WorldCat Identities

Migdalovitz, Carol

Overview
Works: 67 works in 186 publications in 1 language and 1,848 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author
Classifications: JK1108,
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Carol Migdalovitz
The Middle East peace talks by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

37 editions published between 1996 and 2006 in English and held by 384 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

After the first Gulf war, in 1991, a new peace process was begun, with Israel and the Palestinians discussing a five-year period of interim self-rule leading to a final settlement. Israel and Syria discussed Israeli withdrawal from the Golan Heights in exchange for peace. Israel and Jordan discussed relations. Israel and Lebanon focused on Israel's withdrawal from its self-declared security zone in south Lebanon and reciprocal Lebanese actions. On September 13, 1993, Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) signed a Declaration of Principles (DOP), providing for Palestinian empowerment and some territorial control. Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and King Hussein of Jordan signed a Peace Treaty on October 26, 1994. Israel and the Palestinians signed an Interim Self-Rule in the West Bank/Oslo II accord on September 28, 1995. Israel continued implementing it despite the November 4 assassination of Prime Minister Rabin. Israel suspended talks with Syria in February/March 1996. They resumed in December 1999, but were postponed indefinitely after January 2000. Israel withdrew from south Lebanon on May 24, 2000. The Palestinians and Israelis signed additional incremental accords in 1997, 1998, and 1999. From July 11 to 24, 2000, President Clinton held a summit with Israeli and Palestinian leaders at Camp David, but they did not succeed in producing an accord. A Palestinian uprising or intifadah began in September. Ariel Sharon was elected Prime Minister of Israel on February 6, 2001. He said that the results of Camp David and afterwards were null and void. The international war against terrorism after September 11, 2001, prompted renewed U.S. focus on a peace process. On June 24, 2002, President Bush declared, "peace requires new and different Palestinian leadership so that a Palestinian state can be born." On April 30, 2003, the United States, the U.N., European Union, and Russia (the Quartet) presented a "Roadmap" to Palestinian statehood within three years. It has not been implemented. In December 2003, Sharon proposed to unilaterally disengage from the Palestinians in Gaza and four small settlements in the West Bank. Palestinian Authority (PA) Chairman/President Yasir Arafat died on November 11, 2004, and, on January 9, 2005, Mahmud Abbas was elected to succeed him. On August 23, Israel completed its disengagement from the Gaza Strip and four West Bank settlements. Since the terrorist group Hamas won the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections, Israeli officials have set out plans to unilaterally disengage from more of the West Bank. Congress is interested in the peace talks because of its oversight role in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy, its support for Israel, and keen constituent interest. It is concerned about U.S. financial and other commitments and the Palestinians' fulfillment of their commitments to Israel. Congress has appropriated aid for the West Bank and Gaza, with conditions intended to ensure Palestinian compliance with agreements with Israel. Congress has repeatedly endorsed Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel, and many Members seek sanctions on the PLO and PA
Cyprus : status of U.N. negotiations by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

28 editions published between 1999 and 2006 in English and held by 302 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Macedonian recognition : issues for Congress by Julie Kim( Book )

6 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 100 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Israel : background and relations with the United States by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

22 editions published between 2005 and 2010 in English and held by 35 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel declared its independence and was immediately engaged in a war with all of its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments. Most recently, the Kadima Party placed first in the March 28, 2006, Knesset (parliament) election, and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert formed a four-party coalition government. Israel has an advanced industrial, market economy in which the government plays a substantial role
Greece : threat of terrorism and security at the Olympics by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Israel's disengagement from Gaza by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Turkey's 2007 elections : crisis of identity and power by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

4 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effort of Turkey's ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) to elect one of its own to be president of the Republic provoked a crisis. The nominee, the otherwise respected Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul, has roots in Turkey's Islamist movement and his wife wears a head scarf, which some secularists consider a symbol of both Islamism and backwardness. Moreover, because AKP already controls the prime ministry and parliament, it was argued that the balance of political power would be disturbed if the party also assumed the presidency
European Union Enlargement: A Status Report on Turkey's Accession Negotiations( )

