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OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center

Works: 8,684 works in 8,796 publications in 1 language and 8,751 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  History 
Classifications: TG325.6,
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Most widely held works by OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center
Basic writers using clickers a case study by Michelle Ann Miller( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Personal response devices, 'clickers, ' that allow students to answer questions and see on a projected screen the results of their voting, followed by discussion and reprocessing, is a form of educational technology that has been embraced by instructors of large classes, particularly in the natural sciences. This dissertation describes their use in an unusual setting, that of developmental writing. This case study proceeds from looking at three of the researcher's fall 2007 Basic Writing classes first through the prism of a written assignment on their participation in their previous English class and a personal technologies survey, to later looking at eleven students' responses to and work within clicker lessons through videotaped observations, student written responses and post-semester interviews. Trying to appeal to the generational and affective factors that traditional age basic writers present, I wanted to see if overlap between those data sets might inform me on my students' use of clickers in my classes. I discovered that these students bring a lack of meaninful experience with co-construction of knowledge to the basic writing classroom and that their work there is hampered by wariness about classmates and a wish to multi-task rather than focus. Further, one class showed several students using a discourse pattern of a series of one-on-one discussions with the instructor while the other class showed a more complex pattern where a few dominant students co-constructed among themselves in a more extended manner. Ironically, the class where the students used the simpler discourse patterns had a higher number of verbal participants, and more students credited classmates as influential. Students who saw clicker lessons as integral to their learning (perhaps because it blended with their acknowledged learning style) had a more successful experience than those who saw clicker lessons as peripheral and something that has been imposed upon them. In the most positive manifestation of our use of clickers in the classroom, some students came to see their classmates' portfolio revision work as relevant and inspiring models that they could apply to their own work."--Abstract
A quantitative analysis of the Relationships between teacher trust, self-efficacy, and school academic performance by Sally L Byard( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Two multiple regression analyses were conducted, and the results indicated that both trust and self-efficacy were significantly related to school academic performance. Results also showed that the trust subscales of trust in colleagues and trust in clients, and the self-efficacy subscales of instructional strategies and classroom management were significantly related to school academic performance
Waiting for a crisis : case studies of crisis leaders in higher education by Stacy L Muffet-Willett( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study examines the system of crisis leadership in higher education. Using case study methods, five crisis leadership participants were interviewed to develop a deep understanding of how they perceive their university crisis leadership system. Two participants were from a private institution, and three were from a public institution. Higher education factors that contribute to and detract from effective crisis leadership were found, as well as training aspects that contribute to and detract from effective crisis leadership processes. The case studies were analyzed using a cross- comparison method, and also according to a framework drawn from the research literature related to leadership, training, and crisis. The findings suggest a new practical model for use in higher education crisis leadership
Gender in the development of career related learning experiences by Christine Marie Williams( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) delineates the ways in which social forces may influence women's career development and create gender segregation in different types of occupations (see Betz, 2007 for a review). However, a number of questions remain, specifically in regards to how social forces may shape the core cognitive variables of the model, namely self efficacy and outcome expectations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further examine precursors to these variables and the role of gender within the career development process. To accomplish these aims, a survey of 390 college women was conducted. While not all hypotheses were supported, a number of key findings emerged. First, vicarious learning continued to underperform in terms of predicting self efficacy and outcome expectations. Second, the data supported the overarching SCCT model, particularly core components delineating the development of career related self efficacy and outcome expectations through learning experiences. Third, gender role norm conformity showed promise as a distal predictor of career related learning experiences. Only some of the observed relationships between the conformity and learning experience variables were borne out as expected. However, some interesting findings emerged which may be in line with existing and emerging gender-related theories. These findings are discussed within the larger frameworks of career development and gender theory and implications for research and practice are discussed."--Abstract
