Shamir, Adi
Overview
Works:  47 works in 85 publications in 1 language and 348 library holdings 

Genres:  Academic theses 
Roles:  Author 
Classifications:  QA76.9.A25, 005.82 
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works about
Adi Shamir
 A description of selected cryptosystems and the Shamir attack on the MerkleHellman knapsack cipher by Jim Harper( )
Most widely held works by
Adi Shamir
Differential cryptanalysis of the data encryption standard by
Eli Biham(
Book
)
2 editions published between 1993 and 2011 in English and held by 198 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
DES, the Data Encryption Standard, is the best known and most widely used civilian cryptosystem. It was developed by IBM and adopted as a US national standard in the mid 1970`s, and had resisted all attacks in the last 15 years. This book presents the first successful attack which can break the full 16 round DES faster than via exhaustive search. It describes in full detail, the novel technique of Differential Cryptanalysis, and demonstrates its applicability to a wide variety of cryptosystems and hash functions, including FEAL, Khafre, REDOCII, LOKI, Lucifer, Snefru, NHash, and many modified versions of DES. The methodology used offers valuable insights to anyone interested in data security and cryptography, and points out the intricacies of developing, evaluating, testing, and implementing such schemes. This book was written by two of the field`s leading researchers, and describes stateoftheart research in a clear and completely contained manner
2 editions published between 1993 and 2011 in English and held by 198 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
DES, the Data Encryption Standard, is the best known and most widely used civilian cryptosystem. It was developed by IBM and adopted as a US national standard in the mid 1970`s, and had resisted all attacks in the last 15 years. This book presents the first successful attack which can break the full 16 round DES faster than via exhaustive search. It describes in full detail, the novel technique of Differential Cryptanalysis, and demonstrates its applicability to a wide variety of cryptosystems and hash functions, including FEAL, Khafre, REDOCII, LOKI, Lucifer, Snefru, NHash, and many modified versions of DES. The methodology used offers valuable insights to anyone interested in data security and cryptography, and points out the intricacies of developing, evaluating, testing, and implementing such schemes. This book was written by two of the field`s leading researchers, and describes stateoftheart research in a clear and completely contained manner
How to share a secret by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
6 editions published between 1979 and 1980 in English and Undetermined and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we show how to divide data D into n pieces in such a way that D is easily reconstructable from any k pieces, but even complete knowledge of k  1 pieces reveals absolutely no information about D. This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces. (Author)
6 editions published between 1979 and 1980 in English and Undetermined and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we show how to divide data D into n pieces in such a way that D is easily reconstructable from any k pieces, but even complete knowledge of k  1 pieces reveals absolutely no information about D. This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces. (Author)
On the cryptocomplexity of knapsack systems by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
4 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A recent trend in cryptographic systems is to base their encryption/decryption functions on NPcomplete problems, and in particular on the knapsack problem. To analyze the security of these systems, we need a complexity theory which is less worstcase oriented and which takes into account the extra conditions imposed on the problems to make them cryptographically useful. In this paper we consider the two classes of onetoone and onto knapsack systems, analyze the complexity of recognizing them and of solving their instances, introduce a new complexity measure (median complexity), and show that this complexity is inversely proportional to the density of the knapsack system. The tradeoff result is based on a fast probabilistic knapsack solving algorithm which is applicable only to onetoone systems, and it indicates that knapsackbased cryptographic systems in which one can both encrypt and sign messages are relatively insecure
4 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A recent trend in cryptographic systems is to base their encryption/decryption functions on NPcomplete problems, and in particular on the knapsack problem. To analyze the security of these systems, we need a complexity theory which is less worstcase oriented and which takes into account the extra conditions imposed on the problems to make them cryptographically useful. In this paper we consider the two classes of onetoone and onto knapsack systems, analyze the complexity of recognizing them and of solving their instances, introduce a new complexity measure (median complexity), and show that this complexity is inversely proportional to the density of the knapsack system. The tradeoff result is based on a fast probabilistic knapsack solving algorithm which is applicable only to onetoone systems, and it indicates that knapsackbased cryptographic systems in which one can both encrypt and sign messages are relatively insecure
