WorldCat Identities

Pritchett, Lant

Overview
Works: 202 works in 570 publications in 1 language and 4,825 library holdings
Genres: Cross-cultural studies 
Roles: Author, Thesis advisor, Honoree
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 339.46091724
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by Lant Pritchett
Moving out of poverty by Deepa Narayan-Parker( Book )

21 editions published between 2007 and 2010 in English and held by 432 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The global moving out of poverty study is unique in several respects. It is one of the few large-scale comparative research efforts to focus on mobility out of poverty rather than on poverty alone. The study draws together the experiences of poor women and men who have managed to move out of poverty over time and the processes and local institutions that have helped or hindered their efforts. It is also the first time that a World Bank report draws on people's own understanding of freedom, democracy, equality, empowerment, and aspirations-and how these affect poor people in different growth, social, and political contexts. By giving primacy to people's own experiences and how they define poverty, the study provides several new insights to develop more effective strategies to reduce poverty. The study finds that poor people take lots of initiative, in many cases even more than those who are better off. There are millions and millions of tiny poor entrepreneurs. The investment climate of these tiny entrepreneurs has not been a centerpiece of poverty strategies. Too often, poor people do not face a level playing field. Despite the micro credit revolution, poor people remain outside of most financial services; and large lenders remain reluctant to lend to micro enterprises and micro entrepreneurs. New institutional models and financial instruments are needed to serve poor people's financial needs and give them the capital they need to expand their businesses and connect to markets
Let their people come : breaking the gridlock on international labor mobility by Lant Pritchett( Book )

5 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 228 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In this book, Lant Pritchett argues that irresistible demographic forces leading to greater international labor mobility are being checked by immovable anti-immigration ideas of the citizens of rich countries. He proposes breaking the deadlock through policies that support development while also being politically acceptable in those well-off nations. These include reliance on bilateral rather than multilateral agreements; greater use of temporary worker permits; permit rationing; and protection of migrants' fundamental human rights."--Jacket
The rebirth of education : schooling ain't learning by Lant Pritchett( Book )

7 editions published in 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 104 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite great progress around the world in getting more kids into schools, too many leave without even the most basic skills. In India's rural Andhra Pradesh, for instance, only about one in twenty children in fifth grade can perform basic arithmetic. The problem is that schooling is not the same as learning. In The Rebirth of Education, Lant Pritchett uses two metaphors from nature to explain why. The first draws on Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom's book about the difference between centralized and decentralized organizations, The Starfish and the Spider. Schools system
Mind your p's and q's the cost of public investment is not the value of public capital by Lant Pritchett( )

12 editions published between 1996 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

October 1996 A dollar's worth of public investment spending often does not create a dollar's worth of capital, especially in developing countries. One deep difficulty of development may be that even when public capital is productive it may be difficult to create this capital in the public sector. Pritchett presents theory and calculations to show that part of the explanation of slow growth in many poor countries is not that governments did not spend on investments, but that these investments did not create productive capital. For a variety of reasons, governments take resources from current consumption to invest in the economic equivalent of pyramids, items that produce no future output. The most critical assumption (of the many) necessary for cumulated investment flows to be even reasonable proxies for capital stocks is that the cost of investment (the p's) is equal to the value of the capital stock evaluated as its increment to future profitability (the q's). This assumption can be justified only if investors act to equalize these - and under many conditions, profit-maximizing investors will do so. But there is ample reason not to believe that all governments act as profit-maximizing investors - and ample reason to believe that some governments invest better than others. The implication, especially in developing countries, is that a dollar's worth of public investment spending often does not create a dollar's worth of public capital. A variety of calculations suggest that in a typical developing country less than 50 cents of capital were created for each public dollar invested. One of the deep difficulties of development may well be that even when public capital is productive it may be difficult to create this capital in the public sector. This paper - a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department - is part of a larger effort in the department to investigate the impact of policies on long run economic growth
Safety nets and safety ropes who benefited from two Indonesian crisis programs--the "poor" or the "shocked?" by Sudarno Sumarto( )

