WorldCat Identities

Whitesides, G. M.

Works: 75 works in 118 publications in 2 languages and 2,348 library holdings
Genres: Pictorial works  History 
Roles: Speaker, Creator, Author, Editor
Classifications: QC173.4.S94, 530.417
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works about G. M Whitesides
Most widely held works by G. M Whitesides
On the surface of things : images of the extraordinary in science by Felice Frankel( Book )
9 editions published between 1997 and 2007 in English and held by 850 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"How many electrons can dance on the head of a pin? What do DNA strands look like when chased by an electrical charge? Using innovative photographic technology, MIT artist-in-residence Felice Frankel finds startling abstract beauty in the undulations of liquid crystal film, the gymnastics of plastic microstructures, the migratory trudge of bacteria, and other scientific wonders." "What do these experiments teach us, and how might such scientific innovations affect our world? A fascinating text by world-renowned Harvard chemistry professor George M. Whitesides explains each photograph, describing why and how each of these phenomena occur."--Jacket
No small matter : science on the nanoscale by Felice Frankel( Book )
11 editions published between 2009 and 2011 in 3 languages and held by 801 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A small revolution is remaking the world. The only problem is, we can't see it. Images and descriptions reveal the virtually invisible realities and possibilities of nanoscience. An introduction to the science and technology of small things. An overview of recent scientific advances that have given us our ever-shrinking microtechnology - for instance, an information processor connected by wires only 1,000 atoms wide. New methods are described that are used to study nanostructures, suggest ways of understanding their often bizarre behavior, and outline their uses in technology. The various means of making nanostructures are explained and speculated about their importance for critical developments in information processing, computation, biomedicine, and other areas. No Small Matter considers both the benefits and the risks of nano/microtechnology - from the potential of quantum computers and single-molecule genomic sequencers to the concerns about self-replicating nanosystems
Enzymes in synthetic organic chemistry by Chi-Huey Wong( Book )
20 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and Undetermined and held by 475 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book covers the most recent development of enzymatic organic synthesis, with particular focus on the use of isolated enzymes. It is organized into one introductory chapter dealing with the characteristics of enzymes as catalysts, and five chapters dealing with different types of chemical transformations. Methods for enzyme immobilization and stabilizaton, the use of enzymes in extreme environments, and the alteration of enzyme properties by chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis for synthetic purposes are covered
TEDTalks George Whitesides - toward a science of simplicity ( )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Simplicity: We know it when we see it - but what is it, exactly? In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer
Talking nano ( Visual )
2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Provides a basic Nano 101 introduction to nanotechnology, potential applications, implications, and impacts. Designed for classroom, informal, and professional development use."--NISE website
Convergence of knowledge, technology and society : beyond convergence of nano-bio-info-cognitive technologies by Mihail C Roco( Book )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the 21st century, based on five principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combine existing principles, and divergence that generates new ones, (3) decision analysis for research and development based on system-logic deduction, (4) higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. Solutions are outlined for key societal challenges, including creating new industries and jobs, improving lifelong wellness and human potential, achieving personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and securing a sustainable quality of life for all. This report provides a ten-year "NBIC2" vision within a longer-term framework for converging technology and human progress that began with a previous study on "NBIC" fields: nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (Roco and Bainbridge, 2003). This is truly an impressive body of work, which advances a transformative collection of concepts that could impact many areas of society and science. The ideas of this study are exciting. Tinsley Oden, University of Texas, Austin (April 2013) The CKTS study presents inspirational ideas behind the concept of convergence and identifies ground-breaking opportunities for human progress through such convergence. Christos Tokamanis, Nanotechnology and Converging Technologies, EU, Brussels (May 2013) The study provides a systematic and unified, internationally benchmarked framework for convergence that is relevant to policymakers, entrepreneurs, researchers, and the general public. Jo-Won Lee, Hanyang University, Korea (June 2013) I consider .. the first NBIC study in 2001.. as an historical landmark that has caused a new dynamic in the reflection on these new technologies within the broad scientific and governmental community. Frank Theys, Co-producer for public broadcasters ZDF/ARTE, Germany & France (June 2013)
Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently Attached at the Surface of Polyethylene: The Usefulness of Contact Angle in Following the Ionization of Surface Functionality ( Book )
2 editions published between 1983 and 1985 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Oxidation of polyethylene with chromic acid/sulfuric acid generates a material (PE-CO2H) having a high density of carboxylic acid and ketone functionalities in a thin surface layer on the polymer. This paper determines the extent of ionization of the surface and near-surface carboxylic acid groups of these materials in contact with water as a function of pH using three experimental techniques: measurement of attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectra, measurement of contact angles, and direct potentiometric titration. On the basis of correlations between results obtained using these three techniques, we propose an equation relating the contact angles an aqueous solution having a given value of pH and the extent of ionization (a subscript i) of those carboxylic acid groups that are directly exposed to the solution. These carboxylic acid groups have broad titration curves, and have CO2H groups that are less acidic than soluble carboxylic acids. The initial ionization of these carboxylic acid groups occurs when the solution is approximately pH = 6. The detailed structures of these oxidized polymer surface layers and the nature of the interactions between the carboxylic acid and carboxylate ions in them are still not completely defined. Salt effects on the extent of ionization a subscript i at a particular value of pH are unexpectedly small, and suggest that charge-charge interactions between carboxylate ions may not dominate the titration curves. This work demonstrates the usefulness of contact angle in following chemical changes occurring in organic functional groups of surfaces
Nanoscience and nanotechnology what is it about? by G. M Whitesides( Visual )
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This talk will summarize some of the science on which nanotechnology will rest, compare nano- and microtechnology in their characteristics and applications, and suggest some of the issues that those interested in "nano" should address in public policy, and in efforts to accelerate commercial development
Citation for chemical breakthroughs by American Chemical Society( Visual )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Attenuation Lengths of Photoelectrons in Hydrocarbon Films ( Book )
2 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The attenuation length, lambda, of photoelectrons with energies in the range 900-1400 eV in hydrocarbon films was measured using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols, HSCnH2n+1, on gold. The intensity of the photoelectron peaks from the gold substrate decreased exponentially with the chain length, with attenuation lengths of 42 A at 1402 eV, 34 A at 1151 eV, and 28 A at 940 eV. Over the narrow energy range studied, lambda was directly proportional to the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons. Keywords: Photoelectron spectroscopy; Attenuation lengths; Monomolecular films; Self assembly; Gold; Alkanethiols. (jhd)
Correlation between Surface Free Energy and Surface Constitution ( )
1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkylsiloxanes on elastomeric PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) were used as model systems to study interactions between surfaces. Surface free energies of these chemically modified surfaces were estimated by measuring the deformations that resulted from the contact between small semispherical lenses and flat sheets of the elastomer under controlled loads. The measured surface free energies correlated with the surface chemical compositions of the SAMs and were commensurate with the values estimated from the measurements of contact angles. This study provides, for the first time, direct experimental evidence for the validity of estimates of the surface free energies of low-energy solids obtained from contact angles
Reductive Elimination of H-H, H-CH3, and CH3-CH3 from Bis(Phosphine)Platinum(II), - Palladium(II), and -Nickel(II) Complexes: A Theoretical Study Using the SCF-X alpha-SW Method ( Book )
