WorldCat Identities

Joint Program in Oceanography

Overview
Works: 27 works in 27 publications in 1 language and 49 library holdings
Classifications: GC1,
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Joint Program in Oceanography
Stochastic modeling of seafloor morphology by John Anson Goff( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

At scale lengths less than 100 km or so, statistical descriptions of seafloor morphology can be usefully employed to characterize processes which form and reshape abyssal hills, including ridge crest volcanism, off-axis tectonics and volcanism, mass wasting, sedimentation, and post-depositional transport. The objectives of this thesis are threefold: (1) to identify stochastic parameterizations of small-scale topography that are geologically useful, (2) to implement procedures for estimating these parameters from multibeam and side-scan sonar surveys that take into account the finite precision, resolution, and sampling of real data sets, and (3) to apply these techniques to the study of marine geological problems. The seafloor is initially modeled as a stationary, zero-mean, Gaussian random field completely specified by its two-point covariance function. An anisotropic two-point covariance function is introduced that has five free parameters describing the amplitude, orientation, characteristic width and length, and Hausdorff (fractal) dimension of seafloor topography. The general forward problem is then formulated relating this model to the statistics of an ideal multibeam echo sounder, in particular the along-track auto-covariance functions of individual beams and the cross-covariance functions between beams of arbitrary separation. Using these second moments as data functionals, we then pose the inverse problem of estimating the seafloor parameters from realistic, noisy data sets with finite sampling and beamwidth, and we solve this inverse problem by an iterative, linearized, least squares method. Resolution of this algorithm is tested against ship variables such as length of data, the orientation of ship track with respect to topographic grain, and the beamwidth. This analysis is conducted by inverting sets of synthetic data with known statistics. The mean and standard deviation of the inverted parameters can be directly compared with the input parameters and the standard errors output from the inversion. The experiments conducted in this study show that the rms seafloor height can be estimated to within -15% and anisotropic orientation to within ~5* (for a strong lineation) using very short track lengths (down to 3 characteristic lengths, or -10 to 100 km), and characteristic lengths of seafloor topography can be estimated to within -25% using fairly short track lengths (down to 5 or 6 characteristic lengths, or 10's of km to -200 kin). The number of characteristic lengths sampled by a ship track, and hence the accuracy of the estimation, is maximized when the ship track runs perpendicular to abyssal hill lineation. Using the assumed beamwidth, the measured noise values, and the seafloor parameters recovered from the inversion, Sea Beam "synthetics" are generated whose statistical character can be directly compared with raw Sea Beam data. However, these comparisons are spatially limited in the athwart ship direction. A recent SeaMARC II survey along the flanks and crest of the East Pacific Rise between 130 and 15* N included sufficient off-axis topography to permit a comparison of a complete 2-D synthetic topographic field with a region of abyssal-hill terrain that has close to 100% data coverage. Synthetic data is compared to both Sea Beam swaths and SeaMARC II survey data. These comparisons generally indicate that we are successful in characterizing the second order properties of the seafloor. They also indicate the directions we will need to take to improve our modeling, including generalization of the second-order model and characterization of higher moments. The inversion procedure is applied to a data set of 64 near-ridge Sea Beam swaths to characterize near ridge abyssal hill morphology and its relationship to ridge properties. Much of the data (27 swaths) comes from cruises to the Pacific-Cocos spreading section of the East Pacific Rise between 9* and 15* N. These data provide very good abyssal hill coverage of this well-mapped and studied ridge section and form the basis of a regional analysis of the correlation between ridge morphology and stochastic abyssal hill parameters. This regional analysis suggests a strong relationship between magma supply and the character of abyssal hills. We also have data from near the Rivera (9) and Nazca (7) spreading sections of the East Pacific Rise, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (18), and the Indian- African Ridge (3). Though spotty, this constitutes a good initial data set for the analysis of correlations among covariance parameters and between parameters and ridge characteristics, especially spreading rate. A working hypothesis is introduced to explain the observations within a geological framework. This hypothesis contends 1) that the maximum size of abyssal hills is related to the lithosphere's ability to elastically support the load, 2) that fissuring and horst and graben formation dominate abyssal hill formation at fast spreading ridges, and 3) that volcanic edifice formation, modified by faulting driven by lithospheric necking, dominates abyssal hill formation at slow spreading ridges. To quantify abyssal hill characteristics such as vertical and lateral asymmetry and "peakiness" we must appeal to higher statistical moments than order two. A mathematical framework is introduced for the study of higher moments of a topographic field. This framework is built upon the concept that lower-order moment provide the groundwork for studying the higher-order moments. A simple 1-D parameterized model is proposed for moments up to order 4. This model includes two parameters for the third moment, describing vertical and lateral asymmetries, and one for the fourth moment, which describes the peakiness of topography. Initial methods are developed for estimating these parameters from bathymetric profiles. Results from the near ridge data set are presented and interpreted with regard to abyssal hill forming processes
