United States Dept. of Defense Office of the Secretary of Defense
Most widely held works about United States
Most widely held works by United States
Networks and netwars : the future of terror, crime, and militancy ( Book )
5 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 1,152 libraries worldwide
"Netwar is the lower-intensity, societal-level counterpart to the editors' earlier, mostly military concept of cyberwar. This volume studies major instances of netwar that have occurred over the past several years--from Osama bin Laden's networked terrorists to the Battle of Seattle's social activists--and finds, among other things, that netwar works very well. Whether the protagonists are civil-society activists or uncivil-society criminals and terrorists, their netwars have generally been successful. Strategists and policymakers in Washington, and elsewhere, have already begun to discern the dark side of the netwar phenomenon, especially as manifested in terrorist and criminal organizations. In this volume, the editors and their colleagues examine various types of netwar, from the most violent to the most socially activist. In doing so, they find that, despite the variety, all networks that have been built for waging netwar may be analyzed in terms of a common analytic framework. There are five levels of theory and practice that matter--the technological, social, narrative, organizational, and doctrinal levels. A netwar actor must get all five right to be fully effective. The most potent netwarriors will not only be highly networked and have the capacity for mounting "swarming" attacks, they will also be held together by strong social ties, have secure communications technologies, and project a common story about why they are together and what they need to do. These will be the most serious adversaries. But even those networks that are weak on some levels may pose stiff challenges to their nation-state adversaries. With this in mind, it is necessary to go beyond just diagnosing the nature of the networked nonstate opponent in a given conflict. It will become crucial for governments and their military and law enforcement establishments to begin networking themselves>"--Rand abstract.
Military use of drugs not yet approved by the FDA for CW/BW defense lessons from the Gulf War by Richard A Rettig ( Book )
3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,139 libraries worldwide
A description of U.S. enlisted personnel promotion systems by Stephanie Williamson ( Book )
2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 955 libraries worldwide
The U.S. armed services have different methods and processes for promoting enlisted personnel. All of the services, however, aim to ensure that promotion outcomes correspond to substantive differences in personnel quality. This report provides a snapshot of how the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force go about measuring duty performance, leadership potential, experience, knowledge, and skills to determine who among its enlisted force merits promotion, when they are eligible for promotion, and at what level promotion decisions are made. This report provides an overview of the enlisted promotion system in the 1990s as retention issues again move to the forefront of Defense Department concerns.
Attracting college-bound youth into the military toward the development of new recruiting policy options by Beth J Asch ( Book )
4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 943 libraries worldwide
Although the military's need for enlisted personnel has declined by almost one-third since the end of the cold war, the armed services are finding it difficult to meet their recruiting goals. Among ongoing changes in the civilian labor market is a strong demand for skilled labor, which has prompted an increasing number of "high quality" youth to pursue post-secondary education and subsequent civilian employment. Because of this competition for high quality youth, the Department of Defense may want to explore new options for attracting desirable young people into the armed forces. The military, for example, offers a myriad of options for service members to take college courses while in active service. However, the programs do not in fact generate significant increases in educational attainment during time in service.
Command concepts a theory derived from the practice of command and control by Carl H Builder ( Book )
4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 911 libraries worldwide
The qualities of commanders and their ideas are more important to a general theory of command and control than are the technical and architectural qualities of their computers and communications systems. This theory separates the art of command and control (C2) from the hardware and software systems that support C2. It centers on the idea of a command concept, a commander's vision of a military operation that informs the making of command decisions during that operation. The theory suggests that the essential communications up and down the chain of command can (and should) be limited to disseminating, verifying, or modifying command concepts. The theory also suggests, as an extreme case, that an ideal command concept is one that is so prescient, sound, and fully conveyed to subordinates that it would allow the commander to leave the battlefield before the battle commences, with no adverse effect upon the out-come. This report advances a theory about military command and control. Then, through six historical case studies of modern battles, it explores the implications of the theory both for the professional development of commanders and for the design and evaluation of command and control architectures. The report should be of interest to members of the Joint Staff and the services involved in developing command and control doctrine for the U.S. military, and to all of those interested in the "military art and science" of command and control.
Planning America's security lessons from the National Defense Panel by John E Tedstrom ( Book )
5 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 896 libraries worldwide
This report identifies key lessons from the first National Defense Panel (NDP) and makes recommendations to the Congress, the administration, and future NDP management teams about how the process can be made more effective. The NDP was established by the 1996 Military Force Structure Review Act as an independent effort to provide guidance to the Secretary of Defense and the Congress on long-term defense strategies and force structure requirements. This report reviews the motivations for creating the NDP, its administrative and logistical experience, the NDP's relationship to the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), and the final NDP report. Some of the principal recommendations are that (1) the NDP should maintain its focus on defense issues, but do more to integrate its recommendations into the broader national security agenda; (2) future NDPs should be better coordinated with the defense planning cycle (i.e., the next NDP, preceding the next QDR, should complete its work before the new administration comes into office in 2001); and (3) future NDPs should deal more systematically with resource constraints than the first NDP.
