WorldCat Identities

United States Department of Energy Environmental Management Science Program

Works: 1,643 works in 1,675 publications in 1 language and 11,304 library holdings
Roles: Researcher, Sponsor
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Most widely held works by United States

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of this study is to characterize and analyze in-situ flow and transport within the vadose zone during a mid-scale hydrologic infiltration experiment. This project has employed numerical and experimental tools developed under a previously funded EMSP proposal (project number 55332) to provide 3-D unsaturated hydrologic property distributions. In the present project, geophysical imaging techniques have been employed to track analogue contaminant plumes. The results are providing a better understanding of transport modes including the influence of natural heterogeneities and man-made structures within the vadose zone at DOE sites. In addition the data is providing checks against which numerical flow and transport simulations can be compared
Integrated Field, Laboratory, and Modeling Studies to Determine the Effects of Linked Microbial and Physical Spatial Heterogeneity on Engineered Vadose Zone Bioremediation( )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of the project at large was to experiment with new methods for bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride plumes in the soils at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA. Traditionally, biostimulation occurs via pumping of liquid nutrient solution into the vadose zone, however an alternate methodology utilizes the introduction of gaseous nutrients, specifically nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon sources. The movement of liquid through the vadose zone tends to disperse contaminant plumes, and/or cause biofouling (excessive microbial growth) in the vicinity of injection wells. Alternatively, gas-phase nutrient introduction yields greater dispersion of molecules and little to no displacement of target plumes. Once vapor-phase molecules solubilize into soil water, they become bioavailable and should thus encourage colonization and degradation. The feasibility of this method of nutrient delivery was studied in an experimental laboratory system, the goal of which was to observe, in situ, microbial colonization in response to gaseous nutrient injection. It was hoped that these observations would aid in predictive modeling of microbial behavior in field scale bioremediation
On-Line Derivatization Gas Chromatography Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Water( )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A method has been developed for the determination of endocrine disruptors (EDs) (containing hydroxyl groups) in surface water from different sources. The surface water samples from different sites including school and local dormitory sewage effluents, lake water and river water were collected and analyzed. In this method, the pretreated sample is directly analyzed by GC-MS using on-line derivatization, where tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMA-OH) was used as the derivatizing agent. Use of large-volume direct sample introduction (DSI) and co-injection of the sample and TMAOH avoids external contaminations as observed in conventional derivatization protocols. Additionally, the use of chemical ionization (CI) and CI-MS/MS could enable detection of EDs at lower concentrations and reduce the matrices' interference thereby enhancing detection sensitivity of EDs for quantification. In this work, the use of dichloromethane as CI reagent for EDs is reported for the first time and could detect EDs to concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL. The recovery ranged from 74 to 112 % and the relative standard derivations for replicate analyses ranged from 5 to 17 %. We hope that this method will be applicable for routine analysis of EDs with hydroxyl functional groups
Final Report for Environmental Management Science Program - Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides : Activities at the University of Notre Dame( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations. The project involves a collaboration among four organizations, with each focused on a different aspect of the problem. This document is the final report on the three years of activities conducted at the University of Notre Dame, where the research focus was on the use of molecular modeling to understand ion exchange selectivity in titanosilicates and polyoxoniobate materials
A fundamental study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using fiber optics for remote measurements of trace metals. 1998 annual progress report( )

2 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The long-term goal of this project is to develop a system to measure the elemental composition of unprepared samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, LIBS, with a fiber-optic probe. From images shown in this report it is evident that the temporal and spatial behavior of laser-induced plasmas IS a complex process. However, through the use of spectral imaging, optimal conditions can be determined for collecting the atomic emission signal in these plasmas. By tailoring signal collection to the regions of the plasma that contain the highest emission signal with the least amount of background interference both the detection limits and the precision of LIBS measurements could be improved. The optimal regions for both gated and possibly non-gated LIBS measurements have been shown to correspond to the inner regions and outer regions, respectively, in an axial plasma. By using this data fiber-optic LIBS probe designs can be optimized for collecting plasma emission at the optimal regions for improved detection limits and precision in a LIBS measurement."
The influence of radiation on pit solution chemistry as it pertains to the transition from metastable to stable pitting in steels by Robert Hanrahan( )

2 editions published between 2002 and 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This presentation was given at the DOE Office of Science-Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) High-Level Waste Workshop held on January 19-20, 2005 at the Savannah River Site
Quantifying and Predicting Reactive Transport of Uranium in Waste Plumes( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Hanford Site is the DOE's largest legacy waste site, with uranium (U) from plutonium processing being a major contaminant in its subsurface. Accident release of highly concentrated high level wastes (e.g. 0.5 lb U(VI)/gal) left large quantities of U in the vadose zone under tank farms (e.g. 7-8 tons U(VI) under tank BX-102 (Jones et al., 2001)). The U contamination has been found in groundwater in both 300 and 200 Areas of Hanford, indicating U(VI) was/is mobile. Because excavation costs are enormous, this U will likely be left in-ground for the foreseeable future. Therefore, understanding the contamination processes and the resulting U spatial and temporary distributions and mobility in the heavily contaminated Hanford site is needed in order to forecast its future transport. The overall objective of this research is to develop an experimentally supported conceptual model of U reactive transport, during and after the tank leakage, at heavily U-contaminated areas of the Hanford vadose zone. The conceptual model will incorporate key geochemical and physical controls on the contamination process, explain the current distribution of U in the vadose zone, and guide predictions of its future mobility under the influence of natural recharge. We do not seek to predict the complex flow geometry of any specific waste plume. Instead, our work is trying to identify the hierarchy of processes relevant along U waste plume paths
High Temperature Condensed Phase Mass Spectrometric Analysis( )