Analysis and distribution of integrins in chicken embryos by Lisa Andrea Urry( )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Evaluating mantle and crustal processes using isotope geochemistry by Alberto Edgardo Saal( Book )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Geochemical studies are fundamental for understanding how the dynamic Earth works and evolves. These studies place constraints on the composition, formation, age, distribution, evolution and scales of geochemically distinct reservoirs such as the Earth's crust, mantle and core. In this dissertation the strategy has been to work on a broad range of topics to evaluate crustal and mantle processes. This study presents Re-Os systematics to constrain the composition, formation and age of the lower continental crust and the mantle lithosphere, examines melt inclusion from oceanic island basalts to evaluate the scale of the mantle heterogeneities, and uses U-series isotope to constrain geodynamic parameters, such as the upwelling velocities and porosities of mantle plumes. The lower continental crust plays a pivotal role in understanding the composition and evolution of the continental crust and the petrogenesis of continental basalts. This chapter presents Re/Os isotope measurements which allow us to further our understanding of these problems. Two well-characterized suites of lower crustal xenoliths from Northern Queensland, Australia, which have average major and trace element compositions similar to bulk lower crust, were analyzed for Re/Os isotope systematics. From this data, we infer that the lower crust has 1 to 2 times as much Os, about half of the Re and is less radiogenic in 1870s/1880s than the upper continental crust. Our data show that assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) are important processes in the formation of the lower crust and lead to dramatic changes in the Os isotopic composition of basalts that pond and fractionate there. Because of this, the Re-Os system cannot be relied upon to yield accurate mantle extraction ages for continental rocks. Chapter 2 examines the Re-Os isotopic composition of the Horoman massif, Japan. These data indicate that the Os isotope composition is controlled by the Re content, through radiogenic ingrowth, while the Re content is governed by the extent of depletion in "basaltic component" of the ultramafic rocks. Re-Os systematics suggest that depletion model ages of = 1.8 Ga represent the age of the melting event. The colinearity between mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Re-Os isochron diagram defines an apparent age of = 1 Ga. The similar "ages" determined by Re-Os and Sm-Nd isotopes and the high Re/Os ratios in the most fertile peridotites plotting to the right of the geochron, indicate that the mafic layers and the ultramafic rocks are genetically related by a refertilization process which took place = 1 Ga ago. The Re-Os systematics for other ophiolitic massifs indicate that refertilization of the lithospheric mantle seems to be a more widespread process than previously thought. Previous studies have suggested that melting processes are responsible for the trace element variability observed in olivine-hosted basaltic melt inclusions. Melt inclusions from four individual lava samples representing three mantle end-members HIMU, EMI and EMII (two from Mangaia, Cook Islands, one from Pitcairn, Gambier chain, and one from Tahaa, Society chain), have heterogeneous Pb isotopic compositions, even though the erupted lavas are isotopically homogeneous. The range of Pb isotopic compositions from individual melt inclusions in a single lava flow spans 50% of the world-wide range observed for ocean island basalts (OIB). The melt inclusion data can be explained by two-component mixing for each island. Our data imply that magmas with different isotopic compositions existed in the volcanic plumbing system prior to or during melt aggregation. Evaluation of U-series disequilibrium, trace element composition and He, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes of Galapagos lavas indicates that magma mixing between plume and asthenospheric melts has been the main process responsible for the geochemical variation observed in the archipelago. Correlations between He isotopes and Ti/Ti*, K/Rb and Nb/La ratios suggest that the mantle plume has positive anomalies of Nb and Ti and negative anomalies of K. 230Th excesses measured in the lavas indicate that the basalts from Galapagos originated completely or partially in the garnet stability field. Mantle upwelling velocity for the Galapagos plume (Fernandina) ranges from= 1 to 3 cm/y with a maximum porosity of 0.3%, indicating that Galapagos is a mildly buoyant plume. Very slow mantle upwelling rates and very low porosity for Pinta (0.5 to 1 cm/y and 0.1%) and Floreana (0.1 cm/year and <0.1%) islands, support the hypothesis that the movement of the plume across the 91050' transform fault into a younger and thinner lithosphere produced slow upwelling and small extents of melting
Slip on ridge transform faults : insights from earthquakes and laboratory experiments by Margaret S Boettcher( Book )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The relatively simple tectonic environment of mid-ocean ridge transform fault (RTF) seismicity provides a unique opportunity for investigation of earthquake and faulting processes. We develop a scaling model that is complete in that all the seismic parameters are related to the RTF tectonic parameters. Laboratory work on the frictional stability of olivine aggregates shows that the depth extent of oceanic faulting is thermally controlled and limited by the 600C isotherm. Slip on RTFs is primarily aseismic, only 15% of the tectonic offset is accommodated by earthquakes. Despite extensive fault areas, few large earthquakes occur on RTFs, and few aftershocks follow the large events. Standard models of seismicity, in which all earthquakes result from the same seismic triggering process, do not describe RTF earthquakes. Instead, large earthquakes appear to be preceded by an extended fault preparation process marked by abundant foreshocks within 1 hour and 15 kin of the main-shocks. In our experiments normal force vibrations, such as seismic radiation from nearby earthquakes, can weaken and potentially destabilize steadily creeping faults. Integrating the rheology, geology, and seismicity of RTFs, we develop a synoptic model to better understand the spatial distribution of fault strength and stability and provide insight into slip accommodation on RTFs
The influence of ridge geometry at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (9°-25°E) : basalt composition sensitivity to variations in source and process by Jared Jeffrey Standish( Book )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Between 90-25° E on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge lie two sharply contrasting supersegments. One 630 km long supersegment erupts N-MORB that is progressively enriched in incompatible element concentrations from east to west. The second 400 km long supersegment contains three separate volcanic centers erupting E-MORB and connected by long amagmatic accretionary segments, where mantle is emplaced directly to the seafloor with only scattered N-MORB and E-MORB erupted. Rather than a major break in mantle composition at the discontinuity between the supersegments, this sharp contrast in geometry, physiography, and chemistry reflects "source" versus "process" dominated generation of basalt. Robust along-axis correlation of ridge characteristics (i.e. morphology, upwelling rate, lithospheric thickness), basalt chemistry, and crustal thickness (estimated from gravity) provides a unique opportunity to compare the influence of spreading geometry and rate on MORB generation. What had not been well established until now is the importance of melting processes rather than source at spreading rates <20 mm/yr
Gulf stream temperature, salinity and transport during the last millennium by David Charles Lund( Book )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

