WorldCat Identities

Toubal, Farid

Works: 60 works in 174 publications in 3 languages and 502 library holdings
Roles: Redactor, Author, Thesis advisor, Opponent, Creator
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Farid Toubal
Investissement direct étranger et performances des entreprises rapport by France( Book )

4 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 50 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La 4e de couverture indique : "Que sait-on de l'impact de la mondialisation sur les entreprises? À l'heure où ressurgissent les craintes de délocalisation et la tentation protectionniste, Lionel Fontagné et Farid Toubal évaluent l'impact de l'investissement direct étranger sur les performances des entreprises françaises. Comment évoluent l'emploi, le chiffre d'affaires, la valeur ajoutée d'une entreprise française après qu'elle a fait le choix de s'implanter à l'étranger (investissement sortant)? Quelles sont les cibles privilégiées par les investisseurs étrangers (investissement entrant)? Ces cibles pâtissent-elles de l'absorption ou, au contraire, gagnent-elles la possibilité de mieux exploiter leurs avantages compétitifs? Les réponses apportées par les auteurs tendent à rassurer sur les bienfaits de l'internationalisation. Qu'il s'agisse d'une implantation à l'étranger ou d'une acquisition par un groupe étranger, l'internationalisation renforce les performances des entreprises. Ce résultat important est obtenu à partir d'une méthode d'estimation originale mobilisant non pas des données macroéconomiques traditionnelles d'investissement direct, de plus en plus sujettes à caution, mais tout un ensemble de données individuelles d'entreprises (données d'enquêtes, données de douanes ...). Ce rapport du Conseil d'analyse économique n'est pas neutre en termes de politique économique et invite finalement à se concentrer davantage sur les entreprises qui souffrent d'un manque d'internationalisation plutôt que sur celles qui prospèrent grâce à une stratégie d'ouverture à l'international."
Determinants of German FDI : new evidence from micro-data by Claudia M Buch( Book )

5 editions published in 2003 in English and German and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Where enterprises lead, people follow? : links between migration and German FDI by Claudia M Buch( Book )

10 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 25 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The distance puzzle : on the interpretation of the distance coefficient in gravity equations by Claudia M Buch( Book )

9 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern European countries : a dynamic panel analysis by Kai Carstensen( Book )

8 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The spatial and sectoral distribution of multinational activities in Eastern Europe by Farid Toubal( )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

International Sourcing, Product Complexity and Intellectual Property Rights by Alireza Naghavi( )

5 editions published in 2011 in English and German and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, we propose the technological complexity of a product and the level of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) protection to be the co-determinants of the mode through which multinational firms purchase their goods. We study the choice between intra-firm trade and outsourcing given heterogeneity at the product- (complexity), firm- (productivity) and country- (IPRs) level. Our findings suggest that the above three dimensions of heterogeneity are crucial for complex goods, where firms face a trade-off between higher marginal costs in the case of trade with an affiliate and higher imitation risks in the case of sourcing from an independent supplier. We test these predictions by combining data from a French firm-level survey on the mode choice for each transaction with a newly developed complexity measure at the product-level. Our fractional logit estimations confirm the proposition that although firms are generally reluctant to source highly complex goods from outside the firm's boundaries, they do so when a strong IPR regime in the host country guarantees the protection of their technology. -- Sourcing Decision ; Product Complexity ; Intellectual Property Rights ; Fractional Logit Estimation
Foreign sales strategies of multinational enterprises by Jörn Kleinert( )

4 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The business literature has long recognized the importance of multinationals' distribution networks. The empirical analysis of distribution-oriented FDI has, however, received little attention which is at least partly due to the lack of appropriate data. We outline a slightly modified version of Helpman, Melitz, and Yeaple (2004) that explicitly models the possibility for a multinational firm to export through its wholesale trade affiliate in order to analyze multinational firms' choice between foreign production and foreign distribution. The subsequent empirical analysis uses different discrete choice models. We use alternative specifications and report estimation results for several sub-samples of multinational firms. We also consider more complex foreign sales strategies and correct for the sample selection bias that arises because we only observe firms that have foreign affiliates. Our results show that the decision between distribution and production-oriented FDI is based on the trade-off between fixed and variable costs. -- Multinational firms ; Wholesale sales ; Discrete choice
Openness and Growth: The long shadow of the Berlin Wall by Claudia M Buch( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Trade's Impact on the Labor Share: Evidence from German and Italian Regions by Claudia M Buch( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Native language, spoken language, translation and trade by Jacques Melitz( Book )