3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

October 2009 marks the fourth anniversary of the European Union's decision to proceed with formal negotiations with Turkey toward full membership in the Union. And, on October 15, the European Commission issued its fourth formal report on Turkey's accession progress. The Commission's 2009 report, like its previous reports, was marked by a mixed assessment of Turkey's accomplishments thus far in working through the various chapters of the accession process that have been opened. The report, while noting some progress in judicial reform and relations with the Kurds and Armenia, and little progress in other areas, contained nothing new or dramatic. The Commission, unlike some in Europe, did not view its 2009 report as any more significant or important than previous annual reports. For some in Europe, the focus now shifts to December 2009, when the EU Council must decide the next steps in the accession process. Many "Turkey-skeptics" see December as a deadline for Turkish action that could mark a critical juncture for the future of Europe's relationship with Turkey and perhaps force EU member states into a difficult debate pitting loyalty to another member state, being shunned by a candidate for Union membership, versus Europe's long-term strategic interests in Turkey. The principal issues regarding Turkey's accession center around what the EU believes has been too slow of a pace for certain critical reforms within Turkey; a perceived ambivalence toward the EU by the current Turkish leadership; Turkey's failure to live up to its agreement to extend the benefits of its customs union with the EU to Cyprus, including the continued reluctance by Turkey to open its sea and air ports to Cypriot shipping and commerce until a political settlement has been achieved on Cyprus; and a continued skepticism on the part of many Europeans about whether Turkey should be embraced as a member of the European family
Iraq : Turkey, the deployment of U.S. forces, and related issues by Carol Migdalovitz( )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On March 1, 2003, the Turkish parliament rejected a resolution authorizing the deployment of U.S. forces to Turkey to open a northern front in a war against Iraq. The rejection resulted from strains within the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), an inexperienced leadership, competing influences, and the overwhelming opposition of Turkish public opinion. Moreover, the powerful Turkish military had not actively supported the government's position before the vote, and the President had suggested that the resolution would be unconstitutional. For a long time, Turkey had serious concerns about the prospect of a second Gulf war, and these affected the vote in parliament and the negotiations with the United States for the troop deployment. Concerns included fear that a war would lead to an independent Iraqi Kurdish state and inspire the revival of Turkish Kurdish separatism, worries over the fate of Iraqi Turkomans, who are ethnic kin of the Turks, potential economic losses, a potential refugee crisis on the Turkey-Iraq border, and possible detrimental effects on regional stability. The Bush Administration engaged in intensive diplomacy to gain Turkey's support. The negotiations reportedly produced several tentative agreements. The parliamentary resolution that was rejected would have enabled a U.S. deployment of troops, planes, and helicopters to Turkey. The United States would have provided Turkey with a $6 billion assistance package, some of which could have been used to support $24 billion loan guarantees. Until the funds were available, the Administration would have provided a bridge loan of $8.5 billion. It also would have provided enhanced trade benefits to Turkish businesses. A memorandum of understanding was said to have dealt with Turkish troops in northern Iraq and their coordination with U.S. forces. But the agreements were never concluded. After the war began, the Administration only wanted access to Turkey's airspace, which was granted on March 21, 2003, and to prevent Turkish forces from interfering in northern Iraq. Turkey agreed to provide food, fuel, and other non-lethal supplies for U.S. troops in northern Iraq. The United States will give Turkey $1 billion in aid, with which it can leverage $8.5 billion in loans. The Turkish parliament's failure to authorize the troop deployment has significant implications. To govern effectively, the AKP needs to mend strains and rebuild its political standing. Moreover, despite Turkey's increasing democratization, the AKP cannot ignore the military's great influence. The prolonged negotiations and the legislative defeat strained bilateral U.S.-Turkish relations. Both sides developed hard feelings which may take time to overcome. Turkey may be deprived of some influence concerning postwar Iraq, the Iraqi Kurds, and the Iraqi Turkomans. It also lost the substantial aid package that had been tied to acceptance of the U.S. deployment, although a smaller one has been appropriated. This report will not be updated. For background, see CRS Report RS21355, Turkey's November 3, 2002 National Election
Western Sahara : status of settlement efforts by Carol Migdalovitz( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the 1970s, Morocco and the independence-seeking Popular Front for the Liberation of Saqiat al Hamra and Rio de Oro (Polisario) have vied for control of the Western Sahara, a former Spanish territory. In 1991, the United Nations arranged a cease-fire and proposed a settlement plan that called for a referendum to allow the people of Western Sahara to choose between independence and integration into Morocco. A long deadlock on determining the electorate for a referendum ensued. Since 2001, the U.N. has unsuccessfully suggested alternatives to the unfulfilled settlement plan, particularly one formulated by James Baker. Latterly, the U.N. has called on the parties to negotiate. An end to the impasse is not in sight, and it has affected Algerian-Moroccan bilateral relations and wider regional cooperation. The United States supports U.N. efforts and a solution that would not destabilize its ally, Morocco. Congress supports a referendum and is frustrated by delays