1 edition published in 1981 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Self-consistent-field X alpha scattered-wave (SCF-Xalpha-SW) calculations have been carried out for two series of organometallic complexes (L = H3P: L2PtH2, L2Pt(H)CH3, and L2Pt(CH3)2; L2Ni(CH3)2, L2Pd(CH3)2, and L2Pt(CH3)2. These calculations suggest a correlation between the relative rates of reductive elimination (L2MXY yields L2M + XY) and the molecular orbital character of the starting complexes: those compounds which eliminate XY relatively rapidly have occupied molecular orbitals with pronounced M-X(Y) antibonding character those which eliminate XY slowly have only vacant M-X(Y) antibonding orbitals. No single orbital (HOMO or other) dominates the M-X(Y) bonding in thses complexes: bonding and antibonding character is distributed among several of the valence orbitals. We propose a simple model to correlate the occupancy of antibonding M-X(Y) orbitals and rates of reductive elimination with the relative electronegativities of M and X(Y). The limitations of this model, and alternates to it, are described briefly. (Author)
The Structure and Reactivity of Alkylsiloxane Monolayers Formed by Reaction of Alkyltrichlorosilanes on Silicon Substrates ( Book )
1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Long-chain alkyltrichlorosilanes, C13Si (CH2)nX, adsorb from solution onto silicon-silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) substrates and form ordered alkylsiloxane monolayer films. These films were characterized by wettability, ellipsometry, and XPS. Except for very short chains (n = 0,1,2), the wetting of these monolayers was approximately independent of chain length. The presence of small amounts of water was necessary for the formation of these films. The alkylsiloxane monolayers were stable in common organic solvents, water, and acid, but were destroyed by prolonged exposure to base. Simple reactions on vinyl-terminated monolayers generated alcohol-, carboxylic acid-, and bromine- terminated films whose contact angles were lower than the starting monolayers, but whose lengths were largely unchanged. Measurements of the contact angle of acid-terminated interfaces as a function of pH indicated that ionization of soluble carboxylic acids. Monolayers containing mixtures of methyl- and carboxyl-functionalities exhibited wetting properties that mirrored the composition of the interface
Molecular Self-Assembly and Nanochemistry: A Chemical Strategy for the Synthesis of Nanostructures ( Book )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Molecular self assembly is the spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates joined by non-covalent bonds. Molecular self-assembly is ubiquitous in biological systems, and underlies the formation of a wide variety of complex biological structures. Understanding self-assembly and the associated non- covalent interactions that connect complementary interacting molecular surfaces in biological aggregates is a central concern in structural biochemistry. Self- assembly is also emerging as a new strategy in chemical synthesis, with the potential of generating non-biological structures having dimensions of 1-10 2 nanometers. Structures in the upper part of this range of sizes are presently inaccessible through chemical synthesis, and the ability to prepare them would open a route to structures comparable in size (and perhaps complementary in function) to those that can be prepared by microlithography and other techniques of microfabrication
The Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid and Ester Groups in the Functionalized Interfacial Region of 'Polyethylene Carboxylic Acid' (PE-CO2H) and Derivatives: Differentiation of the Functional Groups into Shallow and Deep Subsets Based on a Comparison of Contact Angle and ATR-IR Measurements ( Book )
1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The carboxylic acid groups present in the functionalized interface of polyethylene carboxylic acid (PE-CO2H, a material prepared from low-density polyethylene film have been differentiated by reaction with aqueous chromic acid) into two subsets: those sufficiently close to the surface of the polymer to influence its wettability by water and those too deep to do so. This differentiation was accomplished by taking advantage of differences in rates of esterification of carboxylic acid groups in different regions of the functionalized interface, and of differences in rates of hydrolysis of ester groups derived from them. The subset of functional groups influencing wettability comprises <30% of the total groups present in the functionalized interface and appears to be homogeneous in its chemical reactivity. The remaining groups (approx. 70% of the total) do not directly influence wettability and appear to become less reactive with increasing depth in the polymer. The surface and subsurface carboxylic acid and ester moieties are both less reactive in hydrolysis and formation reactions than are these groups in organic molecules in solution. Reactivities of the interfacial functional groups depend on structure in ways having no analogy in reactions in solution
Designing Ordered Molecular Arrays in Two and Three Dimensions ( Book )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Two and three dimensional assemblies self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and hydrogen-bonded co-crystals, respectively show substantial changes in their supramolecular structures with seemingly minor changes in the structure of their molecular atomic constituents. The structure of SAMs obtained by adsorption of alkanethiols onto silver and copper are indistinguishable, although the atomic radii of silver and copper are different. The structure of the SAM on silver is different from that on gold, although the atomic radii of these metals are essentially the same. A macroscopic property of the SAMs, wetting, is not affected by these structural differences. Co-crystals formed from derivatives of barbiturates and melamines form hydrogen bonded tapes in the solid state. These tapes provide a template for studying the packing forces within crystals
