WorldCat Identities

Moerner, W. E. (William Esco) 1953-

Works: 73 works in 83 publications in 2 languages and 284 library holdings
Genres: Conference proceedings 
Roles: Author, Thesis advisor, Editor
Classifications: QC176.8.O58, 543.0858
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by W. E Moerner
Persistent spectral hole-burning : science and application by W. E Moerner( Book )
8 editions published in 1988 in English and German and held by 203 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book describes the underlying scientific fundamentals and principal phenomena associated with persistent spectral hole-burning in solids, and presents an overview of possible future applications to optical storage of digital data and optical signal processing. Organization of the material is by the general physical mechanism responsible for the formation of persistent spectral holes. After a description of the basic principles and methods of hole-burning, with examples from photochemical processes in crystalline and amorphous hosts, the unusual proton tunneling phenomena that occur in hydrogen-bonded polymers and glasses are described. Persistent spectral hole-burning in inorganic materials due either to photoionization or to photophysical effects is then summarized, followed by a detailed discussion of nonphotochemical hole-burning mechanisms for electronic transitions in amorphous solids. The book concludes with a description of potential applications to data storage and optical processsing using frequency-domain, holographic, and electric field techniques. Readers of this volume will gain a detailed appreciation of both the generality of the persistent spectral hole-burning phenomenon and the power of the technique in studying microscopic dynamics and mechanisms of phototransformation in low-temperature solids
Vibrational relaxation dynamics of an IR-laser-excited molecular impurity mode in alkali halide lattices by W. E Moerner( )
2 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Persistent spectral hole burning ( Book )
1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Single molecules and atoms ( Book )
1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Fluorophores for single-molecule imaging in living cells characterizing and optimizing DCDHF photophysics by Samuel Joseph Lord( )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The number of reports per year on single-molecule imaging experiments has grown roughly exponentially since the first successful efforts to optically detect a single molecule were completed over two decades ago. Single-molecule spectroscopy has developed into a field that includes a wealth of experiments at room temperature and inside living cells. The fast growth of single-molecule biophysics has resulted from its benefits in probing heterogeneous populations, one molecule at a time, as well as from advances in microscopes and detectors. There is a need for new fluorophores that can be used for single-molecule imaging in biological media, because imaging in cells and in organisms require emitters that are bright and photostable, red-shifted to avoid pumping cellular autofluorescence, and chemically and photophysically tunable. To this end, we have designed and characterized fluorescent probes based on a class of nonlinear-optical chromophores termed DCDHFs. This Dissertation describes various physical and optical studies on these emitters, from sensing local environment to photoactivation. Chapter 1 is a general introduction to fluorescence and single-molecule spectroscopy and imaging. Single-molecule experiments in living cells are discussed and probes used for such experiments are summarized and compared. Chapter 2 explores the basic photophysics of the DCDHF fluorophores and some general methods of measuring relevant spectroscopic parameters, including photostability. Chapter 3 discusses the various approaches we have taken to modify particular properties by changing the fluorophore's structure. We have redesigned the DCDHF fluorophore into a photoactivatable fluorogen--a chromophore that is nonfluorescent until converted to a fluorescent form using light--described in Chapter 4. Finally, a different, chemical route to fluorescence activation is presented in Chapter 5. The remainder of the Dissertation is the Appendix and a full Bibliography. The Appendix includes a table of photophysical parameter for DCDHF fluorophore, various protocols used in the experiments discussed, MatLab codes, and NMR spectra
Mechanisms of Photorefractivity in Polymeric Materials ( )
2 editions published between 1999 and 2004 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This grant has featured a multi-faceted effort to develop new photorefractive polymers, demonstrate previously unobserved physical effects, and most importantly, to understand the mechanisms controlling the performance. Significant progress has occurred in all areas. In the synthetic area, a modular approach to the synthesis of photorefractive polymers has been developed based on grafting of various functional components onto siloxane polymers and post-graft chemical modifications. We have thoroughly explored the class of host-guest photorefractive polymers based on poly(n-vinyl carbazole) and dicyanostyrene-containing nonlinear optical chromophores. These materials have shown gain coefficients up to 200/cm, and single-pass gain factors of 500 times, and grating growth times as small as 4 ms at 1 W/sq cm. These extremely high performance levels have led to the first observations of beam fanning, self-pumped phase conjugation, and the detection of laser-based ultrasound under this grant. In the mechanistic area, for the first time the active trapping species has been identified to be the fullerene anion, and the compensator species as the nonlinear optical chromophore. This should allow future optimization of space charge field, the phase shift, resolution, and the index modulation
Single-molecule optical detection, imaging and spectroscopy by W. E Moerner( )