The cryptographic security of compact knapsacks : (preliminary report) by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1980 in English and Undetermined and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In 1978, Merkle and Hellman introduced a knapsackbased publickey cryptosystem, which received widespread attention. The two major open problems concerning this cryptosystem are: (1) Security: How difficult are the MerkleHellman knapsacks? (2) Efficiency: Can the huge key size be reduced? In this paper we analyze the cryptographic security of knapsack problems with small keys, develop a new (nonenumerative) type of algorithm for solving them, and use the algorithm to show that under certain assumptions it is as difficult to find the hidden trapdoors in MerkleHellman knapsacks as it is to solve general knapsack problems. (Author)
3 editions published in 1980 in English and Undetermined and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In 1978, Merkle and Hellman introduced a knapsackbased publickey cryptosystem, which received widespread attention. The two major open problems concerning this cryptosystem are: (1) Security: How difficult are the MerkleHellman knapsacks? (2) Efficiency: Can the huge key size be reduced? In this paper we analyze the cryptographic security of knapsack problems with small keys, develop a new (nonenumerative) type of algorithm for solving them, and use the algorithm to show that under certain assumptions it is as difficult to find the hidden trapdoors in MerkleHellman knapsacks as it is to solve general knapsack problems. (Author)
On digital signatures and publickey cryptosystems by
Ronald L Rivest(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
It is shown that the single operation of raising a number to a fixed power modulo a composite modulus is sufficient to implement digital signatures: a way of creating for a (digitized) document a recognizable, unforgeable, documentdependent digitized signature whose authenticity the signer can not later deny. An electronic funds transfer system or electronic mail system clearly could use such a scheme, since the messages must be digitized in order to be transmitted
3 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
It is shown that the single operation of raising a number to a fixed power modulo a composite modulus is sufficient to implement digital signatures: a way of creating for a (digitized) document a recognizable, unforgeable, documentdependent digitized signature whose authenticity the signer can not later deny. An electronic funds transfer system or electronic mail system clearly could use such a scheme, since the messages must be digitized in order to be transmitted
Mental poker by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1979 in English and Undetermined and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Is it possible to play a fair game of 'Mental Poker'. We will give a complete (but paradoxical) answer to this question. We will first prove that the problem is intrinsically insoluble, and then describe a fair method of playing 'Mental Poker'. (Author)
3 editions published in 1979 in English and Undetermined and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Is it possible to play a fair game of 'Mental Poker'. We will give a complete (but paradoxical) answer to this question. We will first prove that the problem is intrinsically insoluble, and then describe a fair method of playing 'Mental Poker'. (Author)
Bauhaus style the architecture of Hebrew labor in British mandate Tel Aviv, Palestine by
Adi Shamir(
)
3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This study examines the construct of 'Hebrew labor' as the ideological, philosophical and strategic underpinning of the Nationalist, Zionist, Socialist settlement in Palestine. The thesis proposes that 'Hebrew labor' was manifest in the institutional structures and buildings of the Histadrut and Labor Movement and asserts that what is typically referred to as 'Bauhaus Style' a term referencing the transference of European architectural modernism must be understood as an architecture that is unique to the context of the Zionist project in Palestine and that it is manifest as the architecture of 'Hebrew labor'
3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This study examines the construct of 'Hebrew labor' as the ideological, philosophical and strategic underpinning of the Nationalist, Zionist, Socialist settlement in Palestine. The thesis proposes that 'Hebrew labor' was manifest in the institutional structures and buildings of the Histadrut and Labor Movement and asserts that what is typically referred to as 'Bauhaus Style' a term referencing the transference of European architectural modernism must be understood as an architecture that is unique to the context of the Zionist project in Palestine and that it is manifest as the architecture of 'Hebrew labor'
Finding minimum cutsets in reducible graphs by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1977 in English and Undetermined and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The analysis of many processes modelled by directed graphs requires the selection of a subject of vertices which cut all the cycles in the graph. Reducing the size of such a cutset usually leads to a simpler and more efficient analysis, but the problem of finding minimum cutsets in general directed graphs is known to be NPcomplete. In this paper we show that in reducible graphs(and thus in almost all the practical flowcharts of programs), minmum cutsets can be found in linear time. An immediate application of this result is in program verification systems based on Floyd's inductive assertions method. (Author)
3 editions published in 1977 in English and Undetermined and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The analysis of many processes modelled by directed graphs requires the selection of a subject of vertices which cut all the cycles in the graph. Reducing the size of such a cutset usually leads to a simpler and more efficient analysis, but the problem of finding minimum cutsets in general directed graphs is known to be NPcomplete. In this paper we show that in reducible graphs(and thus in almost all the practical flowcharts of programs), minmum cutsets can be found in linear time. An immediate application of this result is in program verification systems based on Floyd's inductive assertions method. (Author)
