little of the US-German difference in employment rates
Continuing progress? : trends in occupational segregation in the United States over the 1970's and 1980's by Francine D Blau( Book )

12 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study uses comparable data on 470 detailed occupations from the 1970, 1980 and 1990 Censuses to analyze trends in occupational segregation in the United States in the 1980s and compare them in detail to the 1970s experience of declining segregation. We find that the trend towards reduced segregation did indeed continue into the 1980s at only a slightly slower pace. In both decades, changes in sex composition within occupations accounted for the major share of the decline in segregation (compared to changes in the mix of occupations in the economy). We also find that the pattern of changes in the sex composition of occupations and in the employment distribution of workers that produced the observed reductions in segregation were remarkably similar in each of these two periods. This similarity potentially poses some problems for the future. As women continue to enter the same areas, resegregation, which we found to have relatively moderate effects in the 1970s and 1980s, becomes an increasing possibility. Continued progress towards reducing occupational segregation requires that women succeed in entering a broader range of traditionally male occupations and/or a greater flow of men into traditionally female occupations
Gender differences in pay by Francine D Blau( Book )

14 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay gap in the U.S. compared to a number of other advanced countries seems primarily attributable to the very high level of U.S. wage inequality
Trends in the well-being of American women, 1970-1995 by Francine D Blau( Book )

11 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the trends in the well-being of American women over the last 25 years, a time of significant changes in the relative economic status of women and in the labor market as a whole. A broad range of indicators are considered to capture changes in women's well-being in the family as well as in the labor market. For virtually all age and education groups, substantial evidence is obtained of rising gender equality in labor market outcomes, notably labor force participation, wages, and occupational distributions. Broad evidence is also found of greater gender parity within married couple families as the housework time of husbands increased relative to wives' and the relative wages of wives rose compared to their husbands'. However, parallel to the recent evidence of the declining labor market position of lower skilled men, there has been a similar deterioration in the economic status of less educated women, especially high school dropouts. Their labor force participation rates and wages have risen at a much slower pace than those of more highly educated women, while their incidence of single headship has increased much more rapidly. These findings for less educated women serve to underscore the widening gap between more and less skilled Americans of both sexes, as well as to emphasize its broad dimensions
Understanding young women's marriage decisions : the role of labor and marriage market conditions by Francine D Blau( Book )

13 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using the 1970, 1980 and 1990 Censuses, we investigate the impact of labor and marriage market conditions on the incidence of marriage of young women (age 16-24). We employ a two-stage methodology. First, across individuals, marriage is regressed on personal characteristics and MSA indicators, separately by race and education group. Second, the first-stage MSA effects are regressed on MSA-level labor and marriage market conditions and welfare benefits using cross-section and fixed effects models, including both first and second difference equations. Better female labor markets, worse female marriage markets and worse male labor markets are found to lower marriage rates for whites in all education groups. Results for these variables for blacks are sensitive to estimation technique, although stronger results are obtained for an older age group (25-34). While welfare benefits have a negative effect in cross-sectional analyses, the association becomes considerably weaker in fixed effects specifications
International differences in male wage inequality : institutions versus market forces by Francine D Blau( Book )

13 editions published between 1994 and 1996 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

While changes in the demand for skilled labor appear to have led to a widening of the wage structures in many countries during the 198Os, considerable differences in the level of wage inequality remain. In this paper, we examine the sources of these differences, focusing primarily on explaining the considerably higher level of wage inequality in the U.S. We find that the greater overall dispersion of the U.S. wage distribution reflects considerably more compression at the bottom of the distribution in the other countries, but relatively little difference in the degree of wage inequality at the top. While differences in the distribution of measured characteristics help to explain some aspects of the international differences, U.S. labor market prices--that is, higher rewards to labor market skills-are an important factor. Labor market institutions, chiefly the relatively decentralized wage-setting mechanisms in the U.S. compared to other countries, appear to provide the most persuasive explanation for these international differences in prices. In contrast, the pattern of cross-country differences in relative supplies of and demands for skills does not appear to be consistent with the pattern of observed differences in wage inequality
Understanding international differences in the gender pay gap by Francine D Blau( Book )

12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market institutions are responsible for an important portion of international differences in wage inequality, the inverse relationship between the gender pay gap and male wage inequality suggests that wage-setting mechanisms, such as encompassing collective bargaining agreements, that provide for relatively high wage floors raise the relative pay of women, who tend to be at the bottom of the wage distribution. Consistent with this view, we find that the extent of collective bargaining coverage in each country is significantly negatively associated with its gender pay gap. Moreover, the effect of pay structures on the gender pay gap is quantitatively very important: a large part of the difference in the gender differential between high gap and low gap countries is explained by the differences across these countries in overall wage structure, with another potentially important segment due to differences in female net supply
The role of the family in immigrants' labor-market activity : evidence from the United States by Francine D Blau( Book )

12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We use Census of Population microdata for 1980 and 1990 to examine the labor supply and wages of immigrant husbands and wives in the United States in a family context. Earlier research by Baker and Benjamin (1997) posits a family investment model in which, upon arrival, immigrant husbands invest in their human capital while immigrant wives work to provide the family with liquidity during this period. Consistent with this model, they find for Canada that immigrant wives work longer hours upon arrival than comparable natives, but, with time in Canada, they are eventually overtaken by native wives. In contrast, we find that, among immigrants to the United States, both husbands and wives work and earn less than comparable natives upon arrival, with similar shortfalls for men and women. Further, both immigrant husbands and wives have similar, positive assimilation profiles in wages and labor supply and eventually overtake both the wages and the labor supply of comparable natives
The impact of welfare benefits on single motherhood and headship of young women : evidence from the census by Francine D Blau( Book )

14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 57 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper uses data from the 1970, 1980 and 1990 Censuses to investigate the impact of welfare benefits across Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) on the incidence of single motherhood and headship for young women. A contribution of the paper is the inclusion of both MSA fixed effects and MSA-specific time trends to account for fixed and trending unmeasured factors that could influence both welfare benefit levels and family formation. In such a model, we find no effect of welfare benefits on single motherhood for whites or blacks, and a positive effect of welfare benefits on single headship only for blacks
The economic and fiscal consequences of immigration by Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.) National Academies of Sciences( Book )

3 editions published between 2016 and 2017 in English and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

More than 40 million people living in the United States were born in other countries, and almost an equal number have at least one foreign-born parent. Together, the first generation (foreign-born) and second generation (children of the foreign-born) comprise almost one in four Americans. It comes as little surprise, then, that many U.S. residents view immigration as a major policy issue facing the nation. Not only does immigration affect the environment in which everyone lives, learns, and works, but it also interacts with nearly every policy area of concern, from jobs and the economy, education, and health care, to federal, state, and local government budgets. The changing patterns of immigration and the evolving consequences for American society, institutions, and the economy continue to fuel public policy debate that plays out at the national, state, and local levels. The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration assesses the impact of dynamic immigration processes on economic and fiscal outcomes for the United States, a major destination of world population movements. This report will be a fundamental resource for policy makers and law makers at the federal, state, and local levels but extends to the general public, nongovernmental organizations, the business community, educational institutions, and the research community
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Gender and family issues in the workplace
Alternative Names
Francine D. Blau economista estadounidense

Francine D. Blau économiste américaine

Francine D. Blau US economist

Блау, Франсин Ди

English (309)

German (1)

Gender and family issues in the workplaceThe declining significance of gender?At home and abroad : U.S. labor-market performance in international perspectiveWage inequality : international comparisons of its sources