Aerodynamics and dysphagia by Mariam Baig( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This study investigated the influence of aerodynamic measures of Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) and the S/Z ratio on swallowing. Twelve individuals were examined, six with a diagnosis of dysphagia, and six as a control group. The study hypothesized that (1) there would be a reduced MPT in the dysphagic group compared to the control (2) there would be an S/Z ratio greater than 1.0 in the dysphagic group. The rationale for this study was that since MPT and S/Z measures are easily administered, they may prove to be useful, non-invasive, inexpensive tools to predict a patient's potential risk for aspiration. The results showed (1) a reduction of MPT values in the dysphagic group compared to the control (2) no significant difference in S/Z ratios between groups (3) a significant decrease in duration of individual /s/ /z/ productions in the dysphagic group and (4) a significant difference in /z/ duration compared to /s/ duration was found in both the dysphagic and control groups. The results suggest that only the MPT may be a useful indicator in detecting patients who may be at risk for aspiration. Contrary to the hypothesis, the S/Z ratio is not a predictor for detecting patients who may be at risk for aspiration
"To secure to themselves and their countrymen an agreeable and happy retreat" the continuity of Scottish Highland mercenary traditions and North American outmigration by Cameron Flint( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This study considers and analyzes the motivations for Scottish outmigration to British North America during the eighteenth century from both an economic as well as cultural perspective. This paper posits that Scots utilized the mercenary profession that had long been a part of their way of life in order to achieve economic security and a degree of cultural preservation. It will also demonstrate that Scottish Highland loyalism during the War of American Independence was not an abnormality, as some have suggested, but rather a continuation of certain Highland clans and families' adherence to a martial code of mercenary service for land. In order to arrive at this conclusion this study examines the history of Scottish mercenary service and Highland clan political loyalties beginning in the late medieval era through the formation of Highland regiments within the British army during the eighteenth century and culminates with these regimetns' land grant based settlement of North America."--abstract
From chaos to clarity educating emergency managers by Michael J O'Connor( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Emergency management is a rapidly growing and evolving discipline and profession. While only two degree-level programs existed prior to 1995 these two programs were joined by an additional forty programs by 2005. These new programs contributed to a broad expansion of courses and instructional materials. However, none of this growth and expansion had been guided by a commonly agreed upon curricular framework. This meant that programs within and between degree-levels varied widely on what they defined as an appropriate emergency management curriculum. The past several years have seen repeated efforts by a small group of academics and practitioners to develop a curricular framework out of lists of competencies, functions, skills, etc. This research combined and refined those earlier efforts into a unified list of broad goals, which were qualitatively and quantitatively studied to identify sets of goals sufficient to describe a curriculum appropriate for emergency management bachelor's and master's degree-level programs."--abstract
Imagining heaven and hell : religion, national identity, and U.S. foreign relations, 1930-1953 by David Zietsma( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This dissertation argues that religiously framed narratives of national identity conditioned the United States approach to the world from 1930-1953. When the Great Depression called into question U.S. manifest destiny, Americans reified their divine chosenness first through a 'good neighbor' national image and later through a narrative imagining the United States as a righteous nation battling evil enemies. During the Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman administrations, competing religious groups/organizations provided the language and images through which national these identity narratives attained their form. The destabilizing impact of the Depression allowed the temporary ascendance of Protestant liberal modernist discourse and an attendant surge in popularity for cooperative internationalism. When the good neighbor narrative failed to reconcile Americans' experience in the world with their neighborly picture of the world, a gradual shift toward the language/imagery of neo-orthodox realism occureed as Americans began imagining the United States as a righteous defender against the evil Axis powers. World War II empowered fundamentalist Christianity, enabling a postwar transition that gradually marginalized the vestigaes of pre-war religious modernism and again depicted the United States as a righteous nation, this time battling the godless Soviet Union on behalf of God-ordained free market economics and political democracy."--Abstract
