WorldCat Identities

Holonyak, Nick 1928-

Works: 28 works in 37 publications in 2 languages and 347 library holdings
Classifications: QC611, 621.38152
Publication Timeline
Publications about  Nick Holonyak Publications about Nick Holonyak
Publications by  Nick Holonyak Publications by Nick Holonyak
Most widely held works about Nick Holonyak
Most widely held works by Nick Holonyak
Physical properties of semiconductors by Charles M Wolfe ( Book )
8 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 315 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A collection of Professor John Bardeen's publications on semiconductors and superconductivity by John Bardeen ( Book )
1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Effect of surface conditions on characteristics of rectifier junctions by Nick Holonyak ( Book )
3 editions published in 1954 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Growth of III-V semiconductor lasers on silicon by William Edward Plano ( )
1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The growth of reliable III-V semiconductor lasers on Si would be a significant step toward the fabrication of an opto-electronic integrated circuit, but reliable III-V semiconductor lasers grown on Si have yet to be reported. Many problems not encountered when growing III-V lasers on III-V substrates must be overcome before III-V lasers grown on Si become reliable. In the experiments described here many different methods are used to try to improve the reliability of III-V lasers grown on Si. Data are presented showing that impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) can be greatly accelerated when an abundance of dislocations are present. The high dislocation density of III-V materials grown on Si makes this a problem that cannot be overlooked. This problem can be minimized but it puts limits on the kind of thermal processing that can be done to a III-V laser grown on Si. Perhaps the most difficult problem encountered when growing III-V lasers on Si is dislocations. If the dislocation density can be reduced, then lasers grown on Si should become more reliable. Several methods of reducing the dislocation density of III-V lasers grown on Si have been tried. Data are presented showing the Zn diffusions, strained layer superlattices, and lattice matched buffer layers are all somewhat effective at lowering the dislocation density. The high dislocation density of III-V lasers grown on Si makes InGaAs strained layer active lasers on Si an unlikely possibility because the dislocations tend to accumulate at the active region of these structures where dislocations are the most damaging. Growth of III-V lasers on patterned GaAs-on-Si wafers has also been investigated. Growing over a selective area should reduce some strain and possibly lower the dislocation density. Data are presented showing that the dislocation density can be reduced by selective area epitaxy. But other problems arise when growing over a selective area and make device fabrication more difficult
III-V Semiconductor Quantum Well Lasers and Related Optoelectronic Devices on Silicon by Nick Holonyak ( Book )
1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The research goal is to further develop quantum well heterostructure (QWH) lasers and to realize reliable Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs QWH lasers on Si. In spite of the significant lattice and thermal expansion mismatch between GaAs and Si, the idea of splicing III-V semiconductor technology, i.e., optoelectronics and photonics, onto Si has obvious appeal. Adding to this is the fact, as shown earlier in this work, that cw 300 K Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs QWH lasers can be grown on Si, and that the Si substrate serves as a better heat sink than GaAs. This makes possible the right-side-up heat sinking needed for electronic-photonic integrated circuits. This report contains research results on quantum well heterostructures on Si, impurity-induced layer disordering, phonon-assisted laser operations and other laser studies. (jhd)
Novel Engineered Compound Semiconductor Heterostructures for Advanced Electronics Applications by G. E Stillman ( Book )
1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
To provide the technology base that will enable SDIO capitalization on the performance advantages offered through novel engineered multiple-layered compound semiconductor structures, this project has focussed on three specific areas: (1) carbon doping of AlGaAs/GaAs and InP/InGaAs materials for reliable high frequency heterojunction bipolar transistors; (2) impurity induced layer disordering and the environmental degradation of Al(x)Ga(l-x)As-GaAs quantum- well heterostructures and the native oxide stabilization of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs quantum well heterostructure lasers; and (3) non-planar and strained-layer quantum well heterostructure lasers and laser arrays. The accomplishments in this three year research are reported in fifty-six publications and the abstracts included in this report