8 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguistic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1) the aggregate impact of all linguistic factors on bilateral trade, (2) whether the linguistic influences come from ethnicity and trust or ease of communication, and (3) in so far they come from ease of communication, to what extent translation and interpreters play a role. The results show that the impact of linguistic factors, all together, is at least twice as great as the usual dummy variable for common language, resting on official language, would say. In addition, ease of communication is far more important than ethnicity and trust. Further, so far as ease of communication is at work, translation and interpreters are extremely important. Finally, ethnicity and trust come into play largely because of immigrants and their influence is otherwise difficult to detect
Knocking on tax haven's door multinational firms and transfer pricing by Ronald B Davies( Book )

11 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper analyzes the transfer pricing of multinational firms. We propose a simple framework in which intra-firm prices may systematically deviate from arm's length prices for two motives: i) pricing to market, and ii) tax avoidance. Multinational firms may decide not to avoid taxes if the risk to be sanctioned is high compared to the tax gap. Using detailed French firm-level data on arm's length and intra-firm export prices, we find that both mechanisms are at work. The sensitivity of intra-firm prices to foreign taxes is reinforced once we control for pricing-to-market determinants. Most importantly, we find almost no evidence of tax avoidance if we disregard exports to tax havens. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that tax avoidance through transfer pricing amounts to about 1% of the total corporate taxes collected by tax authorities in France. The lion's share of this loss is driven by the exports of 450 firms to ten tax havens. As such, it may be possible to achieve significant revenue increases with minimal cost by targeting enforcement
Intellectual property rights, product complexity, and the organization of multinational firms by Alireza Naghavi( Book )

6 editions published between 2013 and 2014 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper studies how the Intellectual Property Right (IPR) regime in destination countries influences the way multinationals structure the international organization of their production. In particular, we explore how multinationals divide tasks of different complexities across countries with different levels of IPR protection. The analysis studies the decision of firms between procurement from related parties and from independents suppliers at the product level. It also breaks down outsourcing into two types by distinguishing whether or not they involve technology sharing between the two parties. We combine data from a French firm-level survey on the mode choice for each transaction with a newly developed complexity measure at the product level. Our results confirm that firms are generally reluctant to source highly complex goods from outside firm boundaries. By studying the interaction between product complexity and the IPR protection, we obtain that (i) for technology-sharing-outsourcing IPRs promote outsourcing of more complex goods to a destination country by guaranteeing the protection of their technology, (ii) for non-technology-related-outsourcing IPRs attract the outsourcing of less complex products that are more prone to reverse engineering and simpler to decodify and imitate
Ethnic networks, information, and international trade : revisiting the evidence by Gabriel Felbermayr( Book )

4 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Import competition and exit in business services sectors by Pamela Bombarda( Book )

3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Business services firms are increasingly under pressure from foreign competition. We develop an oligopolistic competition model that studies the effect of trade liberalization on exit and sectoral restructuring in the business services sector. We assume that firms are heterogeneous in their marginal costs, allowing the model to predict domestic M&A and exit by closedown, as well as foreign M&A. The model is brought to detailed French firm-level data on exit and M&A in the business services sector. The empirical analysis confirms that due to greater import penetration, French service firms exit by closedown and by M&A. Contrary to previous findings for manufacturing, we show that imports from high-income countries cause the majority of this exit, helping to inform the ongoing debate regarding the dangers of services trade liberalization
Foreign language learning : an econometric analysis by Victor Ginsburgh( Book )

