WorldCat Identities

Schmukler, Sergio L.

Works: 138 works in 597 publications in 1 language and 4,223 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Contributor, Honoree
Classifications: HG5160.5.A3, 332.0415098
Publication Timeline
Publications about  Sergio L Schmukler Publications about Sergio L Schmukler
Publications by  Sergio L Schmukler Publications by Sergio L Schmukler
Most widely held works by Sergio L Schmukler
Emerging capital markets and globalization the Latin American experience by Augusto de la Torre ( )
18 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 661 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Back in the early 1990s, economists and policy makers had high expectations about the prospects for domestic capital market development in emerging economies, particularly in Latin America. Unfortunately, they are now faced with disheartening results. Stock and bond markets remain illiquid and segmented. Debt is concentrated at the short end of the maturity spectrum and denominated in foreign currency, exposing countries to maturity and currency risk. Capital markets in Latin America look particularly underdeveloped when considering the many efforts undertaken to improve the macroeconomic environment and to reform the institutions believed to foster capital market development. The disappointing performance has made conventional policy recommendations questionable, at best. Emerging Capital Markets and Globalization analyzes where we stand and where we are heading on capital market development. First, it takes stock of the state and evolution of Latin American capital markets and related reforms over time and relative to other countries. Second, it analyzes the factors related to the development of capital markets, with particular interest on measuring the impact of reforms. And third, in light of this analysis, it discusses the prospects for capital market development in Latin America and emerging economies and the implications for the reform agenda
Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean The Road Ahead by Augusto de la Torre ( )
10 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 339 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
During the 1980s and 1990s, financial sectors were the Achilles' heel of economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Since then, these sectors have grown and deepened, becoming more integrated and competitive, with new actors, markets, and instruments springing up and financial inclusion broadening. To crown these achievements, the During the 1980s and 1990s, financial sectors were the Achilles' heel of economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Since then, these sectors have grown and deepened, becoming more integrated and competitive, with new actors, markets, and instruments springing up and financial inclusion broadening. To crown these achievements, the region's financial systems were left largely unscathed by the global financial crisis of 2008-09. Now that the successes of LAC's macrofinancial stability are widely recognized and tested, it is high time for an in-depth stocktaking of what remains to be done. Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road Ahead provides both a stocktaking and a forward-looking assessment of the region's financial development. Rather than going into detail about sector-specific issues, the report focuses on the main architectural issues, overall perspectives, and interconnections. The report's value added thus hinges on its holistic view of the development process, its broad coverage of the financial services industry beyond banking, its emphasis on benchmarking, its systemic perspective, and its explicit effort to incorporate the lessons from the recent global financial crisis. Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road Ahead builds on and complements several overview studies on financial development in both LAC countries and the developing world that were published in the past decade. It will be of interest to policy makers and financial analysts interested in improving the financial sector in the LAC region
Short-run pain, long-run gain : the effects of financial liberalization by Graciela Laura Kaminsky ( Book )
25 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 157 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We examine the short- and long-run effects of financial liberalization on capital markets. To do so, we construct a new comprehensive chronology of financial liberalization in 28 mature and emerging market economies since 1973. We also construct an algorithm to identify booms and busts in stock market prices. Our results indicate that financial liberalization is followed by more pronounced boom-bust cycles in the short run. However, financial liberalization leads to more stable markets in the long run. Finally, we analyze the sequencing of liberalization and institutional reforms to understand the contrasting short- and long-run effects of liberalization
The evidence and impact of financial globalization by Gerard Caprio ( )
8 editions published between 2012 and 2013 in English and held by 151 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The sharp realities of financial globalization become clear during crises, when winners and losers emerge. Crises usher in short- and long-term changes to the status quo, and everyone agrees that learning from crises is a top priority. The Evidence and Impact of Financial Globalization devotes separate articles to specific crises, the conditions that cause them, and the longstanding arrangements devised to address them. While other books and journal articles treat these subjects in isolation, this volume presents a wide-ranging, consistent, yet varied specificity. Substantial, authoritative, and useful, these articles provide material unavailable elsewhere. Substantial articles by top scholars sets this volume apart from other information sources Rapidly developing subjects will interest readers well into the future Reader demand and lack of competitors underline the high value of these reference works
Managers, investors, and crises : mutual fund strategies in emerging markets by Graciela Laura Kaminsky ( Book )
21 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 135 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