Operational characteristics and grating tuning of quantum well heterostructure lasers by Douglas Carleton Hall ( )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Data are presented on Al$sb{rm y}$Ga$sb{rm 1-y}$As-GaAs-In$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As quantum well heterostructure diode lasers showing that the large band filling range of a combined GaAs-In$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As quantum well makes possible a very large tuning range in external grating cavity operation. The bandfilling and gain profile are shown to be continuous from the In$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As quantum well (L$sb{rm z}sim 125$ A, x $sim 0.2)$ up into the surrounding GaAs quantum well (L$sb{rm z}sim$ 430 A). Continuous (cw) 300 K tunable laser operation in the 8700-9700 A range ($Deltalambdasim$ 1000 A, $Delta$h$nusim$ 150 meV) and pulsed tunable operation in the 8450-9750 A range ($Deltalambdasim$ 1300 A, $Delta$h$nusim$ 200 meV) is demonstrated. The prospects for developing a high-power, broadly tunable, long-wavelength diode laser source are also discussed. Other data are presented on the operational and thermal characteristics of Al$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As-GaAs quantum well heterostructure diode lasers grown on Si substrates. It is shown experimentally that "junction-up" operation (for diodes mounted with the junction side away from the heat sink and thus with the heat dissipated through the substrate) is enhanced for lasers on Si substrates. The higher thermal conductivity of Si reduces the measured thermal impedance of GaAs-on-Si lasers by $sim$40% compared to lasers on GaAs. Continuous 300 K operation for over 10 h is demonstrated for a junction-up GaAs-on-Si diode laser. The effects of naturally occurring microcracks on the optical and electrical properties and operational stability of these devices are discussed. Data are presented showing cw 300 K operation for over 17 h for a GaAs-on-Si diode laser with stress-relieving microcracks running parallel to and inside the active laser stripe. The maximum cw 300 K output power for these devices ($sim$30 mW/facet) is shown to be limited by catastrophic facet degradation rather than accelerated optical degradation of the crystal at higher power levels. The low-temperature (77-200K) cw operational characteristics of these cw 300 K GaAs-on-Si QWH diode lasers are also examined. Operation is demonstrated for over 500 h with a junction temperature as high as $sim$200 K for a diode previously operated cw 300 K for over 10 h with its junction side mounted away from the heat sink. The data indicate that cw 300 K lifetimes longer than the previously demonstrated 17 h may be possible. The effects of the optical power level on the degradation rate are examined
Native oxidation of aluminum-bearing III-V semiconductors with applications to edge- and surface-emitting lasers and to the stabilization of light emitting diodes by Timothy Allen Richard ( )
1 edition published in 1995 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
In this work, a water vapor oxidation process is used to convert high Al composition $rm Alsb{x}Gasb{1-x}As$ to a stable native oxide. The native oxides described are formed at temperatures in the range of 400$rmspcirc C$ to 500$rmspcirc C.$ Some of the basic properties of the native oxide are described. These properties include the insulating and diffusion masking nature of the oxide as well as the anisotropic behavior of the oxidation process. The high quality native oxide is then applied to laser devices in the $rm Alsb{x}Gasb{1-x}$As-GaAs and $rm Alsb{y}Gasb{1 -y}$As-GaAs-In$rmsb{x}Gasb{1-x}As$ material systems and to the stabilization of $rm Alsb{y}Gasb{1-y}As$-$rm Insb{0.5}(Alsb{x}Gasb{1-x})sb{0.5}P$ light emitting diodes. Data are presented on a high-performance native-oxide coupled-stripe $rm Alsb{y}Gasb{1-y}As$-GaAs-In$rmsb{x}Gasb{1-x}As$ quantum well heterostructure laser array realized by the "wet" oxidation of the upper $rm Alsb{y}Gasb{1-y}As$ confining layer for current definition. Also, data are presented on the (300 K and 77 K) continuous photopumped laser operation of oxide-embedded $rm Alsb{y}Gasb{1-y}As$-GaAs-In$rmsb{x}Gasb{1-x}As$ quantum-well heterostructures. The active region is sandwiched within native-oxide-semiconductor stacks. The native-oxide layers are formed after crystal growth by selectively oxidizing along high Al-composition heterolayers. The active region is shown to remain intact without any significant degradation in laser performance. The oxide-embedded laser structure is optimized for vertical-cavity laser operation utilizing large-index-step high-contrast distributed Bragg reflector mirrors formed by the selective lateral oxidation process. Edge- and vertical-cavity photopumped operations of devices with short period upper and lower mirrors are demonstrated. The vertical-cavity lasers also exhibit "hot"-carrier recombination. Finally, data are presented on the electrical behavior and the reliabillty of post-fabrication native-oxide-passivated visible-spectrum AlGaAs-In(AlGa)P p-n heterostructure light emitting diodes (LEDs). The LEDs are oxidized after metallization, thus sealing all of the exposed AlGaAs crystal at cracks, fissures, and edges against atmospheric hydrolysis without degrading their light-output characteristics. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the oxide-passivated LEDs are shown to exhibit normal p-n diode behavior. Above all, the reliability of the oxidized devices in high-humidity conditions is greatly improved compared to those of otherwise identical unoxidized LEDs