Cracking behavior of structural slab bridge decks by Anil Patnaik( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Bridge deck cracking is a common problem throughout the United States, and it affects the service life of concrete bridges. Several departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States prefer using continuous span structural (CSS) slab bridges without stringers over typical four-lane highways or steams. The primary objective of this project is to study the cracking behavior of CSS slab bridges. Recent inspections of such bridges in Ohio revealed permanent cracks as wide as 0.14 in. under dead load alone. These measured crack widths are more than 15 times the maximum limit recommended in ACI 224R-01 for bridge decks exposed to de-icing salts. Measurements using digital image correlation revealed that the cracks widened under truck loading, and in some cases, the cracks did not fully close after unloading. This report also includes details of an experimental investigation. Prism tests revealed that the concrete specimens with epoxy-coated bars (ECB) develop first crack at smaller loads, and develop larger crack widths compared to the corresponding specimens with uncoated (black) bars. Slab tests revealed that the specimens with longitudinal ECB developed first crack at smaller loads, exhibited wider cracks and a larger number of cracks, and failed at smaller ultimate loads compared to the corresponding test specimens with black bars. To investigate a preventive measure, slab specimens with basalt MiniBar or polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete were included in the test program. These specimens exhibited higher cracking loads, smaller crack widths, smaller mid-span deflections and higher ultimate failure loads compared to the slab specimens without fiber. Merely satisfying the reinforcement spacing requirements given in AASHTO or ACI 318-11 is not adequate to limit cracking below the ACI 224R-01 recommended maximum limit, even though all the relevant design requirements are otherwise met. Addition of fiber to concrete without changing any steel reinforcing details is expected to cost-effectively reduce the severity and extent of cracking in reinforced concrete bridge decks
African imagery and Blacks in German expressionist art from the early twentieth century by Sarah M Bryan( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Beginning in the late nineteenth century, Germany expanded its boundaries to Africa though colonization. Although short-lived, lasting only until World War I, colonization led to new ideas in German Expressionist art. Members of groups Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter copied objects of African origin in their work, including statuary and masks. Most artists were exposed to African culture and imagery when they visited numerous German ethnographic museums and performances. To the Brücke, native peoples represented the immediacy, authenticity, and direct closeness to the natural world that the artists hoped to achieve. Germans of the early twentieth century were presented with reminders of colonization through picture postcards and advertisements. This imagery often featured racist caricatures and exaggerated depictions of African culture. Nevertheless, Die Brücke members were less scathing in their depictions of Africans. While most were silent on the issues of colonization, Emil Nolde was vocal in opposing it. When colonization ended, groups such as Die Brücke were part of Germany's art historical past, but works featuring blacks were not. Hannah Höch's Dadaist photomontages satirized the ongoing fears of white women engaging in relationships with black men. The dissolution of the colonies led to other changes: tribal works were no longer novelties, ethnographic shows disappeared, and many German Expressionist works were seized or destroyed by the Nazis. The surviving imagery, however, is a lasting testimony to Germany's cultural exchange with Africa as the twentieth century began
Magnesium as a regulator of hepatic NADPH in the hepatocyte : prospective roles of magnesium in diabetes and obesity onset by Chesinta B Voma( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Development of LC-MS/MS methods for quantitative analysis of plant-derived anticancer agent and synthetic estrogen in complex matrices by Simuli Lindah Wabuyele( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A case study of first grade meaning making in a technology rich environment by Jaclyn Prizant Gordon( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The purpose of this study was to describe first grade meaning making in a technologically rich classroom environment and to explore the ramifications of technology on early literacy learners. Currently, few in depth research studies have examined meaning making in a technologically rich classroom setting, especially with first grade students in an urban setting. Over the past 50 years, the literacy community has investigated issues central to the meaning making process, including whether meaning resides solely in the text or in a transactional relationship between the text, reader, and the context. Today this sociopsycholinguistic view of meaning making supported through a constructivist theoretical framework has been further impacted by technology and the new literacies. In response to the growing force of technology in the lives of young students, this study wanted to describe literacy behaviors of these students by documenting student behaviors as they engaged and interacted with a range of literacy activities. Ultimately, the study sought to investigate how students used these opportunities to make meaning. The results of this study were