11 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

September 2000 A study of two programs compares the safety net (which guarantees against a fall past an absolute level) with the safety rope (which guarantees against a fall of more than a given distance). Imagine several mountain climbers, scaling a cliff face, who want protection from falling. One way to protect them would be to place a net at the bottom of the cliff to catch any climber just before he hits the ground. Another would be to provide a rope and a set of movable devices that can be attached to the cliff; as the climbers scale the cliff, they attach the rope at higher and higher levels so that if a climber falls, he falls only by the length of the rope. In this paper, the safety net guarantees against a fall past an absolute level; the safety rope guarantees against a fall of more than a given distance. The safety net is concerned with an increase in poverty; the safety rope mitigates risk through social insurance or social protection. Calculations of the benefit incidence and targeting effectiveness of safety net programs typically examine only the relationship between a household's current expenditures and program participation. But in programs that respond to an economic shock or intend to mitigate household risk, it is not only the current level of expenditures that matters but also changes in expenditures. Safety net programs may intend to benefit only the currently poor; programs to mitigate shocks (safety rope programs) may intend to provide transfers to those whose incomes have fallen, even if they have not fallen below an absolute poverty threshold. Sumarto, Suryahadi, and Pritchett examine the targeting performance of two programs created to respond to the social impacts of Indonesia's crisis. They find strong evidence that one program, subsidized sales of rice targeted to the permanently poor, was only weakly related to the shock in consumption spending. A job creation program was much more responsive to changes in spending. A household that started in the third quintile in expenditures in 1997 and fell to the lowest quintile between 1997 and 1998 was four times as likely to have participated in the job creation program as a household starting in the third quintile in 1997 but experiencing a positive shock. But the household experiencing a negative shock was only 50 percent more likely to have received subsidized rice than a household experiencing a positive shock. This paper-a product of the Environment and Social Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region-is part of a larger effort in the region to improve the efficacy of response to the social impacts of the Indonesian crisis. Lant Pritchett may be contacted at lant_pritchett@harvard.edu
Does more for the poor mean less for the poor? the politics of tagging by Jonah B Gelbach( )

11 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

October 1995 Attempts to achieve more for the poor through the use of indicator targeting may in fact mean less for the poor. The efficient use of a fixed budget for poverty reduction may require targeting. However, the use of indicator targeting, using fixed characteristics that are correlated with poverty to determine the distribution of expenditures, will tend to reduce the budget. Ignoring the budget reducing effects can reduce the welfare of the poor as they receive a greater share of a shrinking budget. There are political economy limits to not only the scope but the form of redistribution. Proposals aimed at improving the welfare of the poor often include indicator targeting, in which non-income characteristics (such as race, gender, or land ownership) that are correlated with income are used to target limited funds to groups likely to include a concentration of the poor. Previous work shows that efficient use of a fixed budget for poverty reduction requires such targeting, either because agents' income cannot be observed or to reduce distortionary incentives arising from redistributive interventions. Inspite of this, Gelbach and Pritchett question the political viability of targeting. After constructing a model that is basically an extension of Akerlof's 1978 model of tagging, they derive three main results: * Akerlof's result continues to hold: that, ignoring political considerations, not only will targeting be desirable but recipients of the targeted transfer will receive a greater total transfer than they would if targeting were not possible. * A classical social-choice analysis -- in which agents vote simultaneously about the level of taxation and the degree of targeting -- shows that positive levels of targeted transfers will not exist in equilibrium (an unsurprising finding, given Plott's 1968 theorem). It also shows that a voting equilibrium often will exist with no targeting but with non-zero taxation and redistribution. * In a game in which the policymaker chooses the degree of targeting while voters choose the level of taxation, the redistributive efficiency gains from tagging may well fail to outweigh the resulting reduction in funds available for redistribution. These results may be extended readily to account for altruistic agents. Gelbach and Pritchett stress that even when these results hold, the alternative to targeted transfers -- a universally received lump-sum grant financed through a proportional tax -- will nonetheless be supported politically and will be quite progressive relative to the pretransfer income distribution. This paper -- a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department -- is part of a larger effort in the department to understand the role of targeting in poverty alleviation efforts
Population growth, factor accumulation, and productivity by Lant Pritchett( )