Characteristics, Theory and Modeling of the Transistor Laser by Han Wui Then ( )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The transistor laser possesses advantageous characteristics of fast base spontaneous carrier lifetime, high differential optical gain, and unique three-terminal electrical-optical characteristics for direct ⁰́₋read-out⁰́₊ of its optical properties. These potentially lead to advantageous and useful features for designing high-speed optical transmitters that operate without the limitations of resonance, a feature common in the operation of semiconductor (two-terminal) diode lasers. The characteristics of the transistor laser are studied by considering the charge transport, and the coupling of the photon and quantum-mechanical electron-hole recombination dynamics in the operation of the transistor laser. An analytical understanding of these physical characteristics is developed based on experimental data, and a computational model of the transistor laser is developed for device engineering and circuit design applications
Physics in industry by American Institute of Physics ( Recording )
1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Among the speakers are: N. Bruce Hannay, "Innovation in Industry;" John S. Toll, "University/Industrial Research;" Paul Chenea, "Management of Industrial Research and Development;" Robert Stratton, "The Future Challenge for Science;" Alec N. Broers, "Ultraviolet, X-ray and Electron Methods for Microstructure;" Hans Frauenfelder, "Physics of Heme Proteins;" N. Holonyak, "Solid State Light Emitters;" John A. Wheeler, "Physics in Industry: the Human Factor;" Alfred O.C. Nier, "Challenges of Physical Measurements on Mars;" Robert L. Hirsch, "Status and Future Directions for Solar, Geothermal and Fusion Energy;" Charles K. Rhodes, "Laser Photochemistry;" Kip S. Thorne, "Gravitational Waves--A Probe of Our Violent Universe."
Selective oxidation of aluminum-bearing III-V semiconductors: Properties and applications to small-volume quantum well heterostructure lasers by Michael John Ries ( )
1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
In this work, the water-vapor oxidation of Al-bearing III-V compound semiconductors is used to fabricate small-volume semiconductor light-emitting devices. The oxidized material, native to the crystal, is mechanically and chemically stable. In addition, it is electrically insulating and has a low refractive index making it useful for defining optical cavities and current paths. The oxidation rate is sensitive to the Al composition of the material, permitting selective oxidation of "buried" high-Al-composition layers. The selective oxidation of "buried" layers is used in this work to fabricate laser cavities that are small in volume. Small-volume cavities, called microcavities, are known to exert control over the recombination of carriers within the cavity, and may be exploited to create devices with improved laser characteristics. In this work, the embedded oxide is used to form the distributed Bragg reflecting (DBR) mirrors of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), resulting in a very high index-contrast mirror and, consequently, a very compact VCSEL cavity that exhibits microcavity effects very strongly. Another form of microcavity, the microdisk laser, is fabricated using the oxide process. The microdisk laser (10 $mu$m in diameter) rests on the low-index, thermally conductive native oxide and exhibits laser modes characteristic of "whispering gallery" modes propagating around the perimeter of the disk. Low threshold pump intensities indicate that these microdisk lasers are high-Q cavities. By combining impurity-induced layer disordering (IILD) with the oxidation process, a planar minidisk laser is fabricated. The minidisk laser is larger in diameter (37 $mu$m) and is entirely planar. The minidisk laser operates in "whispering gallery" modes around the perimeter of the disk, indicating the feasibility of the combination of processes in fabricating disk lasers. The same IILD + oxidation process is used to fabricate a two-dimensional active photonic lattice that is comprised of $sim$9-$mu$m microdisk lasers that are arranged in a triangular (hexagonal close-packed) lattice arrangement. The disks are closely spaced (11-$mu$m center-to-center spacing) such that they are strongly coupled. As a result of the coupling of the disks, the photonic lattice exhibits laser operation in bands of energy located around the microdisk modes. In addition, the photonic lattice emits beams of energy along six symmetrical "crystal" directions. The details of photonic lattice fabrication and characterization are described
Phonon-assisted laser operation of III-V semiconductor quantum well heterostructures by Derek Wusi Nam ( )