based upon data gathered in support of the following research questions that guided the study: (1) what kinds of interaction happen when a teacher purposely constructs an environment using technology in a first grade classroom; (2) how do students use these interactions to make meaning? These research questions were analyzed through a qualitative single case study methodology. Data collection included classroom observations, interviews, student artifacts, and pertinent classroom documents. This study employed the use of QSR* NVivo 7 computer software to manipulate the data. The analysis of the data began with an a priori code structure derived from a review of the research literature and evolved through a reiterative reading of the data from which themes emerged. The findings from the study detailed three types of interactions used by students in the technologically rich classroom environment for meaning making. These included interactions with 1) the print environment, 2) the "real-world" environment, and 3) the technology environment. Through these interactions students were found to make meaning in three ways; specifically, through 1) social construction, 2) experience-based inquiry and interpretation, and 3) multimodal encounters. Throughout the study, the three types of interactions were rarely seen as distinct from one another but rather were often viewed working in confluence. Further analysis of the data revealed that all three types of interactions included two pervasive features: 1) opportunities for social collaboration and 2) the incorporation of multiliteracies. Moreover, this study recognized the potential impact of a technologically rich instructional environment on students' meaning making through the new literacies. Results of this study suggest that a curriculum that actively incorporates the new literacies may provide a powerful framework for classroom instruction."--Abstract
Commerce and arms : the federal government, Native Americans, and the economy of the old northwest, 1783-1807 by William H Bergmann( Book )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This dissertation is a study of the changing economy of the Old Northwest for the period following the Revolution until the War of 1812. It examines the role of the federal government in bringing the market economy to the West. This work relies on local and national sources from the United States and Canada to give a fuller picture of the interstices of policy and economy during a critical period in the economic history of the region. This study supports Andrew Cayton's assertion that the federal government had an important influence on the history of the early West. But whereas his focus is on politics and ideology, this dissertation examines the impact of government on the economy. This study also refutes Eric Hinderaker's assertion that federal government fostered western growth by not interfering in its economic affairs. Following the Revolutionary War, settlers began to move into the Ohio Valley hoping to transplant a market economy in the West. When they did, they entered into a region largely controlled by the Shawnee, Delaware, Miami, Wyandot, Ottawa and others who practiced a semi-subsistence trade economy. The local conflict for economic control of the Ohio Valley manifested itself as a drawn-out property war. This property war ended when Anthony Wayne and his military defeated the northern tribal confederacy and took control of the region's economy. After Wayne's victory, the United States built military and post roads, which facilitated the movement of goods and people, and encouraged settlements along specific lines of trade. The federal government also spent great sums of money through the Indian Agency, the factory system and territorial governments to assimilate Native Americans into the American economy by making them European-style farmers. These efforts failed and much of the money ended up in the hands of western traders. By 1807, the western market economy again threatened the productive power of the northern tribes. The Shawnee prophet Tenskwatawa helped form a new confederacy by addressing the economic problems many villages faced. The defeat of the confederacy in the War of 1812 removed regional economic control from the hands of the confederacy
Beliefs and instructional practices of culturally relevant educators : a qualitative case study by Nancy Aiken Varian( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The study used a qualitative case study research paradigm. There is a growing body of research which demonstrates that a culturally relevant instructional approach is effective with these students. The purpose of this study was to identify the beliefs of teachers who use "culturally relevant pedagogy" in their classrooms and to examine how they came to have those beliefs. In addition, the study explored the impact of these beliefs on the teachers' instructional practices. This study was guided by two research questions: 1) How did teachers who have been identified as using a culturally relevant pedagogy develop their cultural awareness and beliefs about multicultural education; and 2) What beliefs, if any, do these teachers share about culturally relevant instruction and how do they implement those beliefs in their classroom practice? During data analysis, themes were identified and categories were developed for each case. Findings emerged from a cross case analysis of themes and categories. The methodology of this qualitative case study was cross case analysis. Six teachers who successfully use a culturally relevant pedagogical approach were interviewed and observed to examine the