July 2000 - This study of an important class of investors-U.S. mutual funds-finds that mutual funds do engage in momentum trading (buying winners and selling losers). They also engage in contagion trading strategies (selling assets from one country when asset prices fall in another). Kaminsky, Lyons, and Schmukler address the trading strategies of mutual funds in emerging markets. The data set they develop permits analyses of these strategies at the level of individual portfolios. A methodologically novel feature of their analysis: they disentangle the behavior of fund managers from that of investors. For both managers and investors, they strongly reject the null hypothesis of no momentum trading. Funds' momentum trading is positive: they systematically buy winners and sell losers. Contemporaneous momentum trading (buying current winners and selling current losers) is stronger during crises, and stronger for fund investors than for fund managers. Lagged momentum trading (buying past winners and selling past losers) is stronger during noncrises, and stronger for fund managers. Investors also engage in contagion trading-selling assets from one country when asset prices fall in another. These findings are based on data about mutual funds that represent only 10 percent of the market capitalization in the countries considered. Were it a larger share of the market, finding counterparties for their trades (the investors who buy when they sell and sell when they buy) would be difficult-and the premise that funds respond to contemporaneous returns rather than causing them would become tenuous. This paper-a product of Macroeconomics and Growth, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to understand capital flows to developing countries. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Mutual Fund Investment in Developing Countries. The authors may be contacted at,, or
Global transmission of interest rates : monetary independence and currency regime by Jeffrey A Frankel ( Book )
19 editions published between 2000 and 2002 in English and Undetermined and held by 132 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Hikes in U.S. interest rates in 1999-2000 have started to spill over to other economies' interest rates, which in many countries have risen to reflect the higher U.S. rates. Are countries with flexible exchange rates better able to isolate their domestic interest rates from this type of negative international shock? Less and less so, as economies become more integrated
Pricing currency risk : facts and puzzles from currency boards by Sergio L Schmukler ( Book )
14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 129 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Hard pegs, such as currency boards, intend to reduce or even eliminate currency risk. This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of the currency risk premium in two currency boards -- Argentina and Hong Kong. Despite the presumed rigidity of currency boards, the currency premium is almost always positive and at times very large. Its term structure is usually upward sloping, but flattens out or even becomes inverted at times of turbulence. Currency premia differ across markets. The forward discount typically exceeds the currency premium derived from interbank rates, particularly during crisis times. The large magnitude of these cross-market differences can be the consequence of unexploited arbitrage opportunities, market segmentation, or other risks embedded in typical measures of currency risk. The premium and its term structure depend on domestic and global factors, related to devaluation expectations and risk perceptions
Internationalization and the evolution of corporate valuation by Ross Levine ( Book )
16 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 125 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"By documenting the evolution of Tobin's "q" before, during, and after firms internationalize, this paper provides evidence on the bonding, segmentation, and market timing theories of internationalization. Using new data on 9,096 firms across 74 countries over the period 1989-2000, we find that Tobin's "q" does not rise after internationalization, even relative to firms that do not internationalize. Instead, "q" rises significantly one year before internationalization and during the internationalization year. But, then "q" falls sharply in the year after internationalization, relinquishing the increases of the previous two years. To account for these dynamics, we show that market capitalization rises one year before internationalization and remains high, while corporate assets increase during internationalization. The evidence supports models stressing that internationalization facilitates corporate expansion, but challenges models stressing that internationalization produces an enduring effect on "q" by bonding firms to a better corporate governance system"--World Bank web site
Why do emerging economies borrow short term? by Fernando Broner ( )
18 editions published between 2004 and 2007 in English and Undetermined and held by 109 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We argue that emerging economies borrow short term due to the high risk premium charged by bondholders on long-term debt. First, we present a model where the debt maturity structure is the outcome of a risk sharing problem between the government and bondholders. By issuing long-term debt, the government lowers the probability of a rollover crisis, transferring risk to bondholders. In equilibrium, this risk is reflected in a higher risk premium and borrowing cost. Therefore, the government faces a trade-off between safer long-term debt and cheaper short-term debt. Second, we construct a new database of sovereign bond prices and issuance. We show that emerging economies pay a positive term premium (a higher risk premium on long-term bonds than on short-term bonds). During crises, the term premium increases, with issuance shifting towards shorter maturities. The evidence suggests that international investors' time-varying risk aversion is crucial to understand the debt structure in emerging economies
International financial integration through equity markets which firms from which countries go global? by Stijn Claessens ( Book )
20 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 96 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The authors study international financial integration analyzing firms from various countries raising capital, trading equity, and cross-listing in major world stock markets. Using a large sample of 39,517 firms from 111 countries covering the period 1989-2000, they find that, although international financial integration increases substantially over this period, only relatively few countries and firms actively participate in international markets. Firms more likely to internationalize are from larger and more open economies, with higher income, better macroeconomic policies, and worse institutional environments. These firms tend to be larger, grow faster, and have higher returns and more foreign sales. While changes occur with internationalization, these firm attributes are present before internationalization takes place. The results suggest that international financial integration will likely remain constrained by country and firm characteristics
Country fund discounts, asymmetric information and the Mexican crisis of 1994 : did local residents turn pessimistic before international investors? by Jeffrey A Frankel ( Book )