11 editions published between 1996 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

January 1996 New insights -- from new data -- on the relationship between population growth, factor accumulation, and productivity. In research on how population growth affects economic performance, some researchers stress that population growth reduces the natural resources and capital (physical and human) per worker while other researchers stress how greater population size and density affect productivity. Despite these differing theoretical predictions, the empirical literature has focused mainly on the relationship between population growth and output per person (or crude proxies for factor accumulation). It has not decomposed the effect of population through factor accumulation and the effect through productivity. Pritchett uses newly created cross-country, time-series data on physical capital stocks and the educational stock of the labor force to establish six findings: * There is no correlation between the growth of capital per worker and population growth. * The common practice of using investment rates as a proxy for capital stock growth rates is completely unjustified, as the two are uncorrelated across countries. * There is either no correlation, or a weak positive correlation, between the growth of years of schooling per worker and the population growth rate. * Enrollment rates are even worse as a crude proxy for the expansion of the educational capital stock, as the two are negatively correlated. * There is no correlation, or a weak negative correlation, between measures of total factor productivity growth and population growth. * Nearly all of the weak correlation between the growth of output per person and population growth is the result of shifts in participation in the labor force, not of changes in output per worker. This paper is a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department
Divergence, big time by Lant Pritchett( )

11 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

October 1995 The basic fact of modern economic history is massive absolute divergence in the distribution of incomes across countries. This paper shows that even without actual historical data on incomes in the now poor countries we can reasonably estimate that the ratio of the incomes of the richest to the poorest countries increased at least sixfold between 1870 and today. Recently, much attention has been paid in the literature on economic growth to the phenomenon of conditional convergence, the tendency of economies with lower-level incomes to grow faster, conditional on their rate of factor accumulation. Pritchett documents that, regardless of conditional convergence, perhaps the basic fact of modern economic history is massive absolute divergence in the distribution of incomes across countries. Discussions of long-run convergence or divergence have been hindered by the lack of reliable historical estimates of per capita income for poor countries. Pritchett shows that to draw reasonable inferences about whether incomes have converged or diverged does not require historical estimates of per capita income as a plausible lower limit for historical per capita incomes combined with estimates of current income in poor countries places a binding constraint on their historical growth rates. Pritchett estimates that between 1870 and 1985 the ratio of incomes in the richest and poorest countries increased sixfold, the standard deviation of (natural log) per capita incomes increased by between 60 and 100 percent, and the average income gap between the richest and poorest countries grew almost ninefold (from $1,500 to over $12,000). This paper -- a product of the Office of the Vice President, Development Economics -- was prepared as a background paper for World Development Report 1995 on labor
Where has all the education gone? by Lant Pritchett( )

12 editions published between 1996 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

March 1996 How to explain the surprising finding that more education did not lead to faster economic growth? Cross-national data on economic growth rates show that increases in educational capital resulting from improvements in the educational attainment of the labor force have had no positive impact on the growth rate of output per worker. In fact, contends Pritchett, the estimated impact of growth of human capital on conventional nonregression growth accounting measures of total factor productivity is large, strongly significant, and negative. Needless to say, this at least appears to contradict the current conventional wisdom in development circles about education's importance for growth. After establishing that this negative result about the education-growth linkage is robust, credible, and consistent with previous literature, Pritchett explores three possible explanations that reconcile the abundant evidence about wage gains from schooling for individuals with the lack of schooling impact on aggregate growth: * That schooling creates no human capital. Schooling may not actually raise cognitive skills or productivity but schooling may nevertheless raise the private wage because to employers it signals a positive characteristic like ambition or innate ability. * That the marginal returns to education are falling rapidly where demand for educated labor is stagnant. Expanding the supply of educated labor where there is stagnant demand for it causes the rate of return to education to fall rapidly, particularly where the sluggish demand is due to limited adoption of innovations. * That the institutional environments in many countries have been sufficiently perverse that the human capital accumulated has been applied to activities that served to reduce economic growth. In other words, possibly education does raise productivity, and there is demand for this more productive educated labor, but demand for educated labor comes from individually remunerative but socially wasteful or counterproductive activities -- a bloated bureaucracy, for example, or overmanned state enterprises in countries where the government is the employer of last resort -- so that while individuals' wages go up with education, output stagnates, or even falls. This paper -- a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department -- is part of a larger effort in the department to investigate the determinants of economic growth
Health policy in poor countries weak links in the chain by Deon Filmer( )