2 editions published between 1996 and 2008 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Single Molecule Spectroscopy is one of the hottest topics in today's chemistry. It brings us close to the the most exciting vision generations of chemists have been dreaming of: To observe and examine single molecules!. While most of chemistry deals with myriads of molecules, this books presents the latest developments for the detection and investigation of single entities. Written by internationally renowned authors, it is a thorough and comprehensive survey of current methods and their applications
Reading and Writing of Photochemical Holes Using GaA1As Diode Lasers ( Book )
1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
A current tuned (gallium aluminum arsenide) diode laser is utilized both to burn and to detect narrow photochemical holes in the inhomogeneously broadened 833 nm zero phonon line of the R' color center in LiF. Applications for reading and writing data into frequency domain optical memories based on photochemical hole burning are discussed. (Author)
Development of techniques for live cell RNA imaging by Jungjoon Kempthorne Lee( )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The development of live cell RNA imaging techniques will lead to the unraveling of many important biological processes. To achieve this goal, there have been three different strategies developed. They are the development of small molecule probes, nucleic acid probes, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) probes. In the following thesis, the pros and cons of each approach are discussed, followed by a proposal to resolve the limitations. In the small molecule case, a probe was developed that utilized a quenched sulforhodamine dye. It was designed so that its structure can be rationally modified from the initial lead compound. An aptamer sequence that activates the sulforhodamine probe with micro molar affinity was found by in vitro Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX), followed by fluorescence screening in E.coli. The rational modification of the structure of the initial sulforhodamine probe resulted in an overall 33-fold increase in binding affinity compared to the initial lead compound. Instead of the chemical modification of the lead compound, the small molecule's cell permeability and binding affinity to the target could be improved by linking to cell penetrating peptides (CPP). A CPP is a short peptide sequence composed of poly arginine amino acids which shows excellent cell uptake and affinity to RNA. However, the use of the CPP-linked dye in live cell imaging has been limited by strong signals in the endosome region. An attempt was made to overcome this difficulty by linking a quencher molecule to the dye-CPP via a disulfide bond, which only breaks when it enters the cytosol. For the nucleic acid probe, the major problem was its low cell permeability and low signal-to-background ratio due to the low copy number of mRNA targets within the cell. We made mutant Hammerhead ribozymes and embedded them in a non-coding region of the GFP expression vector that can be transfected to mammalian cells. This modified Hammerhead ribozyme acts as a logic gate, and the signal is amplified by the expression of GFP in the presence of the target mRNA. In vitro and in vivo results are discussed. Finally, a fragmented GFP system, the fluorescence of which could be recovered by binding to a specific RNA tag, was developed. The major problem for the GFP-mediated RNA imaging system was the low signal-to-background ratio from the GFP probe that is not bound to the RNA tag. To find the non-fluorescent GFP, the GFP was truncated from the C-terminus such that it loses its fluorescence with minimum loss of amino acids. An RNA sequence that has high affinity to this GFP was found by in vitro SELEX. The subsequent E.coli screening found an RNA sequence that reactivates the fluorescence of the GFP probe
Mechanisms and applications of photorefractivity in new polymer composites by W. E Moerner( Visual )
1 edition published in 1997 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Dynamical Hole-Burning Requirements for Frequency Domain Optical Storage ( Book )
1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Persistent spectral hole burning (PHB) is a frequency selective bleaching phenomenon that potentially provides a new dimension for optical storage of information, if suitable materials can be found. In the most general form of PHB, narrow depressions or holes are formed (burned) in an inhomogeneously broadened absorption line of an absorber in a solid at low temperatures whenever light absorption causes a change in the absorbing center that persists longer than any excited state lifetime. Previously studied materials involve monophotonic mechanisms for the photochemical or photophysical change leading to hole formation; such mechanisms have serious limitations as to the number of reads that can be performed without distortion of the written data. Recently, photon gated spectral hole burning has been observed in both inorganic and organic materials, indicating that nondestructive reading of spectral holes is possible. This talk will focus on the properties of the organic photon gated material in particular and describe the properties of what might be termed an ideal photon gated system. Keywords: Frequency domain optical storage, Photon gating, Biphotonic, and Nondestructive reading
Photon-Gated Persistent Spectral Hole-Burning ( Book )
1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This article reviews recent progress in the area of photon gated persistent spectral hole burning, in which one photon selects absorbers in an inhomogeneously broadened line and a second gating photon of a different wavelength completes the excitation necessary to produce a spectral hole. This phenomenon provides a crucial threshold in the hole formation process, allowing reading with the first wavelength alone to be nondestructive. Examples of photo gating in both inorganic and organic materials are summarized, with emphasis of the organic materials. Keywords: Photo gating; Persistent spectral hole burning; Frequency domain optical storage
