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United States Department of Defense Office of the Secretary of Defense

Overview
Works: 813 works in 1,638 publications in 2 languages and 114,330 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  Handbooks, manuals, etc 
Classifications: RB152.7, 616.98023
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Most widely held works about United States
 
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Most widely held works by United States
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses by Beatrice Alexandra Golomb( )
14 editions published between 1998 and 2001 in English and held by 4,187 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The United States and its allies in the Persian Gulf War (PGW) knew that Iraq had used nerve agents and chemical weapons in its previous conflicts and so took steps to protect their troops. Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) was distributed as a pretreatment that would enhance the effectiveness of postexposure treatments in the event that the nerve agent soman was used. This report examines the role that PB played in the ongoing chronic health problems documented in PGW veterans. After careful examination of the known effects of PB on the central and peripheral nervous systems, the author finds the evidence consistent with a possible role for PB as a contributor to the health complaints of some PGW veterans and calls for immediate attention in the form of additional investigation to clarify the role of PB
Networks and netwars the future of terror, crime, and militancy by John Arquilla( )
8 editions published in 2001 in English and Chinese and held by 2,129 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Netwar is the lower-intensity, societal-level counterpart to the editors' earlier, mostly military concept of cyberwar. This volume studies major instances of netwar that have occurred over the past several years--from Osama bin Laden's networked terrorists to the Battle of Seattle's social activists--and finds, among other things, that netwar works very well. Whether the protagonists are civil-society activists or uncivil-society criminals and terrorists, their netwars have generally been successful. Strategists and policymakers in Washington, and elsewhere, have already begun to discern the dark side of the netwar phenomenon, especially as manifested in terrorist and criminal organizations. In this volume, the editors and their colleagues examine various types of netwar, from the most violent to the most socially activist. In doing so, they find that, despite the variety, all networks that have been built for waging netwar may be analyzed in terms of a common analytic framework. There are five levels of theory and practice that matter--the technological, social, narrative, organizational, and doctrinal levels. A netwar actor must get all five right to be fully effective. The most potent netwarriors will not only be highly networked and have the capacity for mounting "swarming" attacks, they will also be held together by strong social ties, have secure communications technologies, and project a common story about why they are together and what they need to do. These will be the most serious adversaries. But even those networks that are weak on some levels may pose stiff challenges to their nation-state adversaries. With this in mind, it is necessary to go beyond just diagnosing the nature of the networked nonstate opponent in a given conflict. It will become crucial for governments and their military and law enforcement establishments to begin networking themselves." --Rand abstract
Military use of drugs not yet approved by the FDA for CW/BW defense lessons from the Gulf War by Richard A Rettig( )
4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,797 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The confrontation that began when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 brought with it the threat that chemical and biological weapons might be used against the more than half a million military personnel the United States deployed to the region. To protect these troops from such threats, the Department of Defense wished to use drugs and vaccines that, not having been tested for use in these specific situations, were considered "investigational" by the federal Food and Drug Administration. This report examines the history of the Interim Rule, adopted in December 21, 1990, that authorized the Commissioner of Food and Drugs to waive informed consent for the use of investigational drugs and vaccines for certain military uses; how this authority was used for pyridostigmine bromide and botulinum toxoid during the Gulf War; and the subsequent controversy surrounding the rule, its application, and its implications. The report then analyzes the issues the Interim Rule raised when investigational drugs are used for such purposes and makes recommendations for dealing with similar situations in the future
A description of U.S. enlisted personnel promotion systems by Stephanie Williamson( )
3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,622 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The U.S. armed services have different methods and processes for promoting enlisted personnel. All of the services, however, aim to ensure that promotion outcomes correspond to substantive differences in personnel quality. This report provides a snapshot of how the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force go about measuring duty performance, leadership potential, experience, knowledge, and skills to determine who among its enlisted force merits promotion, when they are eligible for promotion, and at what level promotion decisions are made. This report provides an overview of the enlisted promotion system in the 1990s as retention issues again move to the forefront of Defense Department concerns
Attracting college-bound youth into the military toward the development of new recruiting policy options by Beth J Asch( )