11 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The paper is devoted to an econometric analysis of learning foreign languages in all parts of the world. Our sample covers 193 countries and 13 important languages. Four factors significantly explain learning, two of which affect the broad decision to learn, while two concern as well the choice of the particular language to learn. Literacy generally promotes learning while the world population of speakers of the native language generally discourages it. Trade with speakers of a specific language prompts learning of that specific language while the linguistic distance between the home and the foreign language discourages learning of the specific language. Trade is highly significant and may well deserve more emphasis than the other three key variables (literacy rate, linguistic distance, and world population of native speakers) because its direction can change faster and by a larger order of magnitude. Controlling for individual acquired languages, including English, is of no particular importance
The few leading the many : foreign affiliates and business cycle comovement by Jörn Kleinert( Book )

5 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper uses micro-data on balance sheets, trade, and the nationality of ownership of firms in France to investigate the effect of foreign multinationals on business cycle comovement. We first show that foreign affiliates, which represent a tiny fraction of all firms, are responsible for a high share of employment, value added, and trade both at the national and at the regional levels. We also show that the distribution of foreign affiliates across French regions differs with the nationality of the parent. We then show that foreign affiliates increase the comovement of activities between their region of location and their country of ownership. We also find that intra-firm trade in intermediate inputs is a significant channel of influence of business cycle comovement. These findings suggest that the international transmission of shocks is partly due to linkages between affiliates and their foreign parents, and that a few multinational companies drive a non-negligible part of business cycle comovement
Productivity, relationship-specific inputs and the sourcing modes of multinationals by Fabrice Defever( Book )

4 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate the roles of productivity and the specificity of inputs for the international sourcing strategy of firms which are part of a multinational network. We present a framework in which firms decide to import from a foreign independent supplier or from their related party abroad according to these two dimensions. We use a detailed survey that provides a detailed geographical breakdown of French firms' imports at the product level as well as the sourcing mode used for each transaction. The dataset also provides information to estimate the firms' productivity and their intensity in relationship-specific inputs. After controlling for countries of origin, products and sectors specific effects, the empirical results provide evidence that for the most productive multinationals the likelihood of trading through an independent supplier is higher especially if they use relationship-specific inputs intensively
Gravity for FDI by Jörn Kleinert( Book )

6 editions published between 2005 and 2007 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We derive gravity equations from three different general equilibrium models incorporating multinational firms. We show that gravity equations are particularly adapted to the analysis of foreign affiliates' activities of multinational firms. However, the different theoretical models lead to different specifications and interpretations of the empirical results. This is particularly the case considering gravity equations derived from factor proportion models compared to those derived from proximity concentration theories
The march of the techies technology, trade, and job polarization in France, 1994-2007 by James Harrigan( )

6 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using administrative employee-firm-level data on the entire private sector from 1994 to 2007, we show that the labor market in France has polarized: employment shares of high and low wage occupations have grown, while middle wage occupations have shrunk. During the same period, the share of hours worked in technology-related occupations ("techies") grew substantially, as did imports and exports, and we explore the causal links between these trends. Our paper is among the first to analyze polarization in any country using firm-level data, and we show how polarization occured within firms, but mostly due to changes in the composition of firms (between firms). Motivated by the fact that technology adoption is mediated by technically qualified managers and technicians, we use a new measure of the propensity of a firm to adopt new technology: its employment share of techies. Using the subsample of firms that are active over the whole period, we show that firms with more techies in 2002 saw greater polarization, and grew faster, from 2002 to 2007. Offshoring reduced employment growth. Among blue-collar workers in manufacturing, importing caused skill upgrading while exporting caused skill downgrading. To control for the endogeneity of firm-level techies and trade in 2002, we use values of techies and trade from 1994 to 1998 as instruments. We conclude that technological change, mediated through techies, is an important cause of polarization in France. Firm-level trade had important effects in manufacturing
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
Audience Level
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.90 (from 0.74 for The march ... to 0.95 for Intellectu ...)

Alternative Names
Toubal, F. 1975-

English (109)

French (4)

German (2)