1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Data are presented demonstrating that the control of the edge-to-edge resonator Q across a cleaved rectangular sample is essential in identifying unambiguously photopumped phonon-assisted laser operation of Al$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As-GaAs quantum well heterostructures (QWHs), strained-layer Al$sb{rm y}$Ga$sb{rm 1-y}$As-GaAs-In$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As (x $sim$ 0.15) QWHs, and Al$sb{0.5}$(In$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$)$sb{0.5}$P (x $sim$ 0.2) QWHs. If the QWH sample is heat sunk in metal under a sapphire window, with reflecting metal folded upward along the cleaved edges, the resonator Q across the sample is high, and laser operation across the sample on confined-particle states and along the sample on a phonon sideband is observed. If the sample edges across the sample are left uncoated (weakly reflecting, low Q), only phonon-assisted laser operation is observed. Comparison of the high-Q and the low-Q photo-excitation configurations, as well as the abrupt turn-on of laser operation in a narrow spectral range one phonon energy below the lowest confined-particle state, leads to unambiguous identification of phonon-assisted laser operation of Al$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As-GaAs QWHs, strained layer Al$sb{rm y}$Ga$sb{rm 1-y}$As-GaAs-In$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As (x $sim$ 0.5) QWHs, and Al$sb{0.5}$(In$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$)$sb{0.5}$P (x $sim$ 0.2) QWHs
Layer disordering and aluminum-gallium interchange in aluminum gallium arsenide-gallium arsenide quantum well heterostructures by Louis Joseph Guido ( )
1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
In the experiments described here, Al$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As-GaAs superlattice and quantum well heterostructure (QWH) crystals have been used as test vehicles to study Al-Ga interdiffusion. The data demonstrate that Al-Ga interchange is strongly influenced by the interdependence of the crystal surface-ambient interaction and the Fermi-level effect. We have investigated the crystal surface-ambient interaction by varying both the surface encapsulation condition (e.g., SiO$sb2$-cap, Si$sb3$N$sb4$-cap) and the anneal ambient (As-rich, Ga-rich). The Fermi-level effect has been examined for QWH crystals doped with either donor or acceptor impurities during crystal growth and annealed, and for crystals converted to n-type conductivity by high-temperature Si diffusion or by Si$sp+$ ion implantation and annealing. The data show that Al-Ga interchange is enhanced for n-type samples annealed under As-rich conditions, and for p-type samples annealed under Ga-rich conditions. These trends suggest that acceptor native defects (V$sb{rm III}$) and donor native defects (I$sb{rm III}$, V$sb{rm As}$) are responsible for Al-Ga interdiffusion in n-type and p-type samples, respectively. By varying the anneal As$sb4$ over-pressure we have demonstrated that the degree of Al-Ga interchange does not increase monotonically for n-type samples as expected for a simple Column III vacancy controlled process. In addition, we show that the activation energy for Al-Ga interdiffusion (E$sb{rm Al-Ga}$) is reduced by $sbsim$2 eV for n-type samples as compared to nominally undoped samples. These results indicate that E$sb{rm Al-Ga}$ can be used to label the various Al-Ga interdiffusion regimes and, thereby, provide for more accurate identification of the native defect species involved in the interchange process. Furthermore, by employing three single-well QWH crystals that differ only in the location of the QW relative to the crystal surface, we demonstrate that the Al-Ga interchange mechanism is depth-dependent because of the re-equilibration of native defect concentrations at the crystal free surface. Finally, we report on Si$sp+$ ion implantation experiments that demonstrate enhanced Si$sp+$-IILD for very low implant doses, hence minimizing the effects of implant damage
Process Development for High Speed Transistor Laser Operation by Adam L James ( )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The transistor laser (TL) o ers advantages over conventional diode laser structure. The TL uses high base doping and minority carrier collection to reduce the recombination lifetime in the active region of the device to <30 ps. A fast recombination lifetime <30 ps reduces the photon-carrier resonance when modulating the device at RF frequencies. However, the transistor laser with high intrinsic optical speed is limited by more than just internal recombination lifetime; it is also limited by parasitic resistances and capacitances. Small signal bandwidth of 20 GHz and digital modulation of 20 Gbit/s was obtained by reducing or eliminating extrinsic parasitics which limit device performance through the optimization of device geometry and process conditions
Native oxides on aluminum-bearing III-V semiconductors with applications to single-mode behavior, bistability and switching by Nada Abdullatif El-Zein ( )
1 edition published in 1995 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
In this work, water vapor oxidation of Al-bearing III--V semiconductors is employed to form high quality native oxides. The native oxides described are formed at temperatures in the range of 400$spcirc$C to 450$spcirc$C. Some of the basic properties of the oxide are first described. The properties include the insulating and diffusion masking nature of the oxide as well as its low index of refraction. Device-quality insulating oxides are demonstrated in the $rm Alsb{x}Gasb{1-x}$As-GaAs and $rm Alsb{y}Gasb{1-y}$As-GaAs-$rm Insb{x}Gasb{1-x}As$ systems and are employed for current confinement in stripe-geometry gain guided laser diodes. The insulating properties and low refractive index (n $sim$ 1.6) of AlGaAs native oxide are employed to fabricate single-longitudinal-mode planar native-oxide AlGaAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructure (QWH) laser diodes. This is done by patterning the stripes into a linear array. Data are also presented on the use of the native oxide to obtain switching and bistability with large hysteresis when fabricating laser diodes. Three-terminal bistable devices are examined. Finally, data are presented on the wavelength selectivity of the native oxide bistable devices
Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As 1-xP x) junctions by Nick Holonyak ( Book )
1 edition published in 1962 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Impurity-induced layer disordering and hydrogenation in the indium aluminum gallium phosphide material system : visible-spectrum semiconductor lasers by John Michael Dallesasse ( )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The development of visible-spectrum semiconductor lasers is of immense economic and practical importance. Because of the extremely high efficiency of semiconductor lasers, coherent visible light sources can be made with extremely low power requirements. Applications for such sources include high-density optical storage units and optical communications. Additionally, the use of multiple-stripe arrays makes high-power ($gg$200 mW per facet) coherent semiconductor light sources a possibility. In this work, various aspects of the problems involved in constructing visible-spectrum semiconductor lazers are discussed. First, the difficulties in obtaining reliable devices near the direct-indirect crossover of the $rm Alsb{x}Gasb{1-x}$As-GaAs material system are discussed. Hydrolysis of high Al-content buried layers via interaction of water vapor in the air with the crystal at pinholes and cleaved edges is found to result in slow decomposition of QWH material. Next, the $rm Insb{1-y}(Alsb{x} Gasb{1-x})sb{y}$P material system is put forth as the material system of choice for the construction of visible-spectrum semiconductor lasers. Data are shown on the continuous-wave (cw) room-temperture operation of oxide-stripe lasers. Two important techniques for the realization of high performance device operation are next described. The first of these, impurity-induced layer disordering (IILD), is useful for the construction of low-threshold single-stripe lasers, high-power multistripe lasers, and high beam-quality devices. The disordering of $rm Insb{1-y} (Alsb{x} Gasb{1-x})sb{y}$P heterolayers via Si and Ge diffusion is first examined via shallow-angle slant cross-sectioning, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and photoluminescence (PL) on as-grown and disordered InAlP-InGaP superlattice (SL) crystals. Disordering via Si diffusion is then applied to the fabrication of buried heterostructure visible-spectrum lasers. These devices operate at room temperature under pulsed excitation ($lambda$ $sim$ 6395 A) and cw at $-$47$spcirc$C ($lambda$ $sim$ 6255 A). Finally, hydrogenation is examined in the $rm Insb{1-y} (Alsb{x} Gasb{1-x}) sb{y}$P material system. This technique allows the construction of gain-guided single- and multiple-stripe lasers. The effect of hydrogen plasma exposure at elevated temperatures on the fundamental material properties is first examined. Photoluminescence is used to examine recombination efficiency, electrochemical carrier concentration profiling is used to examine carrier passivation, and scanning electron microscopy is used to look at surface degradation. Hydrogenation is then applied to the construction of single-stripe gain-guided lasers. These devices operate cw room temperature at a wavelength of 6395 A
Hot Electrons in Layered Semiconductors ( Book )
1 edition published in 1980 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Solid state physical electronics series ( )
in English, Old and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Atom diffusion and impurity-induced layer disordering in quantum well III-V semiconductor heterostructures by Dennis Glenn Deppe ( )
1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The process of impurity-induced layer disordering (IILD), or layer intermixing, in Al$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As-GaAs quantum-well heterostructures (QWHs) and superlattices (SLs), and in related III-V quantum well heterostructures, has developed extensively. A large variety of experimental data on IILD are discussed and provide newer information and further perspective on crystal self-diffusion, impurity diffusion, and also the important defect mechanisms that control diffusion in Al$sb{rm x}$Ga$sb{rm 1-x}$As-GaAs, and in related III-V semiconductors. Based on the behavior of Column III vacancies and Column III interstitials, models for the crystal self-diffusion and impurity diffusion that describe IILD are presented and shown to be consistent with available experimental data. We mention that it may be possible to realize even more advanced device structures using IILD, for example, quantum well wires or quantum well boxes. These will require an even greater understanding of the mechanisms (crystal processes) that control IILD, as well as require more refined methods of pattern definition, masking procedures, and crystal processing
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Holonyak, N. 1928-