2 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This program (in the 20th month as of this writing) was initiated with the goal of designing, constructing and operating a materials analysis instrument capable of obtaining a wide variety of chemical measurements on a material at high temperature. This instrument is being built around a quadrupole mass spectrometer. There are three main modes of obtaining spectra from the high temperature condensed phase material; surface ionization from the condensed phase, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS, both static and dynamic modes) of the condensed phase, and electron impact ionization of vapor phase neutral species. The combination of the data from these three modes will allow the gleaning of chemical information concerning the nature of the chemical species present in both the condensed phase (solid or molten) and the vapor phase. The intended application is the identification of the chemical species present in materials at high temperatures
Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination( )

2 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report focuses on progress made in the last 12 months, with prior results briefly summarized. We emphasize that the key to our work is an increase in barrier properties. Thus, much of our work has focused on poor, thin barriers composed of PVA. WE have done so because experiments are then able to be conducted over reasonable times. At the same time, we have developed and experimentally verified theories showing how our short experiments can be extrapolated to real situations
Characterization of U(VI) Sorption-Desorption Processes and Model Upscaling : Annual Report for Johns Hopkins University (Contract No. DE-FG07-02ER63498)( )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objectives of the overall collaborative EMSP effort (with which this project is associated) are to characterize sorption and desorption processes of U(VI) on pristine and contaminated Hanford sediments over a range of sediment facies and materials properties. The research is intended to provide new insights on the mechanisms of U(VI) retardation at Hanford, and to develop approaches by which laboratory-characterized geochemical models can be upscaled for defensible predictions of uranium transport in field
Characterization of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Related Metal-Reducing bacteria by MALDI-TOF MS( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Photooxidation of Isopropanol and Acetone Using TiO₂ Suspension and UV Light( )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Small polar organic compounds such as alcohols, ketones and aldehydes are highly soluble and do not adsorb strongly to the TiO2 surface and, therefore, may be fairly resistant to photocatalytic degradation. Photodegradation of an aqueous solution of isopropanol and its resulting photodegradation product acetone was investigated as a function of TiO2 substrate concentrations and solution ionic strength and pH. In the presence of 2g/L TiO2, isopropanol completely disappeared within 3 hrs, resulting in the nearly complete transformation into acetone. Subsequent photodegradation of acetone occurred at a much slower rate and resulted in complete mineralization. Increasing the pH slightly decreased the photodegradation rate. Conversely, the degradation rate was enhanced slightly by increasing the ionic strength. The presence of tetranitromethane decreased the isopropanol degradation significantly. This result, combined with the minimal degree of adsorption of isopropanol and acetone onto the surface of the photocatalyst, suggests that the photodegradation pathway occurs via free OH radicals in bulk solution rather than on the catalyst surface
Influences of Flow Transients and Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Colloid Associated Contaminant Transport in the Vadose Zone( )

2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We are investigating the role of colloids in the movement of radionuclides through water unsaturated porous media. This research is guided by a key objective of the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP), which is to improve conceptual and predictive models for contaminant movement in complex vadose zone environments. In the report entitled National Roadmap for Vadose Zone Science and Technology [DOE, 2001], increases in the understanding of colloid-contaminant interactions, colloid mobilization, and colloid deposition within unsaturated soils are cited as requisite needs for predicting contaminant fate and distribution in the vadose zone. We seek to address these needs by pursuing three overarching goals: (1) identify the mechanisms that govern colloid mobilization, transport, and deposition within unsaturated porous media; (2) quantify the role of colloids in scavenging and facilitating the transport of radionuclides; and (3) develop and test a mathematical model suitable for simulating the movement of colloid associated radionuclides through variably saturated porous media

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Treatment of underground tanks at Hanford with concentrated alkali to improve removal of wastelimiting components of sludges has proven less efficacious for Al and Cr removal than had been hoped. Hence, more aggressive treatments of sludges, including contact with oxidants targeting Cr(III), have been tested in a limited number of samples and found to enhance Cr removal. Unfortunately, treatments of sludge samples with oxidative alkaline leachates produce conditions under which normally insoluble actinide ions (e.g., Am3+, Pu4+, Np4+) can no longer be reliably assumed to remain in the sludge phase. Few experimental or meaningful theoretical studies of actinide chemistry in strongly alkaline, strongly oxidizing solutions have been completed. Extrapolation of acid phase thermodynamic data to these radically different conditions provides little reliable guidance for predicting actinide speciation in highly salted alkaline solutions. In this project, we are investigating the fundamental chemistry of actinides in sludge simulants and supernatants under representative oxidative leaching conditions. We are also examining the potential impact of acidic leaching with concurrent secondary separations to enhance Al removal. Our objective is to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop. We expect to identify those components of sludges that are likely to be problematic in the application of oxidative leaching protocols
Ecological Interactions Between Metals and Microbes( )