(Cont.) The simplest explanation of the [delta]18Ow, data is southward migration of the Atlantic Hadley circulation during the LIA. Scaling of the [delta]18Ow records to salinity using the modern low-latitude 180,w-S slope produces an unrealistic reversal in the salinity gradient between the two sites. Only if [delta]18Ow is scaled to salinity using a high-latitude [delta]18Ow-S slope can the records be reconciled. Changes in atmospheric 14C paralleled shifts in Dry Tortugas [delta]18Ow, suggesting that variable solar irradiance paced centennial-scale Hadley cell migration and changes in Florida Current salinity during the last millennium
Isotopic constraints on the sources and associations of organic compounds in marine sediments by Helen K White( Book )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To provide a new perspective on the fate of both natural organic matter and hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in marine sediments, we have investigated the relationship between radiocarbon (14C) age and the different modes of association in aquatic sediments and soils. Radiocarbon is a sensitive tracer of OM provenance, with variations in its natural abundance reflecting the age and origin of material. The main objective has been to determine the significance of these associations, and to assess how they affect the transport, bioavailability, preservation and residence times of organic compounds in the environment. Our results indicate that the majority of HOCs that persist in marine sediments are solvent-extractable and incorporation into insoluble sediment residues is not quantitatively significant. For pristine sediments, systematic variations in 14C content are observed between different chemically defined sedimentary organic fractions. These variations are dependent on organic matter inputs and/or the affects of diagenesis. Our observations also provide evidence for the protection of labile marine carbon by chemical binding
Analysis and interpretation of tidal currents in the coastal boundary layer by Paul W May( Book )