9 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

January 1998 There is an apparent consensus that the correct health policy in developing countries is public provision of a mix of preventive and simple curative services through low level health workers and facilities. But the strength of this consensus on the primary health care paradigm is in sharp contrast to either the strength of its analytical foundations or its mixed record in practice. Filmer, Hammer, and Pritchett show how the recent empirical and theoretical literature on health policy sheds light on the disappointing experience with the implementation of primary health care. They emphasize the evidence on two weak links between government spending on health and improvements in health status. First, the capability of developing country governments to provide effective services varies widely-so health spending, even on the right services, may lead to little actual provision of services. Second, the net impact of government provision of health services depends on the severity of market failures. Evidence suggests these are the least severe for relatively inexpensive curative services, which often absorb the bulk of primary health care budgets. Government policy in health can more usefully focus directly on mitigating market failures in traditional public health activities and, in more developed settings, failures in the markets for risk mitigation. Addressing poverty requires consideration of a much broader set of policies which may-or may not-include provision of health services. This paper-a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to investigate efficacy in the social sectors. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Primary Health Care: A Critical Examination (RPO 680-29). The authors may be contacted at dfilmer@worldbank.org or jhammer@worldbank.org
Voice lessons local government organizations, social organizations, and the quality of local governance by Vivi Alatas( )

11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As part the Local Level Institutions study of local life in villages in rural Indonesia information was gathered on sampled household's participation in social activities. We classified the reported activities into four distinct types of social activity: sociability, networks, social organizations, and village government organizations. Respondents were also asked about questions about their village government: whether they were informed about village funds and projects, if they participated in village decisions, if they expressed voice about village problems, and if they thought the village government was responsive to local problems. Several findings emerge regarding the relationship between the social variables and the governance activities. Not surprisingly, an individual household's involvement with the village government organizations tends to increase their own reports of positive voice, participation, and information. In contrast, the data suggest a negative spillover on other households. There is a strong "chilling" effect of one household's participation in village government organizations on the voice, participation, and information of other households in the same village. The net effect of engagement in village government organizations is generally negative, while the net effect of membership in social organizations is more often associated with good governance outcomes. These findings indicate that existing social organizations have a potentially important role to play in enhancing the performance of government institutions in Indonesia and in the evolution of good governance more generally. This paper--a product of the Environment and Social Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region--is part of a larger effort in the region to study local level institutions
Growth accelerations by Ricardo Hausmann( Book )

19 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Unlike most cross-country growth analyses, we focus on turning points in growth performance. We look for instances of rapid acceleration in economic growth that are sustained for at least eight years and identify more than 80 such episodes since the 1950s. Growth accelerations tend to be correlated with increases in investment and trade, and with real exchange rate depreciations. Political-regime changes are statistically significant predictors of growth accelerations. External shocks tend to produce growth accelerations that eventually fizzle out, while economic reform is a statistically significant predictor of growth accelerations that are sustained. However, growth accelerations tend to be highly upredictable: the vast majority of growth accelerations are unrelated to standard determinants and most instances of economic reform do not produce growth accelerations
Governance and the returns to investment an empirical investigation by Lant Pritchett( )

5 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Good policy or good luck? : country growth performance and temporary shocks by William Easterly( Book )

4 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Much of the new growth literature stresses country characteristics, such as education levels or political stability, as the dominant determinant of growth. However, growth rates are highly unstable over time, with a correlation across decades of .1 to .3, while country characteristics are stable, with cross-decade correlations of .6 to .9. Shocks, especially those to terms of trade, play a large role in explaining variance in growth. These findings suggest either that shocks are important relative to country characteristics in determining long-run growth, or that worldwide technological change determines long-run growth while country characteristics determine relative income levels
Quantifying vulnerability to poverty : a proposed measure, applied to Indonesia by Lant Pritchett( Book )