4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,621 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Although the military's need for enlisted personnel has declined by almost one-third since the end of the cold war, the armed services are finding it difficult to meet their recruiting goals. Among ongoing changes in the civilian labor market is a strong demand for skilled labor, which has prompted an increasing number of "high quality" youth to pursue post-secondary education and subsequent civilian employment. Because of this competition for high quality youth, the Department of Defense may want to explore new options for attracting desirable young people into the armed forces. The military, for example, offers a myriad of options for service members to take college courses while in active service. However, the programs do not in fact generate significant increases in educational attainment during time in service. One popular program, the Montgomery GI Bill, enrolls large numbers of individuals, but the vast majority of service members use their benefits after separating from service. Thus, the military does not receive the benefits of a more educated and productive workforce, unless the individuals subsequently join a reserve component. The authors suggest the Department of Defense should consider nontraditional policy options to enhance recruitment of college-bound youth. Recruiters could target more thoroughly students on two-year college campuses, or dropouts from two- or four-year colleges. Options for obtaining some college before military service could be expanded by allowing high school seniors to first attend college, paid for by the military, and then enlist. Or the student might serve in a reserve component while in college and then enter an active component after college. Alternatively, the military could create an entirely new path for combining college and military service by encouraging enlisted veterans to attend college and then reenlist (at a higher pay grade). The most promising alternatives should be evaluated in a national experiment designed to test their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, similar to the one that led to the creation of the Army College Fund and the Navy College Fund
The emergence of noopolitik toward an American information strategy by John Arquilla( )
3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,581 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Strategy, at its best, knits together ends and means, no matter how various and disparate, into a cohesive pattern. In the case of a U.S. information strategy, this requires balancing the need to guard and secure access to many informational capabilities and resources, with the opportunity to achieve national aims by fostering as much openness as practicable. The authors' term to represent such strategic balancing is "guarded openness." They go on to describe "noopolitik" (nu-oh-poh-li-teek)--an emerging form of statecraft that emphasizes the importance of sharing ideas and values globally, principally through the exercise of persuasive "soft power" rather than traditional military "hard power." This study discusses the opportunities that may be raised by the emergence of noopolitik--ranging from construction of a noosphere (a globe-spanning realm of the mind) to recommendations that, for example, the U.S. military should begin to develop its own noosphere (among and between the services, as well as with U.S. allies). In the area of international cooperation, the authors offer strategic approaches for improving the capacity of state and nonstate actors to work together to address transnational problems. In addition, the authors recommend specific doctrinal developments, implied by the emergence of information strategy--including the pressing need to deal with such ethical concerns as the first use of information
Immigration in a changing economy California's experience by Kevin F McCarthy( )
7 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 1,573 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
California and its economy continue to draw benefits from immigration. However, a combination of much larger immigration flows and major changes in the state's economic environment have increased the costs of immigration, and unless current policies with regard to immigration and immigrants are changed, the benefits the state currently receives from immigrants may not continue. International immigration to California has steadily increased over the past 30 years and has profoundly affected the state's population and economy. Some observers of these changes are seeing the extreme diversity of California's population as the harbinger of where the nation is headed in the long term. For others, California has become the symbol of a major backlash against immigrants and immigration. How has California benefited from immigration? What impact have immigrants had on the state's job market? How have they affected the demand for federal and state services? What has been their educational and economic progress since their arrival? This book is the culmination of a comprehensive study of how immigration has changed over the past three decades. It assesses the impact immigration has had on the state's demography, economy, people, and institutions, with lessons to be drawn for other states, the nation, and even other countries
Married to the military the employment and earnings of military wives compared with those of civilian wives by James Hosek( )
4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 1,572 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Today's military is a military of families; many service members are married, and many of their spouses work and contribute to family income. But military wives earn less than civilian wives, and this study seeks to understand why. The authors find that military wives, knowing they are likely to move frequently, are willing to accept jobs that offer a lower wage rather than to use more of their remaining time at a location to find a higher-wage job. Compared with civilian wives, military wives tend to work somewhat less if they have young children but somewhat more if their children are older. The probability that military wives work declines with age, although it changes little with age in the civilian world. This probability declines more rapidly for wives with a college education, most of whom are officers' wives. Although it is often assumed that military families live in rural areas where the job opportunities for wives are poor, the authors found fairly small differences in the location of civilian versus military families. Finally, whereas in the civilian world an increase in the unemployment rate leads to a slight increase in the probability that wives worked during the year and the probability that they worked full-time (responding as "added workers" to the loss or threat of loss of their husbands' work), military wives appear to respond as workers with a more permanent attachment to the labor force
Hitting America's soft underbelly the potential threat of deliberate biological attacks against the U.S. agricultural and food industry by Peter Chalk( )
