WorldCat Identities

Milligan, Kevin

Works: 59 works in 235 publications in 2 languages and 1,783 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Kevin Milligan
How does job-protected maternity leave affect mothers' employment and infant health? by Michael Baker( )

9 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 108 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Maternity leaves can affect mothers' and infants' welfare if they first affect the amount of time working women stay at home post birth. We provide new evidence of the labor supply effects of these leaves from an analysis of the introduction and expansion of job-protected maternity leave in Canada. The substantial variation in leave entitlements across mothers by time and space is likely exogenous to their unobserved characteristics. This is important because unobserved heterogeneity correlated with leave entitlement potentially biases many previous studies of this topic. We find that modest mandates of 17-18 weeks do not increase the time mothers spend at home. The physical demands of birth and private arrangements appear to render short mandates redundant. These mandates do, however, decrease the proportion of women quitting their jobs, increase leave taking, and increase the proportion returning to their pre-birth employers. In contrast, we find that expansions of job-protected leaves to lengths up to 70 weeks do increase the time spent at home (as well as leave-taking and job continuity). We also examine whether this increase in time at home affects infant health, finding no evidence of an effect on the incidence of low birth weight or infant mortality"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The integration of child tax credits and welfare evidence from the National Child Benefit Program by Kevin Milligan( )

9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 108 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In 1998, the Canadian government introduced a new child tax credit. The innovation in the program was its integration with social assistance (welfare). Some provinces agreed to subtract the new federally-paid benefits from provincially-paid social assistance, partially lowering the welfare wall. Three provinces did not integrate benefits, providing a quasi-experimental framework for estimation. We find large changes in social assistance take-up and employment in provinces that provided the labour market incentives to do so. In our sample, the integration of benefits can account for around one third of the total decline in social assistance receipt between 1997 and 2000"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Incentive effects of social assistance a regression discontinuity approach by Thomas Lemieux( Book )

14 editions published between 2004 and 2006 in English and held by 98 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"We examine the incentive effects of transfer programs using a unique policy episode. Prior to 1989, social assistance recipients without children in Quebec who were under age 30 received benefits 60 percent lower than recipients older than 30. We use this sharp discontinuity in policy to estimate the effects of social assistance on various labour market outcomes and on living arrangements using a regression discontinuity approach. We find strong evidence that more generous social assistance benefits reduce employment, and more suggestive evidence that they affect marital status and living arrangements. The regression discontinuity estimates exhibit little sensitivity to the degree of flexibility in the specification, and perform very well when we control for unobserved heterogeneity using a first difference specification. Finally, we show that commonly used difference-in-difference estimators may perform poorly when control groups are inappropriately chosen"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health evidence from maternity leave mandates by Michael Baker( )

7 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data."--Abstract
Subsidizing the stork : new evidence on tax incentives and fertility by Kevin Milligan( Book )

11 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Variation in tax policy presents an opportunity to estimate the responsiveness of fertility to prices. This paper exploits the introduction of a pro-natalist transfer policy in the Canadian province of Quebec that paid up to C$8,000 to families having a child. I implement a quasi-experimental strategy by forming treatment and control groups defined by time, jurisdiction, and family type. This permits a triple-difference estimator to be implemented -- both on the program's introduction and cancellation. Furthermore, the incentive was available broadly, rather than to a narrow subset of the population as studied in the literature on AFDC and fertility. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate heterogeneous responses. I find a strong effect of the policy on fertility, and some evidence of a heterogeneous response that may help reconcile these results with the AFDC literature
Simulating the response to reform of Canada's income security programs by Michael Baker( Book )

9 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 81 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: We explore the fiscal implications of reforms to the Canadian retirement income system by decomposing the fiscal effect of reforms into two components. The mechanical effect captures the change in the government's budget assuming no behavioral response to the reform. The second component is the fiscal implication of the behavioral effect, which captures the influence of any induced changes in elderly labor supply on government budgets. We find that the behavioral response can account for up to half of the total impact of reform on government budgets. The behavioral response affects government budgets not only in the retirement income system but also through increased income, payroll, and consumption tax revenue on any induced labor market earnings among the elderly. We show that fully accounting for the behavioral response to reforms can change the cost estimates and distributive impact of retirement income reforms
The retirement incentive effects of Canada's income security programs by Michael Baker( Book )

