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ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FORT DETRICK MD

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Works: 626 works in 652 publications in 1 language and 657 library holdings
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Most widely held works by ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FORT DETRICK MD
Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA)( Book )

2 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The staphylococcal enterotoxins, a group of water-soluble exoproteins elaborated by certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus, produce an acute gastroenteritis in man and a small number of other mammalian species. There are five well-defined types, A, B, C, D and E, originally identified on the basis of serologic individuality. Serologic cross-reaction has, however, been found between types A and E. Two cross-reacting determinants have been demonstrated in types B and C and indeed some antisera show cross-immunoprecipitation between these two types. The mode of action of these enterotoxins is unknown, but it does not appear that the adenyl cyclase-adenosine monophosphate system is involved. In addition to their emetic activity, the staphylococcal enterotoxins have also been demonstrated to be polyclonal mitogens for mouse and human splenic lymphocytes. The stimulation is essentially limited to T-cells; types A, B and C are equipotent. Recently, Johnson and coworkers have shown that enterotoxin A (SEA) stimulates the production of interferon of the immune type in both splenic and peripheral lymphocytes. The conditions for this production of human and mouse interferon are described elsewhere in this volume. (Author)
Human Y-79 Retinoblastoma Cells Exhibit Specific Insulin Receptors( Book )

2 editions published between 1985 and 1986 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The presence of insulin receptors was investigated in human Y-79 retinoblastoma cells grown in suspension culture. The binding of 125I insulin to these cells was time-, temperature-, and pH-dependent, was competed fo by insulin and proinsulin but not other peptides, and was inhibited by antibodies against the insulin receptor. The Scatchard plot of insulin competition data was curvilinear and was resolved in a high affinity (K subscript d approx. o.5x10 to the -10th power M) - low capacity (approx 3,000 sites/cell) and a low affinity (K subscript d approx. .0000001 M) - high capacity (approx. 155,000 sites/cell) component. Negative cooperativity was not found, in agreement with other studies in rodent neural cells. However, in contrast to studies with rodent cells, insulin specifically down-regulated its receptor on human Y-79 cells after prolonged exposure. In conclusion, these data show for the first time the presence of specific insulin receptors in human Y-79 retinoblastoma cells. As these cells were previously shown to have several characteristics typical of neural cells, we propose their use as a model to study the effects of insulin on neural and retinal tissues of human origin. (Author)
Mobile High-Containment Isolation: A Unique Patient Care Modality( Book )

2 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During the past 15 years, several infectious viral hemorrhagic diseases, including Marburg disease, Lassa fever, and Ebola fever, have been indentified. These, and other exotic diseases, are defined as highly virulent transmissible conditions caused by dangerous pathogens for which patients require specialized handling and care. High-containment isolation provides a means whereby a patient, laboratory specimens, or both can be physically separated by a microbiologic barrier, yet safely handled by attending personnel. High-containment isolation incorporates three basic principles: protective barrier, negative pressure, and filtered air. The Trexler Patient Isolator System, developed by C.P. Trexler and manufactured by Vickers, Ltd., Basingstoke, England, consists of three units: the Stretcher Isolator (SI), the Aircraft Transit Isolator (ATI), and the Bed Isolator (BI). Each unit encloses the patient in a negatively pressurized transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chamber. Air is exhausted actively from the unit, creating a partial vacuum, or negative pressure, and allowing passive air intake. Air entering and exiting the units is filtered through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that remove a minimum of 99.7% of all particles ranging in size from 0.02 to 2.0 um. Reprints
Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy of Poly(ICLC) and Ribavirin Combinations against Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection in Mice( Book )

2 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The therapeutic efficacy of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid stabilized with poly-L-lysine and carboxymethyl cellulose POLY(ICLC) given alone or in combination with ribavirin was evaluated in Swiss Webster mice infected with Rift Valley fever virus. Four or more 20 micro gram doses of poly(ICLC) given at various intervals beginning 24 h after infection protected all mice against death. On the other hand, a treatment regimen consisting of only three doses of poly(ICLC) given 24 h postinfection resulted in a 50% survival rate. When initiated 48 h postinfection, an extended treatment regimen with the same dose was required to yield 40% survivors. Lower doses (5 micro gram) of poly(ICLC) per mouse were only marginally effective even when six injections were given between days 1 and 9 postinfection. The combined administration of ribavirin and poly(ICLC) initiated as late as 48h postinfection was effective even when treatment consisted of doses that were ineffective when either drug was used alone. Keywords: Therapy; Antiviral agents; Reprints
Comparative Efficacy of Bacillus anthracis Live Spore Vaccine and Protective Antigen Vaccine Against Anthrax in the Guinea Pig( Book )