Turkey's November 3, 2002 national election by Carol Migdalovitz( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Iran: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As the Administration and Congress move forward to pursue engagement, harsher sanctions, or both, regional actors are evaluating their policies and priorities with respect to Iran. Iran's neighbors share many U.S. concerns, but often evaluate them differently than the United States when calculating their own relationship with or policy toward Iran. Because Iran and other regional concerns-the Arab-Israeli peace process, stability in Lebanon and Iraq, terrorism, and the ongoing war in Afghanistan-have become increasingly intertwined, understanding the policies and perspectives of Iran's neighbors could be crucial during the consideration of options to address overall U.S. policy toward Iran
Turkey : issues for U.S. policy by Carol Migdalovitz( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy by Carol Migdalovitz( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"After the first Gulf war, in 1991, a new peace process consisting of bilateral negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon achieved mixed results. Milestones included the Israeli-Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Declaration of Principles (DOP) of September 13, 1993, providing for Palestinian empowerment and some territorial control, the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty of October 26, 1994, and the Interim Self-Rule in the West Bank or Oslo II accord of September 28, 1995, which led to the formation of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to govern the West Bank and Gaza Strip. However, Israeli-Syrian negotiations were intermittent and difficult, and postponed indefinitely in 2000. Israeli-Lebanese negotiations also were unsuccessful, leading Israel to withdraw unilaterally from south Lebanon on May 24, 2000. President Clinton held a summit with Israeli and Palestinian leaders at Camp David on final status issues that July, but they did not produce an accord. A Palestinian uprising or intifadah began in September. On February 6, 2001, Ariel Sharon was elected Prime Minister of Israel, and rejected steps taken at Camp David and afterwards. On April 30, 2003, the United States, the U.N., European Union, and Russia (known as the 'Quartet') presented a 'Road Map' to Palestinian statehood. It has not been implemented. Israel unilaterally disengaged (withdrew) from the Gaza Strip and four small settlements in the West Bank in August 2005. On January 9, 2005, Mahmud Abbas had become President of the PA. The victory of Hamas, which Israel and the United States consider a terrorist group, in the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections complicated prospects for peace as the United States, Israel, and the Quartet would not deal with a Hamas-led government until it disavowed violence, recognized Israel, and accepted prior Israeli-Palestinian accords. President Abbas's dissolution of the Hamas-led government in response to the June 2007 Hamas forcible takeover of the Gaza Strip led to resumed international contacts with the PA. On November 27, at an international conference in Annapolis, MD, President Bush read a Joint Understanding in which Abbas and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert agreed to simultaneously resume bilateral negotiations on core issues and implement the Road Map. On May 21, 2008, Israel, Syria, and Turkey announced that Syria and Israel had begun indirect peace talks in Istanbul via Turkish mediators. Later in the year, Israeli and U.S. elections appeared to disrupt negotiations on all tracks and the end of the Israeli-Hamas cease-fire in December and the subsequent outbreak of violence in Gaza led to the official suspension of peace talks. President Obama has affirmed U.S. support for a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and named former Senator George Mitchell as his Special Envoy for Middle East Peace, but negotiations have not resumed. Congress is interested in issues related to Middle East peace because of its oversight role in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy, its support for Israel, and keen constituent interest. It is especially concerned about U.S. financial and other commitments to the parties, and the 111th Congress is engaged in these matters. Congress also has endorsed Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel, although U.S. Administrations have consistently maintained that the fate of the city is the subject of final status negotiations. See also CRS Report R40101, Israel and Hamas: Conflict in Gaza (2008-2009), coordinated by Jim Zanotti, CRS Report RS22768, Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference, by Carol Migdalovitz, CRS Report RL33566, Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah Conflict, coordinated by Jeremy M. Sharp, and CRS Report RS22967, U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians, by Jim Zanotti."
Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During a period of domestic political turmoil in spring and summer 2008, the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) government of Turkey continued to conduct a very active foreign policy aimed at portraying the country as a regional power and at improving relations with its neighbors. It has engaged Iraq in order to fight the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), a U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO); prevent the emergence of an independent Kurdish state in northern Iraq; and ensure the development of a stable neighbor. This engagement includes advances in both political and economic bilateral relations. Turkey also has been facilitating indirect Israeli-Syrian peace talks and improving political and economic ties to Syria. More controversially, the AKP has drawn closer to Iran, partly because Turkey believes that it would be harmed by a possible conflict over Iran's nuclear program and partly because it seeks to diversify its sources of energy. The AKP has continued to act on its EU ambitions and offers Turkey as a bridge between its neighbors and Europe. However, Turkey's policy toward Cyprus may impede progress toward EU membership, and its approach to the Cyprus settlement talks may not be as constructive as it was in 2004. Finally, Turkey ssssssssssss relations with Armenia have been troubled, mainly because of its refusal to recognize the Armenian genocide of the early 20th century and Nagorno-Karabakh issues
Algeria: Developments And Dilemmas (98-219) by Carol Migdalovitz( )