12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 79 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Like most other developed nations, Canada has a large income security system for retirement that provides significant and widely varying disincentives to work at older ages. Empirical investigation of their effects has been hindered by lack of appropriate data. We provide an empirical analysis of the retirement incentives of the Canadian Income Security (IS) system using a new and comprehensive administrative data base. We find that the work disincentives inherent in the Canadian IS system have large and statistically significant impacts on retirement. This suggests that program reform can some play a role in responses to the fiscal crises these programs periodically experience. We also demonstrate the importance of controlling for lifetime earnings in retirement models. Specifications without these controls overestimate the effects of the IS system. Finally, our estimates vary in sensible ways across samples lending greater confidence to our estimates
Does education improve citizenship? evidence from the U.S. and the U.K. by Kevin Milligan( Book )

10 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Many economists and educators of diverse political beliefs favor public support for education on the premise that a more educated electorate enhances the quality of democracy. While some earlier studies document an association between schooling and citizenship, little attempt has been made to address the possibility that unobservable characteristics of citizens underlie this relationship. This paper explores the effect of extra schooling induced through compulsory schooling laws on the likelihood of becoming politically involved in the US and the UK. We find that educational attainment is related to several measures of political interest and involvement in both countries. For voter turnout, we find a strong and robust relationship between education and voting for the US, but not for the UK. Using the information on validated voting, we find that misreporting of voter status can not explain our estimates. Our results suggest that the observed drop in voter turnout in the US from 1964 to 2000 would have been 10.4 to 12.3 percentage points greater if high school attainment had stayed at 1964 rates, holding all else constant. However, when we condition on registration, our US results approach the UK findings. This may indicate that registration rules present a barrier to low-educated citizens' participation
Public pensions and retirement international evidence in the Canadian context by Kevin Milligan( )

3 editions published between 2006 and 2012 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Life-cycle asset accumulation and allocation in Canada by Kevin Milligan( Book )

9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This paper documents the life-cycle patterns of household portfolios in Canada, and investigates several hypotheses about asset accumulation and allocation. Inferences are drawn from the 1999 Survey of financial security, with some comparisons to earlier wealth surveys from 1977 and 1984. I find cross-sectional evidence for asset decumulation at older ages when annuitized assets like pension wealth are included in the analysis. I also find that the portfolio share of financial assets increases sharply with age, while indicators of risk tolerance appear to decrease. This is consistent with families desiring more liquid and less risky assets as they age"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Making it pay to work improving the work incentives in Canada's public pension system by Kevin Milligan( )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Regional grants as pork barrel politics by Kevin Milligan( )

7 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate the political and economic factors influencing the allocation of regional development grants for a panel of Canadian electoral districts in the 1988-2001 period. In a strong party system such as Canada’s, models of political competition predict little role for individual legislators, as party leaders allocate resources to maximize party success. While spending is targeted toward some swingʺ districts, we do also find it is higher in districts represented by members of the government party, especially those in the federal Cabinet, and those of lower seniority. We develop a model featuring bargaining over legislative and nonlegislative favours that is consistent with the evidence
How household portfolios evolve after retirement the effects of aging and health shocks by Courtney Coile( )

8 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, we study how the portfolios of elderly U.S. households evolve after retirement, using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In particular, we investigate the influence of aging and health shocks on a household's ownership of various assets and on the dollar value and share of total assets held in each asset class. We find that households decrease their ownership of most asset classes as they age, with the strongest evidence for principal residences and vehicles, while increasing the share of assets held in bank accounts and CDs. Consistent with prior studies, we find that the death of a spouse is a strong predictor of selling the principal residence. However, we find that widowhood also leads households to sell vehicles, businesses, and real estate and to put money into bank accounts and CDs, and further that other health shocks have very similar impacts. Finally, we explore why health shocks affect asset holdings and find that the effect of a shock is greatly magnified when households have physical or mental impairments. This suggests that factors other than standard risk and return considerations may weigh heavily in many older households' portfolio decisions
Revisiting recent trends in Canadian after-tax income inequality using census data by Marc Frenette( )

3 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nouvelle analyse des tendances récentes de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt au Canada au moyen des données de recensement by Marc Frenette( )