8 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

September 2000 Typically only a small proportion of the population is chronically poor; many more are not always poor but are vulnerable to episodes or seasons of poverty and would be interested in programs that reduce the risks they face. Vulnerability is an important aspect of households' experience of poverty. Many households, while not currently in poverty, recognize that they are vulnerable to events-a bad harvest, a lost job, an illness, an unexpected expense, an economic downturn-that could easily push them into poverty. Most operational measures define poverty as some function of the shortfall of current income or consumption expenditures from a poverty line, and hence measure poverty only at a single point in time. Pritchett, Suryahadi, and Sumarto propose a simple expansion of those measures to quantify vulnerability to poverty. They define vulnerability as a probability, the risk that a household will experience at least one episode of poverty in the near future. A household is defined as vulnerable if it has 50-50 odds or worse of falling into poverty. Using those definitions, they calculate the vulnerability to poverty line (VPL) as the level of expenditures below which a household is vulnerable to poverty. The VPL allows the calculation of a headcount vulnerability rate (the proportion of households vulnerable to poverty), a direct analogue of the headcount poverty rate. The authors implement this approach using two sets of panel data from Indonesia. First they show that if the poverty line is set so that the headcount poverty rate is 20 percent, the proportion of households vulnerable to poverty is roughly 30-50 percent. In addition to the 20 percent currently poor, an additional 10-30 percent of the population is at substantial risk of poverty. They illustrate the usefulness of this approach for targeting by examining differences in vulnerability between households by gender, level of education, urban-rural residence, land-holding status, and sector of occupation of the head of household. This paper-a product of the Environment and Social Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region-is part of a larger effort in the region to develop a national poverty reduction strategy for Indonesia. Lant Pritchett may be contacted at lant_pritchett@harvard.edu
Cents and sociability : household income and social capital in rural Tanzania by Deepa Narayan-Parker( Book )

9 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 35 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

July 1997 Matching a measure of social capital with data on household income in certain rural villages in Tanzania shows that social capital is indeed both capital (in that it raises incomes) and social (in that household incomes depend on village, not just household, social capital). Narayan and Pritchett construct a measure of social capital in rural Tanzania, using data from the Tanzania Social Capital and Poverty Survey (SCPS), a large-scale survey that asked individuals about the extent and characteristics of their associational activity and their trust in various institutions and individuals. They match this measure of social capital with data on household income in the same villages (both from the SCPS and from an earlier household survey, the Human Resources Development Survey). In doing so, they show that social capital is indeed both capital (in that it raises incomes) and social (in that household incomes depend on village, not just household, social capital). The magnitude of social capital's effect on incomes is impressive: a one standard deviation increase in village social capital increases a household proxy for income by at least 20 to 30 percent. This is as great an impact as an equivalent increase in nonfarming assets, or a tripling of the level of education. Data from the two surveys make it possible to identify some of the proximate channels through which social capital affects incomes: better publicly provided services, more community activity, greater use of modern agricultural inputs, and greater use of credit in agriculture. This paper-a joint product of Social Development, and Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the Bank to understand the social determinants of sustainable development
More for the poor is less for the poor : the politics of targeting by Jonah B Gelbach( Book )

9 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

July 1997 Will means-tested targeting help the poor? Economics might say yes, but politics say no. Standard economic analyses suggests than when the budget for redistribution is fixed, transfers should be targeted to (that is, means-tested for) those most in need. But both economists and political scientists have long recognized the possibility that targeting could undermine political support for redistribution and hence reduce the available budget. Gelbach and Pritchett formalize this recognition, developing a simple economy in which both nontargeted (universally received) and targeted transfers are available. The policymaker chooses the share of the budget to be spent on each type of transfer while the budget is determined through majority voting. Their results are striking. If the policymaker ignores political feasibility and assumes that the budget is fixed, she will choose full targeting of transfers- the process minimizing social welfare and the utility of the poor. By contrast, when the policymaker recognizes budgetary endogeneity, she will choose zero targeting, spending the entire budget on the universally received transfer. Social welfare, the budget for redistribution, and the utility of poor agents are all maximized in the resulting equilibrium. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to investigate effective policies for poverty reduction
Environmental degradation and the demand for children : searching for the vicious circle by Deon Filmer( Book )