2 editions published in 1998 in Undetermined and English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

At the end of November 2007, the Bush Administration convened an international conference in Annapolis, Maryland, to officially revive the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian Authority (PA) President Mahmud Abbas reached a "Joint Understanding," in which they agreed to launch continuous bilateral negotiations in an effort to conclude a peace treaty by the end of 2008 and to simultaneously implement the moribund 2003 Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Both leaders are operating under significant domestic political constraints and they continue to disagree on many issues. Thus, their negotiations will be challenging. This report will not be updated. For background and future developments, see CRS Report RL33530, "Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy," by Carol Migdalovitz
Cyprus: Status of U.N. Negotiations and Related Issues( )

2 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In his May 23, 2006, Report to the Security Council, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan stated that there have been "no tangible indicators of an evolution in the respective positions" of the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots that had produced the current impasse, although they had signaled some willingness to begin to reengage. Undersecretary for Political Affairs Ibrahim Gambari is to arrive on Cyprus on July 6 to assess the situation and the prospects for a resumption of the Secretary General's good offices mission. On June 12, Turkey provisionally completed the first and easiest of 35 negotiating chapters, on Science and Research, in the process of joining the European Union (EU). However, the EU conclusions that day referred implicitly to Turkey's refusal to open its ports to (Greek) Cyprus, an EU member, as required by Turkey's customs union with the EU. The EU asserted that Turkey's failure to implement its obligations fully will have an impact on the negotiating process and that, in view of this consideration, the EU will, if necessary, return to this chapter. It is anticipated that the unresolved Cyprus situation will be raised throughout Turkey's negotiating process. For its part, Turkey insists that it will not open its ports and airports to the Greek Cypriots before the EU fulfill promises to end the isolation of the Turkish Cypriot north. (For background, see European Union, below.) In an interview published on June 17, Greek Foreign Minister Dora Bakoyianni suggested that a new Plan for a United European Cyprus could result from a U.N. process based on preparations of the Secretary General, on the European (Union) reality, and on the will of the two communities. She linked preparations for this plan to talks in technical committees expected to be formed shortly
Turkey: Update on Crisis of Identity and Power( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Secularism has been one of the fundamental and unchanging principles guiding the Turkish Republic since its founding in 1923. It also has been the principle that has produced considerable domestic political tension. Over the years, political parties have emerged that appeared to challenge that principle and to strive to restore religion to a central place in the state. Each time, the party has eventually been banned from the political stage. The Justice and Development Party (AKP), formed in 2001, has Islamist roots and claims to be conservative and democratic. The AKP won the 2002 and 2007 national elections by wide margins, yet its victories have not ended the secular-religious tensions in the country
Morocco : current issues by Carol Migdalovitz( )

2 editions published between 2003 and 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The United States government views Morocco as a moderate Arab regime, an ally against terrorism, and a free trade partner. King Mohammed VI retains supreme power but has taken incremental liberalizing steps. Since 9/11, Moroccan expatriates have been implicated in international terrorism, and Morocco has suffered terrorist attacks. Morocco takes a proactive approach to countering terrorism, but some of its measures may be setting back progress in human rights. Morocco's foreign policy focuses largely on Europe, particularly France and Spain, and the United States. In the Middle East, it supports a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and has severed diplomatic relations with Iran for bilateral reasons
 
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English (121)