10 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 94 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
It has been suggested that Mexican investors were the front-runners in the peso crisis of December 1994, turning pessimistic before international investors. Different expectations about their own economy, perhaps due to asymmetric information, prompted Mexican investors to be the first ones to leave the country. This paper uses data from three Mexican country funds to investigate the hypothesis of divergent expectations. We find that, right before the devaluation, Mexican fund Net Asset Values (mainly driven by Mexican investors) dropped faster than Mexican country fund prices (mainly driven by foreign investors). Moreover, we find that Mexican NAVs tend to Granger-cause the country fund prices. This suggests that causality, in some sense, flows from the Mexico City investor community to the Wall Street investor community. More generally, the paper proposes an asymmetric information approach that differs from the existing explanations of country fund discounts
Explaining the migration of stocks from exchanges in emerging economies to internationaol centers by Stijn Claessens ( Book )
19 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 85 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Verifiability and the vanishing intermediate exchange rate regime by Jeffrey A Frankel ( Book )
12 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 79 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The corners hypothesis holds that intermediate exchange rate regimes are vanishing, or should be. Surprisingly for a new conventional wisdom, this hypothesis so far lacks analytic foundations. In part, the generalization is overdone. We nevertheless offer one possible theoretical rationale, a contribution to the list of arguments against intermediate regimes: they lack verifiability, needed for credibility. Central banks announce intermediate targets such as exchange rates, so that the public can judge from observed data whether they are following the policy announced. Our general point is that simple regimes are more verifiable by market participants than complicated ones. Of the various intermediate regimes (managed float, peg with escape clause, etc.), we focus on basket pegs, with bands. Statistically, it takes a surprisingly long span of data to distinguish such a regime from a floating exchange rate. We apply the econometrics, first, to the example of Chile and, second, by performing Monte Carlo simulations. The amount of data required to verify the declared regime may exceed the length of time during which the regime is maintained. The amount of information necessary increases with the complexity of the regime, including the width of the band and the number of currencies in the basket
What triggers market jitters? : a chronicle of the Asian crisis by Graciela Laura Kaminsky ( Book )
11 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Government bonds in domestic and foreign currency : the role of macroeconomic and institutional factors by Stijn Claessens ( Book )
14 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Country funds and asymmetric information by Jeffrey A Frankel ( Book )
9 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Globalization and firms' financing choices : evidence from emerging economies by Sergio L Schmukler ( Book )
10 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper studies the relation between firm's financing choices and financial globalization. Using an East Asian and Latin American firm-level panel for the 1980s and 1990s, we study how leverage ratios, debt maturity structure, and sources of financing change when economies are liberalized and when firms access capital markets. We find that debt-equity rations do not increase after financial liberalization. However, domestic firms that actually participate in international capital markets extend their debt maturity. Financial liberalization has less effects on firms from countries with more developed domestic financial systems. Leverage ratios increase during crises
Migration, spillovers, and trade diversion : the impact of internalization on stock market liquidity by Ross Levine ( Book )
6 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
International financial integration through the law of one price by Eduardo Levy Yeyati ( )
9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The authors argue that the cross-market premium (the ratio between the domestic and the international market price of cross-listed stocks) provides a valuable measure of international financial integration, reflecting accurately the factors that segment markets and inhibit price arbitrage. Applying to equity markets recent methodological developments in the purchasing power parity literature, they show that nonlinear Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) models properly capture the behavior of the cross market premium. The estimates reveal the presence of narrow non-arbitrage bands and indicate that price differences outside these bands are rapidly arbitraged away, much faster than what has been documented for good markets. Moreover, the authors find that financial integration increases with market liquidity. Capital controls, when binding, contribute to segment financial markets by widening the non-arbitrage bands and making price disparities more persistent. Crisis episodes are associated with higher volatility, rather than by more persistent deviations from the law of one price
Financial development in Latin America big emerging issues, limited policy answers by Augusto de la Torre ( )
6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"This paper argues that the dominant policy paradigm on financial development is increasingly insufficient to address big emerging issues that are particularly relevant for financial systems in Latin America. This paradigm was shaped over the past decades by a fundamental shift in thinking toward market-based financial development and a complex process of financial crises interpretation. The result has been a richly textured policy paradigm focused on promoting financial stability and the convergence to international standards. It argues, however, that there is a growing dissonance between the current paradigm and the emerging issues, which is illustrated by discussing challenges in three areas: stock markets, small and medium enterprise loans, and defined-contribution pension funds. The paper concludes that the dominant policy paradigm is ill-suited to provide significant guidance in relation to the big emerging issues. It emphasizes the need to take a fresh look at the evidence, improve the diagnoses, revisit expectations, and revise the paradigm."--World Bank web site
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Alternative Names
Schmukler, S. L.
Schmukler, Sergio
English (272)