1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Concern with the impact of human activities on the coastal region of the world's oceans has elicited interest in the so-called "coastal boundary layer"--That band of water adjacent to the coast where ocean currents adjust to the presence of a boundary. Within this zone, roughly 10 km wide, several physical processes appear to be important. One of these, the tides, is of particular interest because their deterministic nature allows unusually thorough analysis from short time series, and because they tend to obscure the other processes. The Coastal Boundary Layer Transect (COBOLT) experiment was conducted within 12 km of the south shore of Long Island, New York to elucidate the characteristics of the coastal boundary layer in the Middle Atlantic Bight. Analysis of data from this experiment shows that 35% of the kinetic energy of currents averaged over the 30 m depth are due to the semidiurnal and diurnal tides. The tidal ellipses, show considerable vertical structure. Near-surface tidal ellipses rotate in the clockwise direction for semidiurnal and diurnal tides, while near-bottom ellipses rotate in the counterclockwise direction for the semidiurnal tide. The angle between the major axis of the ellipse and the local coastline decreases downward for semidiurnal and increases downward for diurnal tides. The major axis of the tidal ellipse formed from the depth averaged semidiurnal currents is not parallel to the local shoreline but is oriented at an angle of -15 degrees. This orientation "tilt" is a consequence of the onshore flux of energy which is computed to be about 800 watts/m. A constant eddy viscosity model with a slippery bottom boundary condition reproduces the main features observed in the vertical structure of both semidiurnal and diurnal tidal ellipses. Another model employing long, rotational, gravity waves (Sverdrup waves) and an absorbing coastline explains the ellipse orientations and onshore energy flux as a consequence of energy dissipation in shallow water. Finally, an analytical model with realistic topography suggests that tidal dissipation may occur very close (2-3 km) to the shore. Internal tidal oscillations primarily occur at diurnal frequencies in the COBOLT data. Analysis suggests that this energy may be Doppler-shifted to higher frequencies by the mean currents of the coastal region. These motions are trapped to the shore and are almost exclusively first baroclinic mode internal waves
Nutrient limitation dynamics of a coastal Cape Cod pond : seasonal trends in alkaline phosphatase activity by Christie Lynn Haupert( Book )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A bi-weekly seasonal study was conducted in Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). The Redfield Ratio (106C:16N:1P) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) were utilized in tandem as nutrient deficiency indicators (NDIs) for phytoplankton. The study objective was to evaluate the limiting nutrient status of the pond throughout the growing season. The development of a high throughput method for fluorometrically measuring APA allowed for a large quantity of pond-water samples to be analyzed. The new method utilized a cytofluor, a fluorescence multi-well plate reader, which increased sample throughput by 75% compared to a standard filter fluorometer method. The detection limit, capability to measure APA at different time intervals, and performance at sea were tested. APA measurements made using the cytofluor were comparable to those made using a standard filter fluorometer, thus indicating that the cytofluor is a suitable and preferred replacement to the fluorometer for APA measurements. The presence of alkaline phosphatase, an inducible phospho-hydrolytic enzyme, is commonly used as an NDI diagnostic for phosphate limitation. A nutrient enrichment incubation re-affirmed the use of APA as a robust indicator of phosphate limitation in phytoplankton. APA data indicate that the system experienced episodic periods of phosphate-deficiency, implying that the limiting nutrient regime was not static, but was changeable throughout the growing season. Seasonal trends in dissolved N:P and particulate C:P ratios often contradict the APA results, however, suggesting that the Redfield Ratio is an unreliable indicator of the overall nutrient limitation regime of the pond. The observed discrepancies between C:N:P and APA can be reconciled by taking into account seasonal changes in species composition, which played an important role in driving seasonal APA trends
Physical influences on phytoplankton ecology : models and observations by Sophie A Clayton( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The physical environment in the oceans dictates not only how phytoplankton cells are dispersed and their populations intermingled, but also mediates the supply of nutrients to the surface mixed layer. In this thesis I explore both of these aspects of the interaction between phytoplankton ecology and ocean physics, and have approached this topic in two distinct but complementary ways, working with a global ocean ecosystem model, and collecting data at sea. In the first half of the thesis, I examine the role of mesoscale physical features in shaping phytoplankton community structure and influencing rates of primary production. I compare the output of a complex marine ecosystem model coupled to coarse resolution and eddy-permitting physical models. Explicitly resolving eddies resulted in marked regional variations in primary production, zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass. The same phytoplankton phenotypes persisted in both cases, and were dominant in the same regions. Global phytoplankton diversity was unchanged. However, levels of local phytoplankton diversity were markedly different, with a large increase in local diversity in the higher resolution model. Increased diversity could be attributed to a combination of enhanced dispersal, environmental variability and nutrient supply in the higher resolution model. Diversity "hotspots" associated with western boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones are sustained through a combination of all of these factors. In the second half of the thesis I describe the results of a fine scale ecological and biogeochemical survey of the Kuroshio Extension Front. I found fine scale patterns in physical, chemical and biological properties that can be linked back to both the large scale horizontal and smaller scale vertical physical dynamics of the study region. A targeted genomic analysis of samples focused on the ecology of the picoeukaryote Ostreococcus clade distributions strongly supports the model derived hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting diversity hotspots. Strikingly, two distinct clades of Ostreococcus co-occur in more than half of the samples. A "hotspot" of Ostreococcus diversity appears to be supported by a confluence of water masses containing either clade, as well as a local nutrient supply at the front and the mesoscale variability of the region
Transformations of mercury in the marine water column by Kathleen M Munson( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Methylation of mercury (Hg) in the marine water column has been hypothesized to serve as the primary source of the bioaccumulating chemical species monomethylmercury (MMHg) to marine food webs. Despite decades of research describing mercury methylation in anoxic sediments by anaerobic bacteria, mechanistic studies of water column methylation are severely limited. These essential studies have faced analytical challenges associated with quantifying femtomolar concentrations of the methylated Hg species dimethylmercury (DMHg) and MMHg in marine systems. In addition, the complex biogeochemical cycling of Hg in natural systems require consideration of gaseous, dissolved, and particulate species of Hg in order to probe potential controls on its ultimate transfer into marine food webs. The presented work provides a comprehensive study of Hg chemical speciation and transformations in Tropical Pacific waters. We developed an analytical method for MMHg determination from seawater that has the potential to ease measurements of MMHg distributions, as well as mechanistic studies of Hg species transformations. We used this method, in addition to previously established methods, to measure dissolved and particulate Hg species distributions and fluxes along a transect of the Pacific Ocean. Over significant gradients in oxygen utilization and primary productivity, we observed a region of methylated Hg species focused in the Equatorial Pacific that appeared spatially separated from higher concentrations in North Pacific Intermediate Waters. From the first full water column depth profiles of this region, we also observed the intrusion of elevated Hg into deep waters of the Equatorial and South Pacific Ocean. In addition we observed substantial potential rates of mercury methylation in subsurface and low oxygen waters along the Pacific transect as well as the Sargasso Sea using Hg isotope tracers. We observed dynamic production and decomposition of methylated Hg in low productivity waters, despite low ambient methylated Hg concentrations. From the addition of bulk organic matter as well as individual compounds important for methylation in anaerobic bacteria, we observe no simple limitation of Hg methylation in marine waters but highly dynamic conversion of Hg between methylated and inorganic species
Insights into vitamin B₁₂ production, acquisition, and use by marine microbes by Erin Marie Bertrand( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The distribution and magnitude of marine primary production helps determine the ocean's role in global carbon cycling. Constraining factors that impact this productivity and elucidating selective pressures that drive the composition of marine microbial communities are thus essential aspects of marine biogeochemistry. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a cobalt containing organometallic micronutrient produced by some bacteria and archaea and required by many eukaryotic phytoplankton for methionine biosynthesis and regeneration. Although the potential for vitamin B12 availability to impact primary production and phytoplankton species composition has long been recognized, the lack of molecular-level tools for studying B12 production, use and acquisition has limited inquiry into the role of the vitamin in marine biogeochemical processes. This thesis describes the development of such tools and implements them for the study of B12 dynamics in an Antarctic shelf ecosystem. Nucleic acid probes for B12 biosynthesis genes were designed and used to identify a potentially dominant group of B12 producers in the Ross Sea. The activity of this group was then verified by mass spectrometry-based peptide measurements. Then, possible interconnections between iron and B12 dynamics in this region were identified using field-based bottle incubation experiments and vitamin uptake measurements, showing that iron availability may impact both B12 production and consumption. Changes in diatom proteomes induced by low B12 and low iron availability were then examined and used to identify a novel B12 acquisition protein, CBA 1, in diatoms. This represents the first identification of a B12 acquisition protein in eukaryotic phytoplankton. Transcripts encoding CBAl were detected in natural phytoplankton communities, confirming that B12 acquisition is an important part of phytoplankton molecular physiology. Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the abundance of CBA 1 and methionine synthase proteins in diatoms cultures, revealing distinct protein abundance patterns as a function ofB12 availability. These peptide measurements were implemented to quantify methionine synthase proteins in McMurdo Sound, revealing that there is both B12 utilization and starvation in natural diatom communities and that these peptide measurements hold promise for revealing the metabolic status of marine ecosystems with respect to vitamin B12
Uranium-series radionuclide records of paleoceanographic and sedimentary changes in the Arctic Ocean by Sharon Susanna Hoffmann( Book )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