genesis of their beliefs about diversity, and how those beliefs guided the instructional practices in their classrooms. Data collection procedures included interviews, classroom observation and artifacts. Data analysis revealed three central influences in the development of the teachers' cultural awareness and beliefs about multicultural education. Specifically, teachers were influenced by 1) their parents' attitudes, values and behaviors; 2) culturally sensitive experiences that affected them personally; 3) firsthand exposure to social injustice that raised their awareness of culturally-rooted inequities. It also characterized teachers' perceptions of factors that influenced their beliefs and guided their classroom instruction and practice. Data analysis revealed three broad beliefs about culturally relevant instruction that teachers demonstrated in their classrooms. Specifically, they cited the importance of 1) using a variety of instructional techniques; 2) designing student-centered instruction that promoted active learning and; 3) fostering a sense of personal empowerment in their students. Implications of this study suggest the need for intentional firsthand experiences for student teacher education and professional development. In addition, it suggests that administrators build in effective mentoring programs to allow teachers to observe culturally relevant educators. Classroom teachers should learn all they can about the cultures and backgrounds of their students to make meaningful connections to the classroom study. Future research is needed to continue to examine effective teachers and their beliefs and practices. More studies of the influences of teacher beliefs and how those influences impact classroom practice are needed. Furthermore, continuing to explore how more teachers can become culturally relevant educators by using culturally relevant pedagogy in their classrooms is also critical for all students. Teacher recruitment and teacher training are also areas which need further study."--Abstract
Battered women and violent crime : an exploration of imprisoned women before and after the clemency movement by Rachel Zimmer Schneider( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"When battered women kill their abusive partners they generally do so in self-defense. However, self-defense law never took women's experiences with domestic violence into account. It was not until 1990 that certain states began to allow expert testimony on Battered Woman Syndrome in self-defense trials. Because of this change in law, several states granted clemency to small numbers of incarcerated battered women (Gagné 1998). While the research on battered women who received clemency is minimal (Gagné 1998; Beattie and Shaunessy 2000), there has been no research on the women who applied for clemency and were denied. Using existing interview data with battered women who applied for clemency in 1990 as a starting point, this dissertation involved first time and follow up interviews with women who were part of the clemency applicant pool in 1990. Findings indicate that the women's lives prior to prison were filled with multiple types of abuse. The turning point to kill came when they felt their only choice was to kill or be killed and/or they feared for their children's lives. During their time in prison they became active in domestic violence support groups which enabled them to apply for clemency. The twelve women denied clemency still remain in prison serving life sentences and have become extremely active within the prison by starting different groups (i.e. yoga, choir, and fund-raising for charities). these women shifted their sense of self from victims to survivors and saw prison as a place of safety and freedom. However, this newfound sense of self conflicted with the structure of the prison and the women often felt they were repeatedly victimized. The six women granted clemency struggled with having a felony conviction and found it affected employment and housing options, as well as their own sense of self-worth. Those without family support were more susceptible to criminal activity after prison and were more likely to report problems with substance abuse. They struggled to reconnect with their children and saw improvement in their relationships over time. Lastly, they viewed themselves as survivors and talked about teaching others how to live violence free."--Abstract

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Past research has supported the idea that self-regulation uses a limited resource which is subject to depletion (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, & Chatzisarantis, 2010). Depletion has generally been measured by the reduced accuracy of task performance on one executive function task that follows another executive function task. The current study used two measures of time within a speech processing task to explore the effects of depletion on complex speech processing. Half of the participants completed the speech processing task before an inhibitory writing task (Group A), and the other half of the participants completed the inhibitory writing task before the speech processing task (Group B); Group B was therefore predicted to be depleted in their ability to complete the speech processing task relative to Group A. During the speech processing task, participants listened to sentences from two different speakers simultaneously, one a native speaker of English and the other a non-native speaker of English. Listeners were visually cued to listen to and repeat one speaker or the other in a random sequence. After repeating each sentence, participants were given a forced