3 editions published in 2006 in French and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nous présentons de nouveaux résultats concernant les niveaux et les tendances de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt au Canada au cours de la période allant de 1980 à 2000. Nous soutenons que les sources de données existantes ne révèlent pas nécessairement les variations dans les queues de la distribution du revenu alors qu'une grande part des changements que subit cette distribution s'y produisent. Nos données sont tirées des fichiers du recensement et complétées par des estimations de l'impôt payé calculées d'après les renseignements disponibles dans les bases de données fiscales administratives. Nous validons notre méthode de prévision de l'impôt payé par les individus repris dans les fichiers de recensement, puis nous comparons les niveaux et les tendances de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt déterminés d'après notre nouvelle source de données et d'après les données d'enquête généralement utilisées. Nous constatons que l'inégalité du revenu après impôt est considérablement plus importante si l'on se fonde sur les nouvelles données, principalement parce que les niveaux de revenu à l'extrémité inférieure de la distribution sont plus faibles qu'avec les données d'enquête habituelles. Les nouvelles données révèlent un accroissement plus important de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt à long terme et une variabilité nettement plus forte au cours du cycle économique. Ces résultats soulèvent des questions intéressantes quant au rôle du régime d'impôt et de transferts dans l'atténuation des tendances et des fluctuations de l'inégalité du revenu du marché
Universal childcare, maternal labor supply, and family well-being by Michael Baker( Book )

8 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The growing labor force participation of women with small children in both the U.S. and Canada has led to calls for increased public financing for childcare. The optimality of public financing depends on a host of factors, such as the "crowd-out" of existing childcare arrangements, the impact on female labor supply, and the effects on child well-being. The introduction of universal, highly-subsidized childcare in Quebec in the late 1990s provides an opportunity to address these issues. We carefully analyze the impacts of Quebec's "$5 per day childcare" program on childcare utilization, labor supply, and child (and parent) outcomes in two parent families. We find strong evidence of a shift into new childcare use, although approximately one third of the newly reported use appears to come from women who previously worked and had informal arrangements. The labor supply impact is highly significant, and our measured elasticity of 0.136 is slightly smaller than previous credible estimates. Finally, we uncover striking evidence that children are worse off in a variety of behavioral and health dimensions, ranging from aggression to motor-social skills to illness. Our analysis also suggests that the new childcare program led to more hostile, less consistent parenting, worse parental health, and lower-quality parental relationships
Evidence from maternity leave expansions of the impact of maternal care on early child development by Michael Baker( )

7 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent between 48 and 58 percent more time not working in the first year of their children's lives. We find that this extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed non-relatives, and replaced mostly full-time work. However, the estimates suggest a weak impact of the increase in maternal care on indicators of child development. Measures of family environment and motor-social development showed changes very close to zero. Some improvements in temperament were observed but occurred both for treated and untreated children
Time for a tune up personal income taxation in Western Canada by Kevin Milligan( )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The evolution of elderly poverty in Canada by Kevin Milligan( )

3 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 42 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Social security programs and retirement around the world by Jonathan Gruber( )

6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 42 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This is the introduction and summary to the fourth phase of an ongoing project on Social Security Programs and Retirement Around the World. The first phase described the retirement incentives inherent in plan provisions and documented the strong relationship across countries between social security incentives to retire and the proportion of older persons out of the labor force. The second phase documented the large effects that changing plan provisions would have on the labor force participation of older workers. The third phase demonstrated the consequent fiscal implications that extending labor force participation would have on net program costs--reducing government social security benefit payments and increasing government tax revenues. This volume presents the results of analyses of the relationship between the labor force participation of older persons and the labor force participation of younger persons in twelve countries. Why countries introduced plan provisions that encouraged older persons to leave the labor force is unclear. After the fact, it is now often claimed that these provisions were introduced to provide more jobs for the young, assuming that fewer older persons in the labor force would open up more job opportunities for the young. Now, the same reasoning is often used to argue against efforts in the same countries to reduce or eliminate the incentives for older persons to leave the labor force, claiming that the consequent increase in the employment of older person would reduce the employment of younger persons. The validity of such claims is addressed in this volume
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Alternative Names
Milligan, K.

Milligan, K. S.

Milligan, Kevin S.

English (140)

French (3)