WorldCat Identities

Rutherford, Thomas Fox

Overview
Works: 162 works in 390 publications in 1 language and 1,786 library holdings
Genres: Conference proceedings 
Roles: Thesis advisor, Honoree
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 338.9
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about  Thomas Fox Rutherford Publications about Thomas Fox Rutherford
Publications by  Thomas Fox Rutherford Publications by Thomas Fox Rutherford
Most widely held works by Thomas Fox Rutherford
The welfare effects of fossil carbon restrictions : results from a recursively dynamic trade model by Thomas Fox Rutherford ( Book )
14 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 150 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper forms part of an OECD project which addresses the issue of the cost of reducing CO2 emissions by comparing the results from six global models of a set of standardised reduction scenarios. The project provides evidence on: i)projected carbon dioxide emissions through the next century, and ii) the carbon taxes and output costs entailed in reducing these emissions
Foreign direct investment in services and the domestic market for expertise by James R Markusen ( Book )
17 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
How important to welfare and growth in developing countries are restraints on foreign providers of producer services? Limiting such services not only may limit growth but may hurt some of the very people - domestic skilled workers in such service sectors - those restraints are designed to protect
Learning on the quick and cheap : gains from trade through imported expertise by James R Markusen ( Book )
18 editions published between 2004 and 2005 in English and held by 132 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Gains from productivity and knowledge transmission arising from the presence of foreign firms has received a good deal of empirical attention, but micro-foundations for this mechanism are weak . Here we focus on production by foreign experts who may train domestic unskilled workers who work with them. Gains from training can in turn be decomposed into two types: (a) obtaining knowledge and skills at a lower cost than if they are self-taught at home, (b) producing domestic skilled workers earlier in time than if they the domestic economy had to rediscover the relevant knowledge through reinventing the wheel'. We develop a three-period model in which the economy initially has no skilled workers. Workers can withdraw from the labor force for two periods of self study and then produce as skilled workers in the third period. Alternatively, foreign experts can be hired in period 1 and domestic unskilled labor working with the experts become skilled in the second period. We analyze how production, training, and welfare depend on two important parameters: the cost of foreign experts and the learning (or absorptive') capacity of the domestic economy"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Discrete plant-location decisions in an applied general-equilibrium model of trade liberalization by James R Markusen ( Book )
16 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 93 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Theoretical and applied work in industrial-organization approaches to international trade typically assume either that there are fixed numbers of firms, or that there is free entry and exit with a continuum of firms. This paper makes a first step toward a more realistic approach in which firms face discrete choices about the numbers and locations of their plants. The model is applied to the North American auto industry in the context of the draft North American Free Trade Agreement. Results include: (1) production appears to be excessively geographically diversified initially; (2) autos are produced in fewer locations as trade barriers are lowered; (3) a 'non-monotonicity' case is produced in which a plant is first closed and then reopened as trade barriers are progressively lowered; (4) an example of the misleading nature of marginalist analysis is presented in which plants in Canada and Mexico increase production when locations are fixed but closed down when locations are endogenous and optimized
Anti-competitive and rent-shifting aspects of domestic-content provisions in regional trade blocks by Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes ( Book )
8 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Regional trade agreements must specify domestic-content rules (rules of origin) that define the conditions under which a good qualifies as 'domestic' and so may be freely traded within the block. The paper analyzes such rules, focussing in particular on oligopolistic industries in which foreign multinationals producing within the block rely much more on imported intermediate inputs than do domestic firms. In such a situation, we argue that domestic content provisions are anti-competitive, reducing overall final output of the industry, and shift rents (in the absence of free entry) to domestic firms. It is possible that the anti-competitive aspect of the rules are sufficiently strong that total industry profits rise and the equilibrium demand for the substitute domestic inputs falls (the scale effect of reduced output outweighs a substitution effect in favor of domestic intermediates). The latter effect is more likely to the extent that the foreign multinationals can switch from producing within the block to exporting to the block. These ideas are then examined numerically using an applied general-equilibrium model of the North American auto industry
Trade policy options for Chile : a quantitative evaluation by Glenn W Harrison ( Book )