Recent recruiting trends and their implications for models of enlistment supply by Michael P Murray ( Book )
5 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and held by 881 libraries worldwide
The authors estimate an econometric model of high-quality enlistment supply using geographically disaggregated data from two periods, FY83-87 and FY90-93. They find that econometric models based on data from the earlier period do not predict the recruiting difficulties reported by the military in the 1990s. This conforms to a preliminary assessment provided by Asch and Orvis (MR-549-A/OSD, 1994). The authors also find that econometric models estimated with the 1990s data give altered counsel about the effects of at least some policy variables, most notably the number of recruiters.
The emergence of noopolitik toward an American information strategy by John Arquilla ( Book )
7 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 863 libraries worldwide
Strategy, at its best, knits together ends and means, no matter how various and disparate, into a cohesive pattern. In the case of a U.S. information strategy, this requires balancing the need to guard and secure access to many informational capabilities and resources, with the opportunity to achieve national aims by fostering as much openness as practicable. The authors' term to represent such strategic balancing is "guarded openness." They go on to describe "noopolitik" (nu-oh-poh-li-teek)--an emerging form of statecraft that emphasizes the importance of sharing ideas and values globally, principally through the exercise of persuasive "soft power" rather than traditional military "hard power." This study discusses the opportunities that may be raised by the emergence of noopolitik--ranging from construction of a noosphere (a globe-spanning realm of the mind) to recommendations that, for example, the U.S. military should begin to develop its own noosphere (among and between the services, as well as with U.S. allies). In the area of international cooperation, the authors offer strategic approaches for improving the capacity of state and nonstate actors to work together to address transnational problems. In addition, the authors recommend specific doctrinal developments, implied by the emergence of information strategy--including the pressing need to deal with such ethical concerns as the first use of information.
Increasing a sense of community in the military the role of personnel support programs by Colette Van Laar ( Book )
5 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 823 libraries worldwide
Using the force and support costing system an introductory guide and tutorial ( Book )
5 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 789 libraries worldwide
The Force and Support Costing (FSC) System is a set of models and databases that helps analysts project the cost implications of proposed changes in defense forces, infrastructure, and assets. The user interface and many of the models are implemented in Excel; most of the database resides on a network. The illustrated study projects effects on defense costs arising from the deactivation of an Army division. The FSC system allows the user to view the force structure in the current Army program, select the division to be cut, and specify when the deactivation will occur. The system then translates that deactivation into reductions in personnel and equipment assets, and costs out the implications. In addition to stepping through the specific procedures for the simulation, the authors show other ways the FSC System can be used to analyze the cost effects of various policy actions.
Immigration in a changing economy California's experience by Kevin F McCarthy ( Book )
9 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 782 libraries worldwide
California and its economy continue to draw benefits from immigration. However, a combination of much larger immigration flows and major changes in the state's economic environment have increased the costs of immigration, and unless current policies with regard to immigration and immigrants are changed, the benefits the state currently receives from immigrants may not continue. International immigration to California has steadily increased over the past 30 years and has profoundly affected the state's population and economy. Some observers of these changes are seeing the extreme diversity of California's population as the harbinger of where the nation is headed in the long term. For others, California has become the symbol of a major backlash against immigrants and immigration. How has California benefited from immigration? What impact have immigrants had on the state's job market? How have they affected the demand for federal and state services? What has been their educational and economic progress since their arrival? This book is the culmination of a comprehensive study of how immigration has changed over the past three decades. It assesses the impact immigration has had on the state's demography, economy, people, and institutions, with lessons to be drawn for other states, the nation, and even other countries.
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses, Infectious diseases by Lee H Hilborne ( Book )
2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 775 libraries worldwide
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses, Chemical and biological warfare agents by William S Augerson ( Book )
2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 765 libraries worldwide
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses. Vol. 2, Pyridostigmine bromide by Beatrice Alexandra Golomb ( Book )
3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 750 libraries worldwide
The United States and its allies in the Persian Gulf War (PGW) knew that Iraq had used nerve agents and chemical weapons in its previous conflicts and so took steps to protect their troops. Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) was distributed as a pretreatment that would enhance the effectiveness of postexposure treatments in the event that the nerve agent soman was used. This report examines the role that PB played in the ongoing chronic health problems documented in PGW veterans. After careful examination of the known effects of PB on the central and peripheral nervous systems, the author finds the evidence consistent with a possible role for PB as a contributor to the health complaints of some PGW veterans and calls for immediate attention in the form of additional investigation to clarify the role of PB.