(Cont.) The Arctic thus appears fundamentally similar to other ocean basins in its ²³¹Pa and ²³⁰Th dynamics, despite its peculiar qualities of sea ice cover, low particle flux, and relatively isolated deep waters
Crustal accretion and evolution at slow and ultra-slow spreading mid-ocean ridges by Allegra Hosford( Book )

1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Half of the ocean crust is formed at spreading centers with total opening rates less than 40 km/Myr. The objective of this Thesis is to investigate temporal variations in active ridge processes and crustal aging at slow-spreading centers by comparing axial crustal structure with that on conjugate flanks of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) (full rate, 20 km/Myr) and the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) (full rate, 14 km/Myr). Seismic refraction data collected along the rift valley and flanking rift mountains of the OH-1 segment (35 deg N) at the MAR show that the entire crustal section is constructed within a zone that is less than 5 km wide. Shallow-level hydrothermal circulation within the axial valley is suggested by the rift mountain seismic profiles, which show that the upper crust is 20% thinner and 16% faster along strike than zero-age crust. These effects probably result from fissure sealing within the extrusive crust. Deeper crustal velocities remain relatively constant at the segment midpoint within the first 2 Myr, but are reduced near the segment offsets presumably by faulting and fracturing associated with uplift out of the rift valley. A temporal variation in axial melt supply is suggested by a 15% difference in along-strike crustal thickness between the rift valley and rift mountains, with relatively less melt supplied today than 2 Ma. Crustal accretion at the SWIR appears to occur in a similar manner as at the MAR, although gravity and seismic data indicate that the average crustal thickness is 2-4 km less at the ultra-slow spreading SWIR. A 25 Myr record on both flanks of the ridge shows that seafloor spreading has been highly asymmetric through time, with 35% faster crustal accretion on the Antarctic (south) plate
Biogeochemical applications of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis by Ann Pearson( Book )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Compound-specific carbon isotopic (613C and A14C) data are reported for lipid biomarkers isolated from Santa Monica Basin (SMB) and Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) surface sediments. These organic compounds represent phytoplanktonic, zooplanktonic, bacterial, archaeal, terrestrial, and fossil carbon sources. The lipids include long-chain n-alkanes, fatty acids (as FAMEs), n-alcohols, C30 mid-chain ketols and diols, sterols, hopanols, and ether-linked C40-biphytanes of Archaea. The data show that the carbon source for most of the biomarkers is marine euphotic zone primary production or subsequent heterotrophic consumption of this biomass. Two lipid classes represent exceptions to this finding. A14C values for the n-alkanes are consistent with mixed fossil and contemporary terrestrial plant sources. The archaeal isoprenoid data reflect chemoautotrophic growth below the euphotic zone. The biomarker class most clearly representing marine phytoplanktonic production is the sterols. It is suggested, therefore, that the sterols could serve as paleoceanographic tracers for surface-water DIC. The isotopic data are used to construct two algebraic models. The first calculates the contributions of fossil and modern vascular plant carbon to SMB n-alkanes. This model indicates that the A14C of the modern component is +235%o (post-bomb) or 0%o (pre-bomb). The second model uses these values to determine the origin of sedimentary TOC. The results are comparable to estimates based on other approaches and suggest that -60% of SMB TOC is of marine origin, modern terrestrial and fossil sources contribute -10% each, and the remaining -20% is of unknown origin
Geochemical characerization of endmember mantle components by Rhea K Workman( Book )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis uses trace elements and radiogenic isotope tracers to define elemental abundances in reservoirs of the Earth's mantle, including EM2 (the Enriched Mantle 2), as seen in the Samoan hotspot track, and DMM (the depleted upper mantle), which is sampled at mid-ocean ridges. Together these components comprise up to [approx.] 50% of the total mantle mass. Much of the mantle's chemical heterogeneities are suspected to originate by either the removal of mass from the mantle (in the case of DMM) or the addition of mass to the mantle through subduction zones (in the case of EM2). We show that DMM represents mantle that 1) has been previously depleted by 2-3% melt removal, 2) mass-balances well with the continental crust, 3) has only 15% of the radiogenic heat production in primitive upper mantle and 4) can generate present-day ocean crust by 6% aggregated fractional melting. EM2 is classically interpreted as mantle material enriched in trace elements through the ancient, subduction-zone recycling of terrigenous sediments; here we show this model is unlikely and provide two other working hypotheses