9 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

July 1996 The authors explore the hypothesis that--because of the important role children play in collection activities (firewood, water, grazing)--the demand for children may increase as local environmental resources are depleted, setting up a vicious circle between resource depletion and population growth. Using a large-scale household data set from Pakistan, with detailed information on fertility and the allocation of time to collection activities, they find that: (i) collection activities absorb a substantial part of household resources--firewood collection accounts for 6.2 percent of household expenditures, valued in collection time; (ii) collection absorbs a quarter of the time of children; (iii) women benefit when there are older children in the household; they work 2.6 hours a week less in household activities for each child aged 10 to 15, and 3.2 hours less for each child over 15; and (iv) there seems to be an inverse relationship between fertility and the availability of firewood; even after controlling for other determinants of fertility in reduced form regressions, the authors show that households that live some distance from firewood have more children, whereas households that live where firewood is more expensive have fewer children
Gender disparity in South Asia : comparisons between and within countries by Deon Filmer( Book )

8 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

January 1998 While gender disparities in health and education outcomes are higher on average in South Asian than in other countries, the large within country differences in gender disparity, between Indian states or Pakistani provinces, demand more local explanations. Using data assembled from the Demographic Health Surveys of over 50 countries and from the National Family Health Surveys of individual states in India, Filmer, King, and Pritchett create a new data set of comparable indicators of gender disparity. They establish three findings: As is by now well-known, the level of gender disparities in health and education outcomes for girls in South Asia is the highest in the world. Even within South Asia, and within India or Pakistan, there are huge variations in gender disparity. Differences in gender disparity among Indian states or among provinces of Pakistan are typically greater than those among the world's nations. The ratio of female to male child mortality in one Indian state (Haryana) is worse than in any country in the world, although in another state (Tamil Nadu) it is lower than in all but three countries. Across and within the set of developing nations, gender disparity is not only a phenomenon of poverty. There is almost no correlation between per capita income and the gender disparities in health and education outcomes. So although absolute levels of health and education outcomes for girls are strongly related to economic conditions, the disparities between outcomes for girls and boys are not. Understanding what causes such great gender disparity within South Asia is the next pressing question for researchers. This paper-a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to understand the determinants of gender differentials. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Explaining Gender Disparity in South Asia (RPO 681-29). The authors may be contacted at dfilmer@worldbank.org or eking@worldbank.org
Deals versus rules : policy implementation uncertainty and why firms hate it by Mary Hallward-Driemeier( Book )

15 editions published between 2010 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Firms in Africa report "regulatory and economic policy uncertainty" as a top constraint to their growth. We argue that often firms in Africa do not cope with policy rules, rather they face deals; firm-specific policy actions that can be influenced by firm actions (e.g. bribes) and characteristics (e.g. political connections). Using Enterprise Survey data we demonstrate huge variability in reported policy actions across firms notionally facing the same policy. The within-country dispersion in firm-specific policy actions is larger than the cross-national differences in average policy. We show that variability in this policy implementation uncertainty within location-sector-size cells is correlated with firm growth rates. These measures of implementation variability are more strongly related to lower firm employment growth than are measures of "average" policy action. Finally, we show that the de jure measures such as Doing Business indicators are virtually uncorrelated with ex-post firm-level responses, further evidence that deals rather than rules prevail in Africa. Strikingly, the gap between de jure and de facto conditions grows with the formal regulatory burden. The evidence also shows more burdensome processes open up more space for making deals; firms may not incur the official costs of compliance, but they still pay to avoid them. Finally, measures of institutional capacity and better governance are closely associated with perceived consistency in implementation
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.58 (from 0.15 for The rebirt ... to 0.80 for Voice less ...)

Moving out of poverty
Alternative Names
Hayward Pritchett, Lant

Lant Pritchett American economist

Pritchett, L.

Pritchett, L. H.

Pritchett, Landt

Pritchett, Lant H.

Pritchett, Lant Hayward

Languages
English (200)

Covers
Let their people come : breaking the gridlock on international labor mobility