Coupling fluorophores to nanophotonic structures by Anika Amir Kinkhabwala( )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is an important tool in many areas of research. Biology has particularly benefitted from fluorescence techniques, since a single molecule's position, local environment, and even activity can be studied in real time by tagging it with a fluorescent label. It is, therefore, important to be able to understand and manipulate fluorescence. One way to control fluorescence is to shape the local electromagnetic fields that excite the fluorescent molecule. This thesis studies the interaction between fluorescent molecules and two nanophotonic structures that highly modify local electromagnetic fields: the bowtie nanoantenna and the photonic crystal cavity. The study of plasmons, or coherent excitations of free electrons in a metal, has led to the fabrication of antennas at optical frequencies. In particular, gold bowtie nanoantennas have been shown to concentrate light from the diffraction limit at 800 nm (~300 nm) down to ~20 nm, while also enhancing the local electric field intensity by a factor of 1,000. This huge change in the local field greatly alters the absorption and fluorescence emission of nearby molecules. This thesis will show that the fluorescence from an initially-poor single-molecule emitter can be enhanced by a factor of 1,300, allowing for the measurement of one highly enhanced molecule over a background of 1,000 unenhanced molecules. By extending this experiment to molecules in solution, dynamics of single molecules in concentrated solutions can also be measured. While bowtie nanoantennas act to concentrate light, light does not remain in the structure for long. The photonic crystal cavity can be used to trap and store light, which has interesting implications for molecular emitters located nearby. This thesis will show that molecules can be lithographically positioned onto a photonic crystal cavity and that the molecule's fluorescence emission is coupled to the cavity modes
Mechanisms of Photorefractivity in Polymeric Materials ( )
1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This grant features a dual-edged effort of physical measurement (at Stanford) and synthesis (at the Kent State subcontractor) to develop new photorefractive polymers, demonstrate previously unobserved physical effects, and most importantly, to understand the mechanisms controlling the performance. This collaboration between Stanford and Kent, has successfully developed several new classes of materials which have been explored in detail using thermal, optical, electrical, and photorefractive measurements. Using our faster materials, we have demonstrated two new applications for photorefractive polymers: image amplification/novelty filtering, near-infrared response in a glassy photorefractive, and adaptive beamsplitting for detection of laser-generated ultrasound
Statistical Fine Structure of Inhomogeneously Broadened Absorption Lines ( Book )
1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Using laser frequency-modulation spectroscopy; we have observed statistical fine structure (SFS) in the inhomogeneously broadened optical absorption of pentacene in p-terphenyl at liquid helium temperatures. SFS is the actual frequency-dependent, time-independent structure of the inhomogeneous line caused by the randomly varying number of centers in each frequency interval. The size of the SFS varies as the square root of the number of centers, and the autocorrelation of the SFS yields and estimate of the homogeneous linewidth without requiring spectral hole-burning or coherent transients. Keywords: Spectroscopy of defects in solids; Molecular spectroscopy; Statistical effects
Statistical Fine Structure in the Inhomogeneously Broadened Electronic Origin of Pentacene in p-Terphenyl ( Book )
1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Recently, the first observation of statistical fine structure on an inhomogeneously broadened absorption profile was reported (W.E. Moerner, T.P. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59,2705(1987) for mixed crystals of pentacene in p-terphenyl using laser FM spectroscopy. Statistical fine structure is time-independent structure on the inhomogeneous line caused by statistical variations, in the spectral density of absorbers in each frequency interval. In this work, a model and an analysis of statistical fine structure using autocorrelation techniques are presented, and the dependence of the effect for pentacene in p-terphenyl at 1.4K on modulating frequency, detection phase, sample position, center concentration, and site is described. Keywords: Statistical fine structure, Inhomogeneous broadening, Molecular spectroscopy, Defects, Solids
Enabling multivariate investigation of single-molecule dynamics in solution by counteracting Brownian motion by Quan Wang( )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Although single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has developed into a mature toolkit that allows one to follow the dynamical behaviors of individual biomolecules in exquisite detail, its application in the solution phase is often limited by Brownian diffusion of the nanometer-sized biomolecules to only a 1-millisecond observation window. To remove this limitation while avoiding potential perturbation via immobilization, a device known as the Anti-Brownian ELectrokinetic (ABEL) trap has been developed to counteract Brownian motion that combines position-sensitive fluorescence detection and closed-loop feedback based on electrokinetic forces in a microfluidic geometry. This dissertation describes my work on recent methodology developments and new applications of the ABEL trap technology. First, we describe an optimal redesign of the feedback control strategy that operates close to the ultimate physical