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United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations

Works: 1,894 works in 2,213 publications in 1 language and 8,646 library holdings
Roles: Researcher
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by United States
Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS). Technical progress report, [February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992]( )

5 editions published between 1992 and 1997 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences is a standing committee under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the National Academy of Sciences -- National Research Council. The atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) sciences represent a broad and diverse field in which much of the research is carried out by small groups. These groups generally have not operated in concert with each other and, prior to the establishment of CAMOS, there was no single committee or organization that accepted the responsibility of monitoring the continuing development and assessing the general public health of the field as a whole. CAMOS has accepted this responsibility and currently provides a focus for the AMO community that is unique and essential. The membership of CAMOS is drawn from research laboratories in universities, industry, and government. Areas of expertise on the committee include atomic physics, molecular science, and optics. A special effort has been made to include a balanced representation from the three subfields. (A roster is attached.) CAMOS has conducted a number of studies related to the health of atomic and molecular science and is well prepared to response to requests for studies on specific issues. This report brief reviews the committee work of progress
SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Progress report, September 1, 1992--August 24, 1993( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. The hypothesis of this application is that the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) can be quantitatively determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The major thrusts during the third year include the continued development and evaluation of improved 3D SPECT acquisition and reconstruction approaches to improve quantitative imaging of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and the implementation and evaluation of algorithms to register serial SPECT image data sets, or to register 3D SPECT images with 3D image data sets acquired from positron emission tomography (PEI) and magnetic resonance images (MRI). The research has involved the investigation of statistical models and iterative reconstruction algorithms that accurately account for the physical characteristics of the SPECT acquisition system. It is our belief that SPECT quantification can be improved by accurately modeling the physical processes such as attenuation, scatter, geometric collimator response, and other factors that affect the measured projection data
Synthesis and analysis of novel polymers with high permselectivity and permeability in gas separation applications. Progress report, December 1990--November 1991( )

4 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We have synthesized and completed characterization of permeability and selectivity properties of a group of polysulfones and polyether ketones with the potential for higher use temperatures, as well as members of a series of polyesters derived from spirobiindane bisphenol monomer in conjunction with meta and para substituted diacid chlorides. We have also synthesized and characterized the gas transport and thermal properties of diphenyl substituted polyphenylene oxide. The diphenyl substituted material has a potential for higher temperature applications than the standard dimethyl substituted polymer. The temperature dependence of the gas transport properties for the oxygen/nitrogen system was characterized over the range from 35 to 65°C for both of these analog materials
Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes. Final report( )

3 editions published between 1991 and 1995 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The goals of the research program evolved into six areas: Molecular simulation of phase equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent electrolyte solutions. Molecular simulation of solvation and structure in supercritical aqueous systems. Extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes. Analysis of the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions and mixed electrolyte solutions using fluctuation solution theory. Development of analytic expressions for thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solved integral equation approximations. Fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories
Boron in nuclear medicine New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1994 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

New methods based on reactive organometallic precursors containing organic functional groups that are generally responsible for physiologic responses are being exploited for preparation of radiopharmaceutials. This program focuses on the design of new chemistry (molecular architecture) and technology as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceutical. The new technology which is often based on organoborane chemistry is then utilized in nuclear medicine research at the UT Biomedical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE. facilities such as Brookhaven National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New radiopharmaceutical are evaluated preclinically by colleagues at UT, Emory University and The University of Pennsylvania, and by Nova Screen
Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report( )

3 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II. 1 Process Modeling; II. 2 Bond Coat Development; II. 3 Analytical Lifing Model; II. 4 Process Development; II. 5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II. 6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary is given of progress made in each of these 6 areas
Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1991--31 August 1992( )

4 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H⁻ collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H⁻ is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion-atom collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility and the initial ion beam was accelerated through the apparatus in April 1991
Studies in medium energy physics. Progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992( )

4 editions published between 1991 and 1992 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report discusses the following research: p + A precision elastic forward angle cross sections; polarized nuclear target project; and search for very rare K{sup L} decays. (LSP)
A tumbling top-quark condensate model( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations
Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants( )

3 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc
On neutral plasma oscillations( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Attempts are made to develop numerical algorithms for handling fluid flows involving liquids and liquid-gas mixtures. In these types of systems, the short-range intermolecular interactions are important enough to significantly alter behavior predicted on the basis of standard fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics alone. We have constructed a particle-in-cell (PIC) code for the purpose of studying the effects of these interactions. Of the algorithms considered, the one which has been successfully implemented is based on a MHD particle code developed by Brunel et al. In the version presented here, short range forces are included in particle motion by, first, calculating the forces between individual particles and then, to prevent aliasing, interpolating these forces to the computational grid points, then interpolating the forces back to the particles. The code has been used to model a simple two-fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Limitations to the accuracy of the code exist at short wavelengths, where the effects of the short-range forces would be expected to be most pronounced
Theoretical atomic physics for fusion( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The understanding of electron-ion collision processes in high temperature plasmas remains a key factor in the ultimate development of nuclear fusion as a viable energy source for the nation. Our 1990--1992 research proposal delineated 3 main areas of research in electron-ion scattering theory. Summaries our 1992 efforts in each of these research areas are presented
Mechanical properties and modeling of seal-forming lithologies. Technical progress report No. 3, March 15, 1992--June 14, 1993( )