2 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Several strains of Bacillus anthracis have been reported previously to cause fatal infection in immunized guinea pigs. In this study, guinea pigs were immunized with either a protective antigen vaccine or a live Sterne strain spore vaccine, then challenged with virulent B. anthracis strains isolated from various host species from the United States and foreign sources. Confirmation of previously reported studies (which used only protective antigen vaccines) was made with the identification of 9 of the 27 challenge isolates as being vaccine resistant. However, guinea pigs immunized with the live Sterne strain spore vaccine were fully protected against these nine isolates. In experiments designed to determine the basis of vaccine resistance, guinea pigs which were immunized with individual toxin components and which demonstrated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titers comparable to those induced by Sterne strain vaccine were not protected when challenged with a vaccine-resistant isolate. We concluded that antibodies to toxin components may not be sufficient to provide protection against all strains of B. anthracis and that other antigens may play a role in active immunity. As a practical matter, it follows that the efficacy of anthrax vaccines must be tested by using vaccine-resistant isolates if protection against all possible challenge strains is to be assured
An Assay of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) Synthesis in Hepatic Nuclei from Control and Streptococcus pneumoniae-Infected Rats( Book )

2 editions published between 1982 and 1983 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pathology of Lassa Virus Infection in the Rhesus Monkey( Book )

2 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Medical Management of Biological Casualties, Handbook( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Medical defense against biological warfare is an area of study for military health care providers which does not apply readily to the day to day mission of caring for patients in peacetime. However, during Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm, it became obvious that the threat of biological attacks against our soldiers was real, and that we could do more to educate our medical professionals about how to prevent and treat biological warfare casualties. Many of our medical personnel who deployed for the Gulf War had less than an optimal understanding of the biological threat and of the medical means available to counter it. Since Desert Storm, there has been a renewed emphasis placed on making sure that our health care professionals gain the necessary background in this important area of military medicine. In fact, the Medical Management of Chemical and Biological Casualties Course has gone to a quarterly, combined format designed to provide education in both biological and chemical medical defense to over 300 military medical professionals per calendar year. This handbook and the combined course itself are part of a renewed emphasis in training in the subject matter area of biological warfare medical defense
Photoreactivation of Ultraviolet-Irradiated, Plasmid-Bearing, and Plasmid-Free Strains of Bacillus anthracis( Book )

2 editions published between 1985 and 1986 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The effects of toxin- and capsule-encoding plasmids on the kinetics of UV inactivation of various strains of Bacillus anthracis were investigated. Plasmids pX01 and pX02 had no effect on bacterial UV sensitivity or photoreactivation. Vegetative cells were capable of photoreactivation, but photo-induced repair of UV damage absent in B. anthracis Sterne spores
A Survey and Evaluation of Department of Defense Women's Immunity to Bacterial Superantigens( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The common Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes produce toxins, such as SEB, that cause diseases ranging from food poisoning to an acute, life-threatening toxic-shock syndrome. Vaccines for this and other related toxins are currently in the advanced development stage. Toxic-shock syndrome is predominantly diagnosed in women, and has been linked to toxin production from bacteria colonizing tampons. Over-stimulation of the immune response is responsible for the acute pathological effects and recovery is often followed by a profound nonresponsiveness to the toxin. The residual effects of suppressed toxin-specific immune responses may hinder successful vaccination of affected women. The results of our study of active duty military personnel between the ages of 18 and 35 years of age suggests a possible discordance between males and females in preexisting immune responses to the toxins, and further indicate the possibility of vaccination failures for women as a result of T-cell energy
Toxin-Induced Activation of Rat Hepatocyte Prostaglandin Synthesis and Phospholipid Metabolism( Book )