9 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Examines the net economic benefits and government revenue implications for Chile of forming a free trade area with MERCOSUR as an associate member, forming a free trade area with NAFTA, and reducing its external tariff multilaterally and unilaterally
Economic implications for Turkey of a customs union with the European Union by Glenn W Harrison ( Book )
7 editions published between 1990 and 1996 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Complementarity and increasing returns in intermediate inputs : a theoretical and applied general-equilibrium analysis by Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes ( Book )
7 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 56 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Conventional analysis in the trade-industrial-organization literature suggests that, when a country has some market power over an imported good, some small level of protection must be welfare improving. This is essentially a terms-of-trade argument that is reinforced if the imported goods are substitutes for domestic goods produced with increasing returns to scale, goods that are initially underproduced in free-trade equilibrium. This paper notes that this result may not hold when (1) the imports are intermediates used in a domestic increasing-returns industry, and/or (2) the intermediates are complements for domestic inputs produced with increasing returns. We then demonstrate such an outcome with respect to Mexican protection against imported auto parts using an applied general-equilibrium model of the North American auto industry
The impact of liberalizing barriers to foreign direct investment in services the case of Russian accession to the World Trade Organization by Jesper Jensen ( )
6 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 56 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Jensen, Rutherford, and Tarr use a computable general equilibrium model of the Russian economy to assess the impact of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), which encompasses improved market access, tariff reduction, and reduction of barriers against multinational service providers. They assume that foreign direct investment in business services is necessary for multinationals to compete well with Russian business service providers, but cross-border service provision is also present. The model incorporates productivity effects in both goods and services markets endogenously through a Dixit-Stiglitz framework. As a result, the estimated gains from WTO accession are much larger than would be obtained from a typical model with perfect competition. The ad valorem equivalent of barriers to foreign direct investment have been estimated based on detailed questionnaires completed by specialized research institutes in Russia. The authors estimate that Russia will gain about 7.2 percent of the value of Russian consumption in the medium run from WTO accession and up to 24 percent in the long run. They estimate that the largest gains to Russia will derive from liberalization of barriers against multinational service providers. Piecemeal and systematic sensitivity analysis shows that their results are robust. This paper--a product of the Trade Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the impact of liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment in services sectors"--World Bank web site
Telecommunications reform within Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization by Jesper Jensen ( Book )
5 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"In World Trade Organization (WTO) accession negotiations, telecommunications is always a sector that receives close scrutiny by the WTO Working Party, and the extent of market access and nondiscriminatory treatment of multinational telecommunications companies in Russia has been a significant issue in Russia's accession negotiations. Jensen, Rutherford, and Tarr use a computable general equilibrium model of the Russian economy to assess the role of telecommunications in the discussions regarding Russian accession to the WTO. The results show that reduction of barriers to foreign direct investment in telecommunications will bring substantial gains to the Russian economy, including an increase in the productivity of Russian labor and capital. Despite the fact that multinationals use Russian labor less intensively than Russian firms, demand for Russian labor employed in telecommunications should increase, following reductions in barriers to foreign direct investment that are included in the context of WTO accession. This is because the overall demand for telecommunication services should increase due to the growth effects of the liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment generally and the reduction in tariffs. Russian capital owners in telecommunications will likely be sought as joint venture partners and can restructure and obtain gains as partners with foreign firms. Wholly owned Russian firms are likely to experience losses. This paper--a product of the Trade Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the consequences of liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment in services"--World Bank web site
Rules of thumb for evaluating preferential trading arrangements : evidence from computable general equilibrium assessments by Glenn W Harrison ( )
8 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Chile's regional arrangements and the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas : the importance of market access by Glenn W Harrison ( Book )
7 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 54 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