Omega-Terminated Alkanethiolate Monolayers on Surfaces of Copper, Silver and Gold Have Similar Wettabilities ( Book )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Long chain alkanethiols (HS(CH2)nX) adsorb from solution onto the surfaces of freshly evaporated copper, silver and gold films and form oriented monolayers. Both polar and non-polar tail groups (X) can be accommodated in these adsorptions. Adsorption on all three metals generates self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) exhibiting similar wetting properties, and thus, by inference, having related oriented structures. XPS data suggest that the omega-terminated eta-alkanethiolate monolayers, like those derived from simple alkanethiols, are composed of trans-extended chains having orientations on copper and silver that are closer to the perpendicular to the surface than are those on gold. We have prepared and characterized monolayers (mixed monolayers) by exposure of all three metals to mixtures of HS (CH2)11OH and HS9CH2)11CH3
The configurational stability of primary Grignard reagents. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the study of molecular asymmetry by G. M Whitesides( )
1 edition published in 1964 in Undetermined and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Part I. The Configurational Stability of Primary Grignard Reagents. Examination of the temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 3,3-dimethylbutylmagnesium chloride in diethyl ether solution indicates that inversion of configuration at the methylene group of this Grignard reagent occurs with an approximate rate of 10 sec.[superscript -1] at room temperature. The dependence of the rate of inversion on solvent and on the structure of the Grignard reagent is discussed in terms of possible mechanisms for the inversion. Part II. Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to the Study of Molecular Asymmetry. The methylene protons of 1-phenylethyl benzyl ether are magnetically non-equivalent and display an AB-type nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. The variation in the spectrum of this compound and in the spectra of other structurally similar ethers with solvent indicates that the principal contribution to the magnetic non-equivalence of the methylene protons originates in the magnetic anisotropy of the phenyl group bonded directly to the methylene group. It is suggested that the solvent dependence of these spectra reflects changes in the populations of the possible rotational conformations open to the molecule
The Anthranilate Amide of 'Polyethylene Carboxylic Acid' Shows and Exceptionally Large Change with pH in Its Wettability by Water ( Book )
1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The amide formed from polyethylene carboxylic acid (PE-CO2H) and anthranilic acid shows an exceptionally large change in wettability by water with pH. The values of advancing contact angles theta(a) are theta(a)(pH 1) = 110 degs and theta(a)(pH 12) = 33 degs. Comparison of these values with those for corresponding amides of meta- and para-aminobenzoic acid and aniline suggest that both conformational mobility of the polar functional group at the solid-water interface and surface roughness contribute to this large value. (AW)
X-Ray Damage to CF3CO2-Terminated Organic Monolayers on Si/Au Supports is due Primarily to X-Ray Induced Electrons ( Book )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
X rays damage organic materials. The relative importance of X rays themselves, and of both X ray generated and secondary electrons, in this damage was explored using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on multilayer thin film supports. The substrates were prepared by depositing thin films of Si (0, 50, 100 and 200) on thick layers of Au (2000 Angstroms); these systems were supported on chromium-primed silicon wafers. Trifluoroacetyl-terminated SAMs were assembled on these substrates and the samples irradiated with monochromatic A1 Kalpha X-rays. The fluxes of X rays to which the different samples were exposed were the same, but the fluxes and energy distributions of the electrons generated by interactions of the X rays with the substrates differed. The loss of fluorine from the SAMs was followed by XPS and was slower on substrates emitting a lower flux of electrons. This observation indicated that the electrons, and not the X rays themselves, were largely responsible for the damage to the organic monolayer films that resulted in loss of fluorine from them
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Audience level: 0.39 (from 0.00 for Acid-Base ... to 1.00 for Nanoscienc ...)
Alternative Names
Whitesides, G. M.
Whitesides, George M.
English (58)
German (4)