2 editions published between 1989 and 1990 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The effects of microcystin-LR a trichothecene (T-2 toxin) and saxitoxin on membrane lipid mediators of inflammatory processes were evaluated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Microcystin-LR significantly stimulated the release of prostacyclin and thromboxane B(2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The trichothecene toxin, T-2, enhanced the release of prostaglandin F(2)a (PGF(2)a) by 24% (p <0.05) and arachidonic acid by 29% (p <0.05); while saxitoxin failed to cause the release of prostaglandins or arachidonic acid. Incorporation of arachidonic acid into the lipid pool was reduced to 47% (p <0.025) by 1 micromole microcystin-LR. Changes in phospholipid classes indicated that prostaglandin formation induced by microcystin-LR was due to the release of arachidonic acid from the phosphatidylinositol pool. A 10% increase in phosphatidylcholine in hepatocytes treated with microcystin-LR may have resulted from conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine via the N-methylation pathway. These results indicate that microcystin-LR has important effects on the regulation of inflammatory mediator synthesis in hepatocytes. (AW)
Effect of Microcystin-LR on Cultured Rat Endothelial Cells( Book )

2 editions published between 1989 and 1990 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Primary cultures of adult rat hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells were used to investigate the effect of microcystin-LR. Microcystin-LR at a concentration (4 microns), which induces necrosis in cultured rat hepatocytes, did not produce either permeability changes, or cytotoxicity in endothelial cell monolayers. However, supernatants derived from cultured rat hepatocytes treated with microcystin-LR induced significant permeability changes, as indicated by the release of adenine nucleotides, and a small reduction of cell density in endothelial cell monolayers. Thus the effect of microcystin-LR on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in vitro was an indirect one; hepatocytes treated with microcystin-LR produced either an activated metabolite(s) or other factors that affected endothelial cells. Indirect endothelial cell injury may contribute to microcystin-LR-induced liver hemorrhage observed in vivo. (JES)
In Vitro Metabolism of T-2 Mycotoxin 1,2( )

1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In vitro metabolism of T-2 mycotoxin (T-2) was studied in Vero cells, rat spleen lymphocytes, chicken embryo heart cells, rat small intestinal segments, and rat liver hepatocytes. The method used was thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of (3H)T-2 and its metabolic products, followed by radioactive scanning of the plates. Vero cells, lymphocytes, and heart cells metabolized 5 to 35 percent of the T-2 to HT-2 mycotoxin (HT-2) after 24 hr exposure. No other metabolites were detected with these three cell systems. Rat intestinal segments, everted onto pipets, converted T-2 into three metabolites migrating in the range between T-2 tetraol and HT-2 on the TLC plates. Hepatocytes metabolized T-2 most rapidly, as indicated by complete disappearance of the parent compound within 4 hr. In addition to the T-2 peak, four predominant peaks appeared on the plates, one of them, increasing with time at the origin, was predominantly composed of glucuronide conjugates
Nucleotide Sequence of the Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus Anthracis( )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The DNA sequence of the protective antigen gene from Bacillus anthracis and the 5' and 3' flanking sequences were determined. Protective antigen is one of three proteins comprising anthrax toxin. The open reading frame is 2319 base pairs (bp) long, of which 2205 bp encode the 735 amino acids of the secreted protein. This region is preceded by 29 codons, which appear to encode a signal peptide having characteristics in common with those of other secreted proteins. A consensus TATAAT sequence was located at the putative -10 promoter site. Keywords: Protective antigen, Gene, Nucleotide sequence, Nucleic acids
Interferon Alfacon1 is an Inhibitor of SARS-Corona Virus in Cell-Based Models, Antiviral Research( )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Preliminary data examining interferon alfacon1 treatment of SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome - corona virus)-infected patients suggests this therapy is well tolerated and of therapeutic benefit. We report herein that interferon alfacon1, has potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV. In a cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, interferon alfacon1 inhibited the generation of CPE in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0,001 g/ml, a clinically achievable level. Furthermore, interferon alfacon1 also demonstrated significant antiviral activity in yield reduction and plaque reduction assays. The in vitro activity of interferon alfacon1 against SARS CoV suggests continued evaluation of interferon alfacon1 as a therapeutic treatment for patients infected with SARS-CoV
Genomic Diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical Isolates: Subtractive Hybridization Reveals a Burkholderia mallei-Specific Prophage in B. pseudomallei 1026b( )