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses. Vol. 4, Stress ( Book )
2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 744 libraries worldwide
Gaining new military capability an experiment in concept development by J. L Birkler ( Book )
2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 713 libraries worldwide
The process of modernizing U.S. military forces is the focus of this report. This process requires reinvigorating concept development efforts, thinking broadly about alternatives, and pursuing concept development before decisions are made about which services, which platforms, or which technologies are best suited for accomplishing current or new military tasks. In February and March 1996, RAND convened a concept options group (COG), which included broadly knowledgeable technologists drawn from a variety of scientific and engineering backgrounds, experienced military operators, and senior analysts and planners. By focusing on two specific military tasks, the COG considered options for using technologies that could enable U.S. forces to perform an existing military mission better, perform it differently, or gain a new capability. This report presents highlights from the COG discussions as well as some suggestions for convening future COGs.
Separation and retirement incentives in the federal civil service a comparison of the Federal Employees Retirement System and the Civil Service Retirement System by Beth J Asch ( Book )
6 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 692 libraries worldwide
In 1987 a new retirement system, called the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), was introduced for federal civil service personnel. Some observers have hypothesized that FERS would alter the retirement and separation outcomes produced by FERS' predecessor, the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS). This report compares the retirement and separation incentives embedded in FERS versus those in CSRS to see whether the incentives embedded in FERS are consistent with these hypotheses. It also examines which system is more generous in terms of providing greater expected net lifetime earnings and retirement wealth. To compare the systems, the authors compute expected net wealth associated with different separation and retirement ages for a representative individual. The authors also conduct sensitivity analyses to see how their comparisons differ under alternative assumptions. Finally, the authors use data on Department of Defense civil service personnel from fiscal year 1983 through fiscal year 1996 to examine empirically how separation rates differ for early and mid-career personnel under FERS and under CSRS.
Assessing requirements for peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief by Bruce Pirnie ( Book )
3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 663 libraries worldwide
The purpose of this study is to assess requirements for peace operations, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief, then to develop options for conducting such contingencies more effectively without detracting from the nation's capability to conduct major theater warfare. This study focuses on one aspect of requirements: those military units required to accomplish these types of operations. It reviews the history of operations during the period of interest, 1990-1996, assessing frequency, duration, and level of effort for each type of operation, expressed in military units. The authors then develop vignettes, or generalized patterns for each type of operation, to examine requirements--both peak strength and rotational demands--under broad projections of the level of future operations. Finally, they analyze implications for all armed services, but particularly for those Army units that are central to protracted land operations and those Air Force units that are required to secure no-fly zones and conduct strikes. The report concludes by recommending options that would improve capability. These options are mostly changes or adjustments at the margin, because U.S. forces have clearly demonstrated that they have sufficient capability to perform these operations successfully. The authors especially recommend organization of Army contingency brigades and air expeditionary forces optimized for close air support. Together, these would be a powerful, versatile force appropriate for a wide range of contingencies. The prospective audience includes decisionmakers and supporting staffs within the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff, and also the services for areas falling within their cognizance.
Married to the military the employment and earnings of military wives compared with those of civilian wives ( Book )
3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 642 libraries worldwide
Today's military is a military of families; many service members are married, and many of their spouses work and contribute to family income. But military wives earn less than civilian wives, and this study seeks to understand why. The authors find that military wives, knowing they are likely to move frequently, are willing to accept jobs that offer a lower wage rather than to use more of their remaining time at a location to find a higher-wage job. Compared with civilian wives, military wives tend to work somewhat less if they have young children but somewhat more if their children are older. The probability that military wives work declines with age, although it changes little with age in the civilian world. This probability declines more rapidly for wives with a college education, most of whom are officers' wives. Although it is often assumed that military families live in rural areas where the job opportunities for wives are poor, the authors found fairly small differences in the location of civilian versus military families. Finally, whereas in the civilian world an increase in the unemployment rate leads to a slight increase in the probability that wives worked during the year and the probability that they worked full-time (responding as "added workers" to the loss or threat of loss of their husbands' work), military wives appear to respond as workers with a more permanent attachment to the labor force.
Proliferation : threat and response ( Book )
8 editions published between 1996 and 2001 in English and held by 463 libraries worldwide
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