4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 1,567 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Over the past decade, the United States has endeavored to increase its ability to detect, prevent, and respond to terrorist threats and incidents. The agriculture sector and the food industry in general, however, have received comparatively little attention with respect to protection against terrorist incidents. This study aims to expand the current debate on domestic homeland security by assessing the vulnerabilities of the agricultural sector and the food chain to a deliberate act of biological terrorism. The author presents the current state of research on threats to agricultural livestock and produce, outlines the sector's importance to the U.S. economy, examines the capabilities that are needed to exploit the vulnerabilities in the food industry, and explores the likely outcomes of a successful attack. The author addresses the question of why terrorists have yet to employ agricultural assaults as a method of operation and offers proposed recommendations for the U.S. policymaking community
Command concepts a theory derived from the practice of command and control by Carl H Builder( )
4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,556 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The qualities of commanders and their ideas are more important to a general theory of command and control than are the technical and architectural qualities of their computers and communications systems. This theory separates the art of command and control (C2) from the hardware and software systems that support C2. It centers on the idea of a command concept, a commander's vision of a military operation that informs the making of command decisions during that operation. The theory suggests that the essential communications up and down the chain of command can (and should) be limited to disseminating, verifying, or modifying command concepts. The theory also suggests, as an extreme case, that an ideal command concept is one that is so prescient, sound, and fully conveyed to subordinates that it would allow the commander to leave the battlefield before the battle commences, with no adverse effect upon the out-come. This report advances a theory about military command and control. Then, through six historical case studies of modern battles, it explores the implications of the theory both for the professional development of commanders and for the design and evaluation of command and control architectures. The report should be of interest to members of the Joint Staff and the services involved in developing command and control doctrine for the U.S. military, and to all of those interested in the "military art and science" of command and control
Recent recruiting trends and their implications for models of enlistment supply by Michael P Murray( )
4 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and held by 1,553 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The authors estimate an econometric model of high-quality enlistment supply using geographically disaggregated data from two periods, FY83-87 and FY90-93. They find that econometric models based on data from the earlier period do not predict the recruiting difficulties reported by the military in the 1990s. This conforms to a preliminary assessment provided by Asch and Orvis (MR-549-A/OSD, 1994). The authors also find that econometric models estimated with the 1990s data give altered counsel about the effects of at least some policy variables, most notably the number of recruiters
Planning America's security lessons from the National Defense Panel by John E Tedstrom( )
3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,552 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report identifies key lessons from the first National Defense Panel (NDP) and makes recommendations to the Congress, the administration, and future NDP management teams about how the process can be made more effective. The NDP was established by the 1996 Military Force Structure Review Act as an independent effort to provide guidance to the Secretary of Defense and the Congress on long-term defense strategies and force structure requirements. This report reviews the motivations for creating the NDP, its administrative and logistical experience, the NDP's relationship to the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), and the final NDP report. Some of the principal recommendations are that (1) the NDP should maintain its focus on defense issues, but do more to integrate its recommendations into the broader national security agenda; (2) future NDPs should be better coordinated with the defense planning cycle (i.e., the next NDP, preceding the next QDR, should complete its work before the new administration comes into office in 2001); and (3) future NDPs should deal more systematically with resource constraints than the first NDP
Using the force and support costing system an introductory guide and tutorial ( )
3 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 1,532 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Force and Support Costing (FSC) System is a set of models and databases that helps analysts project the cost implications of proposed changes in defense forces, infrastructure, and assets. The user interface and many of the models are implemented in Excel; most of the database resides on a network. The illustrated study projects effects on defense costs arising from the deactivation of an Army division. The FSC system allows the user to view the force structure in the current Army program, select the division to be cut, and specify when the deactivation will occur. The system then translates that deactivation into reductions in personnel and equipment assets, and costs out the implications. In addition to stepping through the specific procedures for the simulation, the authors show other ways the FSC System can be used to analyze the cost effects of various policy actions
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses by Lee H Hilborne( )
2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 1,528 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Numerous Gulf War veterans have reported a range of illnesses and symptoms after serving in the Persian Gulf. Some of the reported symptoms are similar to those caused by diseases known to be prevalent in that region. This report discusses these infectious diseases and considers them as potential causes of the symptoms reported by the veterans. The authors present a short summary of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for several infectious diseases and infectious organisms, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Two biological agents, anthrax and botulinum toxin, are also discussed
Increasing a sense of community in the military the role of personnel support programs by Colette Van Laar( )