Embedding cryptographic trapdoors in arbitrary knapsack systems by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A method for obtaining digital signatures and publickey cryptosystems by
Ronald L Rivest(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
2 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The fixedpoints of recursive definitions by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
5 editions published in 1976 in English and Undetermined and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
5 editions published in 1976 in English and Undetermined and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Factoring numbers in 0 (log n) arithmetic steps by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A nontrivial factor of a composite number n can be found by performing arithmetic steps in a number proportional to the number of bits in n, and thus there are extremely short straightline factoring programs. However, this theoretical result does not imply that natural numbers can be factored in polynomial time in the TuringMachine model of complexity, since the numbers operated on can be as big as 2 to the power c nsquared, thus requiring exponentially many bit operations
2 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A nontrivial factor of a composite number n can be found by performing arithmetic steps in a number proportional to the number of bits in n, and thus there are extremely short straightline factoring programs. However, this theoretical result does not imply that natural numbers can be factored in polynomial time in the TuringMachine model of complexity, since the numbers operated on can be as big as 2 to the power c nsquared, thus requiring exponentially many bit operations
On the security of the MerkleHellman cryptographic scheme by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
4 editions published in 1978 in English and Undetermined and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we show that a simplified version of the MerkleHellman publickey cryptographic system is breakable. While their fullfledged system seems to be resistant to the cryptanalytic attack we propose, this result suggests some ways in which the security of their system can be further enhanced. (Author)
4 editions published in 1978 in English and Undetermined and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we show that a simplified version of the MerkleHellman publickey cryptographic system is breakable. While their fullfledged system seems to be resistant to the cryptanalytic attack we propose, this result suggests some ways in which the security of their system can be further enhanced. (Author)
A fast signature scheme by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1978 in English and Undetermined and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper proposes a new scheme for generating and verifying 'electronic signatures' in publickey communications. The scheme is based on the difficulty of solving the knapsack problem, and its two main advantages over previous schemes are speed and simplicity
3 editions published in 1978 in English and Undetermined and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper proposes a new scheme for generating and verifying 'electronic signatures' in publickey communications. The scheme is based on the difficulty of solving the knapsack problem, and its two main advantages over previous schemes are speed and simplicity
Differential cryptanalysis of Snefru, Khafre, REDOCII, LOKI and Lucifer by
Eli Biham(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "In [1,2] we introduced the notion of differential cryptanalysis based on chosen plaintext attacks. In [3,4] we described the application of differential cryptanalysis to Feal [13,12] and extended the method to known plaintext attacks. In this paper differential cryptanalysis methods are applied to the hash function Snefru[10] and to the cryptosystems Khafre [11], REDOCII [6,7], LOKI [5] and Lucifer [8]."
2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "In [1,2] we introduced the notion of differential cryptanalysis based on chosen plaintext attacks. In [3,4] we described the application of differential cryptanalysis to Feal [13,12] and extended the method to known plaintext attacks. In this paper differential cryptanalysis methods are applied to the hash function Snefru[10] and to the cryptosystems Khafre [11], REDOCII [6,7], LOKI [5] and Lucifer [8]."
IP = Pspace by
Adi Shamir(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "In this paper we prove that when both randomization and interaction are allowed, the proofs which can be verified in polynomial time are exactly those proofs which can be generated with polynomial space."
1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "In this paper we prove that when both randomization and interaction are allowed, the proofs which can be verified in polynomial time are exactly those proofs which can be generated with polynomial space."
Differential cryptanalysis of DESlike cryptosystems by
Eli Biham(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is the best known and most widely used cryptosystem for civilian applications. It was developed at IBM and adopted by the National Buraeu [sic] of Standards in the mid 70's, and has successfully withstood all the attacks published so far in the open literature. In this paper we develop a new type of cryptanalytic attack which can break DES with up to eight rounds in a few minutes on a PC and can break DES with up to 15 rounds faster than an exhaustive search. The new attack can be applied to a variety of DESlike substitution/permutation cryptosystems, and demonstrates the crucial role of the (unpublished) design rules."