choice question requiring them to identify the sentence spoken by the target speaker. The forced choice answer set provided two answer choices, the sentence spoken by the native speaker of English and the sentence spoken by the non-native accented speaker of English. Answers to these forced choice questions were used to verify whether participants had attended to the correct target. The current study analyzed response times for the forced choice questions (FCR) as well as the self-paced advancement (SPA) times (the times the participants waited before progressing from item to item). Times were analyzed for each participant and as means across participants between the two experimental groups. Results indicated no significant group differences for either forced choice response (FCR) times or self paced advancement (SPA) times. Regression analyses revealed a trend of decreasing SPA time over the course of the experiment but no trends were observed for FCR time. These results indicate a lack of depletion effects on measures of FCR and SPA time and the possible effect of increasing automaticity on the SPA time measure
Law school personal statements : an analysis of race and gender variations in "impression management" among law school applicants by Amy L Miller( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This study examined 200 personal statements of male, female, White, and African-American law school applicants to better understand how applicants use impression management to gain admission to law school. Data showed significant differences in how males compared to females and Whites compared to African-Americans use impression management in their law school personal statements. The research found African-Americans discussed personal motivation more often than did White applicants. White females and African-American males more frequently utilized conditions of motivation, gender or race, and personal story to demonstrate their capability to succeed in law school despite generally lower academic indicators. Females had more experience in the law than males. Males discussed red flags and used name dropping significantly more than females. In order to avoid missed opportunities for minority law school applicants to "sell themselves" to admission officers, law school admission offices, pre-law advisors, and the legal profession must clearly state what factors beyond the Law School Admission Test and undergraduate grade point average are necessary to be successful in law school
Program verification of FreeRTOS using Microsoft Dafny by Matthew J Matias( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: FreeRTOS is a popular real-time and embedded operating system. Real-time software requires code reviews, software tests, and other various quality assurance activities to ensure minimal defects. This free and open-source operating system has claims of robustness and quality [26]. Real-time and embedded software is found commonly in systems directly impacting human life and require a low defect rate. In such critical software, traditional quality assurance may not suce in minimizing software defects. When traditional software quality assurance is not enough for defect removal, software engineering formal methods may help minimize defects. A formal method such as program verication is useful for proving correctness in real-time software. Microsoft Research created Dafny for proving program correctness. It contains a programming language with specication constructs. A program verication tool such as Dafny allows for proving correctness of FreeRTOS's modules. We propose using Dafny to verify the correctness of FreeRTOS' scheduler and supporting API

2 editions published between 2012 and 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A single session of exercise was associated with improvement of mood states (Berger, Darby, Owen, & Carels, 2010; Ekkekakis, Hall, VanLanduyt, & Petruzzello, 2000; Petruzzello, Snook, Gliottoni, Motl, 2009). In addition, many factors seem to influence mood changes after exercise, such as exercise intensity and exercise enjoyment. One purpose of this study was to examine mood changes when participants exercise at their preferred intensity levels. Two additional purposes were to investigate the relationship between mood changes and exercise enjoyment (state and trait exercise enjoyment). Two final purposes were to examine the characteristics of the preferred intensity and to investigate possible sex differences in college students. Undergraduate students (N = 55) from physical education general (PEG) classes at Bowling Green State University with a mean age of 20.6 ±1.4 years participated in this study. Participants completed 15 minutes of jogging at their preferred exercise intensity levels. Immediately before and after exercise session, all participants completed the Profile of Mood States Inventory. In additional, exercise enjoyment (both trait and state) have measured by the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in the study. The major findings were as followings: (1) desirable mood changes occurred when participants exercised (jog/walk) at their preferred intensity levels for 15 minutes. (2) There was no support for the relationship between exercise enjoyment and mood changes in this study. (3) Female students chose a higher level of exercise intensity (80.8% of HRR) as their preferred intensity level than male students (75.5% of HRR), but no difference was found for RPE. (4) College students exercised at a hard or very hard exercise intensity level rather than a moderate exercise intensity level
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