Boundary layer dynamics and deep ocean mixing in mid-Atlantic ridge canyons by Rebecca Walsh Dell( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Physical oceanographers have known for several decades the total amount of abyssal mixing and upwelling required to balance the deep-water formation, but are still working to understand the mechanisms and locations-how and where it happens. From observational studies, we know that areas of rough topography are important and the hundreds of Grand-Canyon sized canyons that line mid-ocean ridges have particularly energetic mixing. To better understand the mechanisms by which rough topography translates into energetic currents and mixing, I studied diffusive boundary layers over varying topography using theoretical approaches and idealized numerical simulations using the ROMS model. In this dissertation, I show a variety of previously unidentified characteristics of diffusive boundary layers that are likely relevant for understanding the circulation of the abyssal ocean. These boundary layers share many important properties with observed flows in abyssal canyons, like increased kinetic energy near topographic sills and strong currents running from the abyssal plains up the slopes of the mid-ocean ridges toward their crests. They also have a previously unknown capacity to accelerate into overflows for a variety of oceanographically relevant shapes and sizes of topography. This acceleration happens without external forcing, meaning such overflows may be ubiquitous in the deep ocean. These boundary layers also can force exchange of large volumes of fluid between the relatively unstratified boundary layer and the stratified far-field fluid, altering the stratification far from the boundary. We see these effects in boundary layers in two- and three-dimensions, with and without rotation. In conclusion, these boundary layer processes, though previously neglected, may be a source of a dynamically important amount of abyssal upwelling, profoundly affecting predictions of the basin-scale circulation. This type of mechanism cannot be captured by the kind of mixing parameterizations used in current global climate models, based on a bottom roughness. Therefore, there is much work still to do to better understand how these boundary layers behave in more realistic contexts and how we might incorporate that understanding into climate models
Understanding the ocean carbon and sulfur cycles in the context of a variable ocean : a study of anthropogenic carbon storage and dimethlsulfide production in the Atlantic Ocean by Naomi Marcil Levine( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Anthropogenic activity is rapidly changing the global climate through the emission of carbon dioxide. Ocean carbon and sulfur cycles have the potential to impact global climate directly and through feedback loops. Numerical modeling, field and laboratory studies are used to improve our mechanistic understanding of the impact of natural variability on carbon and sulfur cycling. Variability in ocean physics, specifically changes in vertical mixing, is shown to significantly impact both cycles. The impact of interannual variability on the detection and attribution of anthropogenic carbon (Canthro) and the storage of Canthro in the Atlantic Ocean is analyzed using a three-dimensional global ocean model. Several regions are identified where empirical methods used to estimating Canthro are not able to correct for natural variability in the ocean carbon system. This variability is also shown to bias estimates of long term trends made from hydrographic observations. In addition, the storage of Canthro in North Atlantic mode waters is shown to be strongly influenced by water mass transformation during wintertime mixing events. The primary mechanisms responsible for seasonal variability in dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation and dimethylsulfide (DMS) production in the oligotrophic North Atlantic are investigated using potential enzyme activity and gene expression and abundance data. Vertical mixing and UV radiative stress appear to be the dominant mechanisms behind seasonal variability in DMS production in the Sargasso Sea. This thesis demonstrates the importance of and dynamics of bacterial communities responsible for DMSP degradation and DMS production in oligotrophic surface waters. These findings suggest that modifications to current numerical models of the upper ocean sulfur cycle may be needed. Specifically, current static parameterizations of bacterial DMSP cycling should be replaced with a dynamic bacterial component including DMSP degradation and DMS production