limits imposed by diffraction, shot-noise, photobleaching and information bandwidth provided by fluorescence emission. This advanced system greatly improves the capability to hold individual proteins and oligonucleotides in buffer solution and enables multivariate interrogation of single-molecule dynamics for as long as 30 seconds in a non-perturbative aqueous environment. Next, we combine multimodal fluorescence detection with the ABEL trap and illustrate its power using single organic fluorophores and a photosynthetic protein as examples. Direct observation of the synchronized dynamics of different fluorescence parameters reveals the internal states of a single nano-emitter and the interconversions between these states on a 1-second timescale in solution. Last, we show that by applying machine-learning techniques to the ABEL trap's photon data stream, a single molecule's diffusive and electric-field-induced motion parameters can be extracted in real-time during its residence in the trap. We demonstrate how this new measurement paradigm enables molecule-by-molecule sensing of size and charge heterogeneity and their fluctuations at the nanoscale. Two biophysical applications are illustrated: resolving the heterogeneous molecular mixture along a multimeric protein dissociation pathway and real-time visualization of the binding/unbinding interactions between single DNA strands
Mechanisms of Photorefractivity in Polymeric Materials ( )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This six month grant provided a continuation at Stanford University of AFOSR Grant No. F49620-96-1-0135, which ended 31 Mar 1999 at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). During the period of this grant, accomplishments are of note. A major study of the effect of nonlinear chromophore energetic on the several speed of photorefractive polymers showed that rational design can improve the properties of these materials. Second, the entire laboratory moved from UCSD to Stanford University in July 1999. During this time, a major review article on photorefractive polymers for the Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Technology was completed (Pub. 171). Finally, in the new laboratories at Stanford, a first demonstration of fast image amplification with photorefractive polymers was completed
Advanced single molecule fluorescence analysis and force spectroscopy to understand myosin motors by Jongmin Sung( )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Myosins are actin-based molecular motor proteins that are associated with numerous cellular functions both in muscle and non-muscle cells. In the past decades, single molecule biophysics has provided many useful in-vitro techniques that enable one to understand detailed molecular mechanisms of myosin-actin interaction. I will describe our results and continuing efforts in (i) single-molecule fluorescence localization analysis with TIRF microscopy, and (ii) single-molecule force spectroscopy with optical traps to understand myosin motors. Our theoretical point-spread function combined with maximum-likelihood-estimation precisely extracts both positions and orientations of fixed fluorescent molecules simultaneously. This approach is now mature as a structural tool, and I have applied it to two examples: myosin V labeled with a fixed dye walking on actin filaments, and dsDNA with two differently colored probes doubly attached to its backbone. We experimentally show that our method is not only precise but also accurate. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (HCM) are common genetic heart diseases that are often caused by single point mutations, especially in human beta cardiac myosin II. Using an optical trap assay, we found that the human beta cardiac myosin with the R453C HCM-causing mutation produces significantly elevated intrinsic force. We further developed a new method called harmonic force spectroscopy that can extract a force-velocity curve from a single cardiac myosin molecule. We found that a strong-to-weak transition of a cardiac myosin bound to an actin filament is modulated by an external load, which can be explained by simple Arrhenius transition theory
Optical Detection and Probing of Single Dopant Molecules of Pentacene in a p-Terphenyl Crystal by Means of Absorption Spectroscopy ( Book )
1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Optical absorption lines of impurity molecules or ions in a solid matrix are usually subject to inhomogeneous broadening, thereby reflecting various imperfections in the structure of the host material. The inhomogeneous distribution can be roughly described by a Gaussian profile. A fundamental statistical fine structure (SFS) is superimposed on the smooth Gaussian curve. Using a combination of laser frequency-modulation absorption spectroscopy and either Stark, longitudinal ultrasonic, or transverse ultrasonic internal modulation, the optical absorption spectrum of a single impurity molecule of pentacene in p-terphenyl crystal may be measured at liquid helium temperatures. The general properties of this detection method are illustrated by first applying the technique to the detection of persistent spectral holes in the pentancene/p-terphenyl system. Selection of a single absorber for-measurement is accomplished by tuning the probing laser far out into the wings fo the inhomogeneously broadened 0-0 absorption lines for either the 0(1) or 0(2) sites. The single-molecule line shape is similar to that predicted by a simple model of the double-modulation process. The approximate amplitude of the single- molecule signals suggests that triplet bottleneck power broadening is suppressed for out in the wings of the inhomogenous line. This work probes the ultimate N=1 limit of the statistical fine structure present in all inhomogenous absorption lines
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Alternative Names
Moerner, W. E.
Moerner, William E. 1953-
Moerner, William E. (William Esco), 1953-
Moerner, William Esco 1953-
English (28)
German (2)