4 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Both rocksalt and shale lithologies are actively deformed in response to gravitational loads associated with deposition, and both form effective seals to petroleum and natural gas. Thus, the shapes of seal-forming units, and the nature of fractures and faults that may breach them depend upon either the mechanical properties of salt or those of shale, and the loading histories to which they have been subjected. The objectives of this research include the determination of the mechanical properties under controlled conditions of well-characterized shales, and the numerical modeling of rocksalt (and eventually shale) formations using laboratory-based rheologies. Progress has been made towards these goals over this project period, both in our experimental program on shale deformation and model development for the growth of salt diapirs. The mechanical anisotropy of an illite-bearing shale from Louisiana has been determined and related to the preferred orientation and distribution of clays. Its strength in the absence of pore fluids has been determined at confining pressures of up to 250 MPa and at high pressure we have investigated the effects of deformation rate and temperature. A numerical finite difference code has been developed to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and validated using a two- layer linear viscous model for which analytic solutions are available. Although the code has only been validated for the linear viscous case, it is capable of solving for highly nonlinear constitutive laws as well as solving for arbitrary interfaces between the salt and overburden
Nonlinear dynamics and plasma transport( )

3 editions published between 1993 and 1995 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This progress report details work done on a program in nonlinear dynamical aspects of plasma turbulence and transport funded by DOE since 1989. This program has been in cooperation with laboratories in theUSSR [now Russia and the Confederation of Independent States (CIS)]. The purpose of this program has been: To promote the utilization of recent pathbreaking developments in nonlinear science in plasma turbulence and transport. To promote cooperative scientific investigations between the US and CIS in the related areas of nonlinear science and plasma turbulence and transport. In the work reported in our progress report, we have studied simple models which are motivated by observation on actual fusion devices. The models focus on the important physical processes without incorporating the complexity of the geometry of real devices. This allows for a deeper analysis and understanding of the system both analytically and numerically
Domain wall formation in late-time phase transitions( )

4 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate domain wall formation in late-time phase transitions. We find that as in the invisible-axion-domain-wall phenomenon, thermal effects alone are insufficient to drive different regions of the Universe to different parts of the disconnected vacuum manifold. This suggests that domain walls do not form unless either there is some supplemental (but perhaps not unreasonable) dynamics to localize the scalar field responsible for the phase transition to the low-temperature maximum (to an extraordinary precision) before the onset of the phase transition, or there is some non-thermal mechanism to produce large fluctuations in the scalar field. The fact the domain wall production is not a robust prediction of late-time transitions may suggest future directions in model building
The production and destruction of negative ions. Progress report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997( )

3 editions published between 1993 and 1997 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During the grant period, 1994--97, the author continued to investigate the structure of few-electron atomic negative ions and the manner in which they interact with electromagnetic radiation. The experimental procedures and the results of this work have been described in detail in the published papers cited in Section G. Two complementary laser-ion beam apparatus were used in the measurements. A crossed beam apparatus, situated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was used to perform a spectroscopic study of the electrons ejected, in the forward direction, from moving negative ions in the photodetachment process. In this work, the author isolated specific detachment channels by energy analyzing the electrons. The apparatus was used to investigate photodetachment of an electron from a negative ion in an excited state. The C⁻ ion is unusual in that it can be produced in a bound excited state as well as the ground state. The author also used this apparatus, with ba gaseous target replacing the laser beam, to study resonances in collisional detachment cross sections. In particular, he investigated the simplest of all shape resonances, the ³P{sup O} state in Li⁻. This state was produced in Li⁻-He collisions. A collinear beam apparatus, situated at Chalmers University of Technology (CUT) in Gothenburg, Sweden, has been used in spectroscopic studies of the He⁻ and Li⁻ ion in the ultraviolet. Here, the emphasis is on the production and detection of highly correlated, doubly excited states
X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes. Progress report, November 1, 1989--October 31, 1992( )

4 editions published between 1991 and 1992 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report summarizes the major results obtained under US DOE Grant Number FG05-90ER45280 from the dates November 1, 1989 through October 31, 1992 inclusive. The principal work includes x-ray scattering studies of phase transition kinetics in binary alloy order-disorder transitions, block co-polymer crystallization, and charge density wave solids under applied electric fields, and studies of magnetic excitations in low dimensional quantum systems
Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program. Progress report, 9th year, October--December 1991( )

4 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast
Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions( )

6 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report discusses the following topics: Relativistic Boltzmann-Langevin model for heavy-ion collision; K+ production far below free neucleon-nucleon threshold and damping of collective vibrations in a memory-dependent transport model
Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. Final technical progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1993( )

3 editions published between 1990 and 1992 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The DOE-supported research performed during the past year has mainly focused on investigating and minimizing three problems that limit the practical utility of these capillary electrokinetic separation techniques in chemical analysis. (1) Analyses are hindered by poor reproducibility. This is largely a result of complicated and irreproducible capillary wall-solute interactions that often result in adsorption and mobility changes. (2) While the (micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography) (MECC) technique permits the separations of neutral solutes, hydrophobic compounds are difficult to separate and manipulation of capacity factors (k's) is critically important. (3) The very small solute band volumes require that on-column detection be performed (usually optical detection) and this seriously limits detectability. In addition to these projects, the electrokinetic equivalent of affinity chromatography and development of remote fiber-optic sensors to measure chemical carcinogens and other compounds have been investigated. 5 refs., 2 figs
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