July 2001 - Among Chile's bilateral regional agreements, only Chile's agreements with "Northern" partners provide enough market access to offset the costs to Chile of trade diversion. Because of preferential market access, however, "additive regionalism" is likely to provide Chile with far more gains than the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. At least one partner country loses from each of the regional trade agreements considered in this study, and excluded countries always lose. The Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) produces gains for almost all the member countries, but the European Union is a big loser. Countries of the Americas gain more in aggregate from global free trade than from the FTAA. Using a multisector, multicountry, computable general equilibrium model, Harrison, Rutherford, and Tarr examine Chile's strategy of negotiating bilateral free trade agreements with all of its significant trading partners (referring to this policy as additive regionalism). They also evaluate the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) and global free trade. Among Chile's bilateral regional agreements, only Chile's agreements with "Northern" partners provide enough market access to offset the costs to Chile of trade diversion. Because of preferential market access, however, additive regionalism is likely to provide Chile with many times as many gains as the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. Harrison, Rutherford, and Tarr find that at least one partner country loses from each of the regional trade agreements they consider, and excluded countries as a group always lose. They estimate that the FTAA produces large welfare gains for the members, with the European Union being the big loser. Gains to the world from global free trade are estimated to be at least 36 times greater than gains from the FTAA. Even countries of the Americas in aggregate gain more from global free trade than from the FTAA. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the impact of regional trade arrangements on development and poverty reduction. David Tarr may be contacted at dtarr@worldbank.org
Trade liberalization and endogenous growth in a small open economy a quantitative assessment by Thomas Fox Rutherford ( Book )
7 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 54 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The impact on Russia of WTO accession and the Doha agenda the importance of liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment in services for growth and poverty reduction by Thomas Fox Rutherford ( )
6 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 52 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Taking price changes from the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model of world trade, the authors use a small open economy computable general equilibrium comparative static model of the Russian economy to assess the impact of global free trade and a successful completion of the Doha Agenda on the Russian economy, and especially on the poor. They compare those results with the impact of Russian accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on income distribution and the poor. The model incorporates all 55,000 households from the Russian Household Budget Survey as "real" households. Crucially, given the importance of foreign direct investment (FDI) liberalization as part of Russian WTO accession, the authors also include FDI and Dixit-Stiglitz endogenous productivity effects from liberalization of import barriers against goods and FDI in services. The authors estimate that Russian WTO accession in the medium run will result in gains averaged over all Russian households equal to 7.3 percent of Russian consumption (with a standard deviation of 2.2 percent of consumption), with virtually all households gaining. They find that global free trade would result in a weighted average gain to households in Russia of 0.2 percent of consumption, with a standard deviation of 0.2 percent of consumption, while a successful completion of the Doha Development Agenda would result in a weighted average gain to households of -0.3 percent of consumption (with a standard deviation of 0.2 percent of consumption). Russia, as a net food importer, loses from subsidy elimination, and the gains to Russia from tariff cuts in other countries are too small to offset these losses. The results strongly support the view that Russia's own liberalization is more important than improvements in market access as a result of reforms in tariffs or subsidies in the rest of the world. Foremost among the own reforms is liberalization of barriers against FDI in business services
Trade liberalization in a multinational-dominated industry : a theoretical and applied general-equilibrium analysis by Linda Hunter ( Book )
6 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A theoretical model is developed and applied to the North American auto industry, motivated by the possibility of US-Mexico free trade. Special features of the model include (1) significant scale economies at the plant level, (2) imperfect competition among firms, (3) joint ownership of plants and production coordination across plants by each firm, (4) an (initial) ability of firms to segment markets, (5) a separate treatment of non-resident firms in determining oligopolistic markups. Using an applied GE model, we find that (A) the gains to Mexico are significant and the effects on the US and Canada are essentially zero following North American free trade if firms can continue to segment markets: (B) Because of the way that the North American multinationals determine markups, increased imports from Mexico do not result in a rationalization of US and Canadian production in the way it should if firms were strictly national. (C) Genuinely free trade for consumers (integrated markets) results in large gains for Mexico as the Mexican industry is forced to rationalize, while losses to the US and Canada are very small
Regional impacts of Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization by Thomas Fox Rutherford ( )