2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is the best known and most widely used cryptosystem for civilian applications. It was developed at IBM and adopted by the National Buraeu [sic] of Standards in the mid 70's, and has successfully withstood all the attacks published so far in the open literature. In this paper we develop a new type of cryptanalytic attack which can break DES with up to eight rounds in a few minutes on a PC and can break DES with up to 15 rounds faster than an exhaustive search. The new attack can be applied to a variety of DESlike substitution/permutation cryptosystems, and demonstrates the crucial role of the (unpublished) design rules."
New modernism architecture in the age of digital technology by
Adi Shamir(
)
2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Differential cryptanalysis of Feal and NHash by
Eli Biham(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "In [1,2] we introduced the notion of differential cryptanalysis and described its application to DES[11] and several of its variants. In this paper we show the applicability of differential cryptanalysis to the Feal family of encryption algorithms and to the NHash hash function. In addition, we show how to transform differential cryptanalytic chosen plaintext attacks into known plaintext attacks."
2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: "In [1,2] we introduced the notion of differential cryptanalysis and described its application to DES[11] and several of its variants. In this paper we show the applicability of differential cryptanalysis to the Feal family of encryption algorithms and to the NHash hash function. In addition, we show how to transform differential cryptanalytic chosen plaintext attacks into known plaintext attacks."
A T = 0(2[superscript n/2]), S = 0(2[superscript n/4]) algorithm for certain npcomplete problems by
Richard Schroeppel(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we develop a general purpose algorithm that can solve a number of NPcomplete problems in time T=0(2 to the m/2 power) and space S=0(2 to the m/4 power). The algorithm can be generalized to a family of algorithms whose time and space complexities are related by TS2=0(2 to the ninth power). The problems it can handle are characterized by a few decomposition axioms, and they include knapsack problems, exact satisfiability problems, set covering problems, etc. The new algorithm has a considerable cryptanalytic significance, since it can break knapsackbased cryptosystems with up to n = 100 generators. (Author)
3 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we develop a general purpose algorithm that can solve a number of NPcomplete problems in time T=0(2 to the m/2 power) and space S=0(2 to the m/4 power). The algorithm can be generalized to a family of algorithms whose time and space complexities are related by TS2=0(2 to the ninth power). The problems it can handle are characterized by a few decomposition axioms, and they include knapsack problems, exact satisfiability problems, set covering problems, etc. The new algorithm has a considerable cryptanalytic significance, since it can break knapsackbased cryptosystems with up to n = 100 generators. (Author)
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Related Identities
 Biham, Eli Author
 Rivest, Ronald L. Author
 Adleman, Leonard M.
 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE
 Lapidot, Dror Author
 Feige, U. Author
 Schroeppel, Richard Author
 Adleman, Len
 Zippel, Richard Eliot
 Naor, Moni Author
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Associated Subjects
Algorithms Automatic theorem proving Computational complexity Computer networksSecurity measures Computer programming ComputersAccess control ComputersAccess controlPasswords Computer science Computer security Cryptography CryptographyData processing Data encryption (Computer science) Electronic funds transfers Factors (Algebra) Flow charts Graphic methods Merkle, Ralph C.(Ralph Charles) Poker Polynomials Privacy, Right of Probabilities Shamir, Adi University of California, Berkeley.Department of Architecture
Alternative Names
Adi Šamir
Adi Şamir Kriptoqrafiyaçı
Adi Shamir
Adi Shamir criptógrafo israelí
Adi Shamir crittografo, informatico e matematico israeliano
Adi Shamir Cryptographer
Adi Shamir cryptologue israélien
Adi Shamir israelischer Kryptologieexperte
Adi Shamir izraelski informatyk i kryptograf
Adi Shamir wiskundige uit Israël
Shamir, Adi
Ади Шамир
Аді Шамір
Шамир, Ади
עדי שמיר
آدي شامير
ادی شامیر
আদি শামির
아디 샤미르
アディ・シャミア
阿迪·萨莫尔 Cryptographer
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