Heterogeneous reservoirs in the marine carbon cycle by Christopher L Follett( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Understanding the fate of primary production in the ocean is a challenging task because once produced, organic material is oxidized over timescales which range from minutes, to millions of years. This timescale diversity is matched by an equal heterogeneity in both the local physical and chemical environment. In this thesis we explore the relationship between the distinct reservoirs of organic carbon in the ocean and their underlying complexity. First, we show how the heterogeneity of portions of the carbon cycle can be packaged in terms of age structured models and their accompanying age and rate distributions. We further relate the moments of the rate distributions to bulk reservoir properties like average age and flux. Explicit relationships are then derived for the specific case of a single turnover time and a lognormal distribution. We apply these ideas to the problem of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) cycling in the ocean. Current models of bulk concentration and isotope data suggest a microbially sourced DOC reservoir consisting of two components. A nearly homogeneous background component with a long turnover time (> 6000 years) is joined by a component of fast turnover time (~1 year) and equal concentration in the surface ocean. We confirm the presence of isotopically enriched, modern DOC co-cycling with an isotopically depleted older fraction in the upper ocean. However, our results show that up to 30% of the deep DOC reservoir is modern and supported by a 1 Pg per year carbon flux, ten times higher than inferred from bulk isotope measurements. Isotopically depleted material turns over at an apparent time scale of 30;000 years, far slower than indicated by bulk isotope measurements. These results are consistent with global DOC measurements and explain both the fluctuations in deep DOC concentration and the anomalous radiocarbon values of DOC in the Southern Ocean. Finally, the thesis explores methods for determining the validity of diffusion limitation as the mechanism behind the power-law slowdown in organic remineralization in sediment. We find that diffusion limitation connects the decay behavior of organic material to the correlations found between mineral surface area and organic matter content in sediments
Atlantic Ocean circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum : inferences from data and models by Holly Janine Dail( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO₂ concentrations were about 90 ppm lower, ice sheets were much more extensive, and many regions experienced significantly colder temperatures. In this thesis a novel approach to dynamical reconstruction is applied to make estimates of LGM Atlantic Ocean state that are consistent with these proxy records and with known ocean dynamics. Ocean dynamics are described with the MIT General Circulation Model in an Atlantic configuration extending from 35°S to 75°N at 1° resolution. Six LGM proxy types are used to constrain the model: four compilations of near sea surface temperatures from the MARGO project, as well as benthic isotope records of [delta]¹⁸O and [delta]¹³C compiled by Marchal and Curry; 629 individual proxy records are used. To improve the fit of the model to the data, a least-squares fit is computed using an algorithm based on the model adjoint (the Lagrange multiplier methodology). The adjoint is used to compute improvements to uncertain initial and boundary conditions (the control variables). As compared to previous model-data syntheses of LGM ocean state, this thesis uses a significantly more realistic model of oceanic physics, and is the first to incorporate such a large number and diversity of proxy records. A major finding is that it is possible to find an ocean state that is consistent with all six LGM proxy compilations and with known ocean dynamics, given reasonable uncertainty estimates. Only relatively modest shifts from modern atmospheric forcing are required to fit the LGM data. The estimates presented herein successfully reproduce regional shifts in conditions at the LGM that have been inferred from proxy records, but which have not been captured in the best available LGM coupled model simulations. In addition, LGM benthic [delta]¹⁸O and [delta]¹³C records are shown to be consistent with a shallow but robust Atlantic meridional overturning cell, although other circulations cannot be excluded
 
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Alternative Names
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Biology. Joint Program in Oceanography

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Joint Program in Oceanography

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. Joint Program in Oceanography

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Ocean Engineering. Joint Program in Oceanography

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Joint Program in Oceanography

Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Joint Program in Oceanography

MIT WHOI Joint Program in Joint Program in Oceanography

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Joint Program in Oceanography

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English (20)