4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 50 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we develop a computable general equilibrium model of the regions of Russia to assess the impact of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on the regions of Russia. We estimate that the average gain in welfare as a percentage of consumption for the whole country is 7.8 percent (or 4.3 percent of consumption); we estimate that three regions will gain considerably more: Northwest (11.2 percent), St. Petersburg (10.6 percent) and Far East (9.7 percent). We estimate that the Urals will gain only 6.2 percent of consumption, considerably less than the national average. The principal explanation in our central analysis for the differences across regions is the ability of the different regions to benefit from a reduction in barriers against foreign direct investment. The three regions with the largest welfare gains are clearly the regions with the estimated largest shares of multinational investment. But the Urals has attracted relatively little FDI in the service sectors. An additional reason for differences across regions is quantified in our sensitivity analysis: regions may gain more from WTO accession if they can succeed in creating a good investment climate
Poverty effects of Russia's WTO accession : modeling "real" households and endogenous productivity effects by Thomas Fox Rutherford ( Book )
4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Rutherford, Tarr, and Shepotylo use a computable general equilibrium comparative static model of the Russian economy to assess the impact of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on income distribution and the poor. Their model is innovative in that they incorporate all 55,000 households from the Russian Household Budget Survey as "real" households in the model. This is accomplished because they develop a new algorithm for solving general equilibrium models with a large number of agents. In addition, they include foreign direct investment and Dixit-Stiglitz endogenous productivity effects in their trade and poverty analysis. In the medium term, the authors find that virtually all households gain from Russian WTO accession, with 99.9 percent of the estimated gains falling within a range between 2 and 25 percent increases in household income. They show that their estimates are decisively affected by liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment in business services sectors and endogenous productivity effects in business services and goods. The authors use their integrated model to assess the error associated with a 'top down' approach to micro-simulation. They find that approximation errors introduced by failing to account for income effects in the conventional sequential approach are very small. However, data reconciliation between the national accounts and the household budget survey is important to the results. Despite the estimated gains for virtually all households in the medium term, many households may lose in the short term because of the costs of transition. So, safety nets are crucial for the poorest members of society during the transition. This paper--a product of the Trade Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the impact of trade on poverty"--Abstract
Embodied carbon tariffs by Christoph Böhringer ( )
9 editions published in 2011 in English and Undetermined and held by 45 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In a world where the prospects of a global agreement to control greenhouse gas emissions are bleak, the idea of using trade policy as an implicit regulation of foreign emission sources has gained many supporters in countries contemplating unilateral climate policies. Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in imported goods. The appeal seems obvious: as OECD countries are, on average, large net importers of embodied emissions from non-OECD countries, carbon tariffs could substantially extend the reach of OECD climate policies. We investigate this claim by simulating the effects of embodied carbon tariffs with a computable general equilibrium model of global trade and energy use. We find that embodied carbon tariffs do effectively reduce carbon leakage. However, the scope for improvements in the global cost-effectiveness of unilateral climate policy is limited. The main welfare effect of the tariffs is to shift the burden of OECD climate policy to the developing world
Optimal emission pricing in the presence of international spillovers decomposing leakage and terms-of-trade motives by Christoph Böhringer ( )
7 editions published between 2010 and 2012 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Carbon control policies in OECD countries commonly differentiate emission prices in favor of energy-intensive industries. While leakage provides a efficiency argument for differential emission pricing, the latter may be a disguised beggar-thy-neighbor policy to exploit terms of trade. Using an optimal tax framework, we propose a method to decompose the leakage motive and the terms-of-trade motive for emission price differentiation. We illustrate our method with a quantitative impact assessment of unilateral climate policies for the U.S. and EU economies. We conclude in these instances that complex optimal emission price differentiation does not substantially reduce the overall economic costs of carbon abatement compared with a simple rule of uniform emission pricing
Product standards, imperfect competition and completion of the market in the European Union by Glenn W Harrison ( Book )
3 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
 
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Alternative Names
Fox Rutherford, Thomas
Rutherford, T. F.
Rutherford, Thomas
Rutherford, Thomas F.
Rutherford, Thomas Fox.
Rutherford, Thomas R.
Languages
English (167)