3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,511 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A universally accepted definition of what a sense of community is remains elusive, but policymakers agree that increasing that sense has tangible benefits for the U.S. military in improvements to commitment, performance, retention, and readiness. This report examines the role of the Defense Department's personnel support programs and focuses on nine tools for increasing sense of community: group symbols, rewards and honors, common external threat, making military membership attractive, group size and individuality, personal influence, personal investment, contact and proximity, and group activities. The report also analyzes which groups would most benefit from programs to increase a sense of community and how to avoid pitfalls when attempting to increase that sense
Gaining new military capability an experiment in concept development by J. L Birkler( )
3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1,495 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The process of modernizing U.S. military forces is the focus of this report. This process requires reinvigorating concept development efforts, thinking broadly about alternatives, and pursuing concept development before decisions are made about which services, which platforms, or which technologies are best suited for accomplishing current or new military tasks. In February and March 1996, RAND convened a concept options group (COG), which included broadly knowledgeable technologists drawn from a variety of scientific and engineering backgrounds, experienced military operators, and senior analysts and planners. By focusing on two specific military tasks, the COG considered options for using technologies that could enable U.S. forces to perform an existing military mission better, perform it differently, or gain a new capability. This report presents highlights from the COG discussions as well as some suggestions for convening future COGs
Assessing requirements for peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief by Bruce Pirnie( )
3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1,467 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The purpose of this study is to assess requirements for peace operations, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief, then to develop options for conducting such contingencies more effectively without detracting from the nation's capability to conduct major theater warfare. This study focuses on one aspect of requirements: those military units required to accomplish these types of operations. It reviews the history of operations during the period of interest, 1990-1996, assessing frequency, duration, and level of effort for each type of operation, expressed in military units. The authors then develop vignettes, or generalized patterns for each type of operation, to examine requirements--both peak strength and rotational demands--under broad projections of the level of future operations. Finally, they analyze implications for all armed services, but particularly for those Army units that are central to protracted land operations and those Air Force units that are required to secure no-fly zones and conduct strikes. The report concludes by recommending options that would improve capability. These options are mostly changes or adjustments at the margin, because U.S. forces have clearly demonstrated that they have sufficient capability to perform these operations successfully. The authors especially recommend organization of Army contingency brigades and air expeditionary forces optimized for close air support. Together, these would be a powerful, versatile force appropriate for a wide range of contingencies. The prospective audience includes decisionmakers and supporting staffs within the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff, and also the services for areas falling within their cognizance
Combating terrorism how prepared are state and local response organizations? by Lois M Davis( )
6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 1,452 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book presents the results of the third and final wave of a national survey to elicit assessments of state and local response agencies of the activities they have undertaken after 9/11 to respond to terrorist-related incidents and of federal programs intended to improve preparedness and readiness for terrorism
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses by William S Augerson( )
3 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 1,447 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
That Iraq had already used chemical warfare agents led coalition forces to take protective action. Yet many Gulf War veterans have reported a host of symptoms that could be construed as coming from exposure to chemical or biological weapons. The scientific literature on the effects of exposure to such agents suggests the following: Militarily effective doses of any of the agents reviewed would have produced severe health effectsthat would have required clinical treatment or resulted in death. However, since low-level exposures could have produced mild clinical signs that could have been overlooked or misinterpreted, it is not possible to rule out low-dose exposures to one or several classes of agents or the possibility of some resultant contribution to some of the symptoms Gulf War veterans have experienced. Still, it is difficult to believe that exposures affecting largenumbers of persons would escape clinical recognition. Further, no references in the literature report clinical symptoms developing years after exposure, as was the case in about 50 percent of the health problems Gulf War veterans have reported
Rethinking counterinsurgency by John Mackinlay( )
4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 1,431 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
British and U.S. counterinsurgency (COIN) operations have been slow to respond and adapt to the rise of the global jihadist insurgency, whose base of support is global and whose exploitation of the virtual dimension has outstripped the West's. After analyzing past British COIN experiences and comparing them to the evolving nature of the modern jihadist insurgency, the authors suggest a new framework for future COIN operations
 
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Alternative Names

controlled identity United States. Department of Defense

OSD
United States. Department of Defense. Office of Secretary of Defense
United States. Dept. of Defense. Office of the Secretary of Defense
United States. Office of the Secretary of Defense
Languages
English (121)
Chinese (1)
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