2 editions published between 2004 and 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analyses of chromium resistant microbes. Culturable xylene-degrading and chromate-resistant microbes were obtained from chronically cocontaminated soil using a microcosm enrichment technique, and shown to correlate to dominant soil populations using culture independent techniques. The soil microbial community proved able to mount a respiratory response to addition of xylene in the presence of chromate. The majority of isolates belonged to the ubiquitous but poorly studied high %G+C Gram positive genus Arthrobacter, and exhibited considerable genotypic and phenotypic variability. Phenotypic assays uncovered a wide variation in the levels of chromate resistance, even between very closely related strains. Primers designed against conserved motifs in the known chrA chromate efflux gene failed to detect similar sequences among the chromate resistant Arthrobacter isolates obtained through enrichment
Technetium Chemistry in HLW( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry
Automated Kinematics Equations Generation and Constrained Motion Planning Resolution for Modular and Reconfigurable Robots( )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Contrary to the repetitive tasks performed by industrial robots, the tasks in most DOE missions such as environmental restoration or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) can be characterized as ''batches-of-one'', in which robots must be capable of adapting to changes in constraints, tools, environment, criteria and configuration. No commercially available robot control code is suitable for use with such widely varying conditions. In this talk we present our development of a ''generic code'' to allow real time (at loop rate) robot behavior adaptation to changes in task objectives, tools, number and type of constraints, modes of controls or kinematics configuration. We present the analytical framework underlying our approach and detail the design of its two major modules for the automatic generation of the kinematics equations when the robot configuration or tools change and for the motion planning under time-varying constraints. Sample problems illustrating the capabilities of the developed system are presented
Ultra-Sensitive Elemental and Isotope Measurements with Compact Plasma Source Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CPS-CRDS)( )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The proposed research is to develop a new class of instruments for actinide isotopes and hazardous element analysis through coupling highly sensitive cavity ring-down spectroscopy to a compact microwave plasma source. The research work will combine advantages of CRDS measurement with a low power, low flow rate, tubing-type microwave plasma source to reach breakthrough sensitivity for elemental analysis and unique capability of isotope measurement. The project has several primary goals: (1) Explore the feasibility of marrying CRDS with a new microwave plasma source; (2) Provide quantitative evaluation of CMP-CRDS for ultra-trace elemental and actinide isotope analysis; (3) Approach a breakthrough detection limit of ca. 10-13 g/ml or so, which are orders of magnitude better than currently available best values; (4) Demonstrate the capability of CMP-CRDS technology for isobaric measurements, such as 238U and 238Pu isotopes. (5) Design and assemble the first compact, field portable CMP-CRDS instrument with a high-resolution diode laser for DOE/EM on-site demonstration. With all these unique capabilities and sensitivities, we expect CMP-CRDS will bring a revolutionary change in instrument design and development, and will have great impact and play critical roles in supporting DOE's missions in environmental remediation, environmental emission control, waste management and characterization, and decontamination and decommissioning. The ultimate goals of the proposed project are to contribute to environmental management activities that would decrease risk for the public and workers, increase worker productivity with on-site analysis, and tremendously reduce DOE/EM operating costs

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Actinide contamination of steel and concrete surfaces is a major problem within the DOE complex. Almost all current decontamination technologies rely on removal of the contaminated surface layer by mechanical means or by chemical methods, using harsh chemicals. Some of the technologies are ineffective. Others are expensive, labor intensive, and hazardous to workers. Still others create secondary mixed wastes that are not environmentally acceptable. This project seeks fundamental information that will lead to the development of a new and more environmentally acceptable technology for decontamination of actinides, especially Pu, on steel and concrete surfaces. The key component of this technology is isosaccharinate (ISA), a degradation product of cellulose materials that is biodegradable. Isosaccharinate will be incorporated into foams/gels for safe and easy use in decontamination of actinides from steel, concrete, and other surfaces. Thermodynamic data are being developed on the interactions of ISA with actinides and competing metals [e.g., Fe(III) and Ca(II)] under a wide range of conditions relevant to decontamination of steel and concrete. The efficiency of the ISA containing foams/gels/solutions for decontamination is also being tested. This project builds on capabilities at three different national laboratories, and represents a joint effort between PNNL, LBNL, and SNL
Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions
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Alternative Names

controlled identityUnited States. Department of Energy



United States. Dept. of Energy. Environmental Management Science Program

English (52)

Subsurface contamination remediation : accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science ProgramResearch needs for high-level waste stored in tanks and bins at U.S. Department of Energy sites : Environmental Management Science ProgramResearch needs in subsurface science : U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science ProgramSubsurface contamination remediation : accomplishments of the environmental management science program