2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiologic agent of the disease melioidosis and is a category B biological threat agent. The genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei K96243 was recently determined, but little is known about the overall genetic diversity of this species. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to assess the genetic variability between two distinct clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei, 1026b and K96243. Numerous mobile genetic elements, including a temperate bacteriophage designated phi 1026b, were identified among the 1026b-specific suppression subtractive hybridization products. Bacteriophage phi 1026b was spontaneously produced by 1026b, and it had a restricted host range, infecting only Burkholderia mallei. It possessed a noncontractile tail, an isometric head, and a linear 54,865-bp genome. The mosaic nature of the phi 1026b genome was revealed by comparison with bacteriophage phi E125, a B. mallei-specific bacteriophage produced by Burkholderia thailandensis. The phi 1026b genes for DNA packaging, tail morphogenesis, host lysis, integration, and DNA replication were nearly identical to the corresponding genes in phi E125. On the other hand, phi 1026b genes involved in head morphogenesis were similar to head morphogenesis genes encoded by Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages. Consistent with this observation, immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that polyclonal antiserum against phi E125 reacted with the tail of phi 1026b but not with the head. The results presented here suggest that B. pseudomallei strains are genetically heterogeneous and that bacteriophages are major contributors to the genomic diversity of this species. The bacteriophage characterized in this study may be a useful diagnostic tool for differentiating B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, two closely related biological threat agents
Comparative Toxicity of Cyclic Polypeptides and Depsipeptides on Cultured Rat Hepatocytes( )

2 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were used to investigate the comparative toxicity of three cyclic polypeptides (cyclosporine, gramicidin- s, microcystin-LR) and two depsipeptides (enniatin-b and valinomycin). Cell injury was assessed by the release of cellular (14C) adenine nucleotides and lactate dehydrogenase into the media. At Micromole, the cyclic polypeptides (cyclosporine and gramicidin-s) and depsipeptides (enniatin-b and valinomycin) did not induce a significant release of adenine nucleotides or lactate dehydrogenase from cultured rat hepatocytes as compared to controls. However, gramicidin-s, valinomycin, and cyclosporine induced significant cytotoxicity at 50 micromole. Microcystin-LR dose-response studies indicated that maximum cytotoxicity was found at 1 Micromole. Comparatively, gramicidin-s, valinomycin and cyclosporine were at least 50 times less cytotoxic to rat hepatocytes than microcystin-LR. The release of (14C) nucleotides from hepatocytes treated with microcystin-LR was distinctively different by the presence of a lag phase from that observed in hepatocytes treated with the other peptides. Cyclosporine, Valinomycin, Gramicidin-s, Enniatin-b, Microcystin-LR, Cyclic peptides, Cyclic depsipeptide, Hepatocytes, Cytotoxicity
Interleukin-12 Induces a Th1-like Response to Burkholderia mallei and Limited Protection in BALB/c Mice( )

2 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We evaluated the effect of interleukin (IL)-12 on the immune response to Burkholderia mallei in BALB/c mice. Mice were vaccinated with non-viable B. mallei cells with or without IL-12. There was a seven- to nine-fold increase in IgG2a levels, and a significant increase in the proliferative response and interferon (IFN)-gamma production by splenocytes from mice that received B. mallei and IL-12. We saw an increase in survivors in the groups of mice that received B. mallei and IL-12 when challenged, compared to mice that received only B. mallei or IL-12. The results suggest that IL-12 can enhance the Th1-like immune response to B. mallei and mediate limited protection from a lethal challenge
Antigenic Subunits of Hantaan Virus Expressed by Baculovirus and Vaccinia Virus Recombinants( )

2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The gene encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) was modified by site-directed mutagenesis, subcloned into baculovirus and vaccinia virus plasmid transfer vectors (pAcYM1) and pSC-11, respectively), and inserted via homologous recombinations into baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus or vaccinia virus (strains WR and Connaught). Expression of PA was detected in both systems by immunofluorescence assays with antisera from rabbits immunized with B. anthracis PA. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis showed that the expressed product of both systems was slightly larger (86 kilodaltons) than B. anthracis-produced PA (83.5 kilodaltons). Analysis of trypsin digests of virus-expressed and authentic PA suggested that the size difference was due to the presence of a signal sequence remaining with the virus-expressed protein
Enhancement of Intranasal Vaccination in Mice with Deglycosylated Chain A Ricin by LTR72, a Novel Mucosal Adjuvant( )

2 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Intranasal (i.n.) vaccination with two sub-optimal doses of 8 micro-grams of deglycosylated chain A ricin (DGCA) stimulated low anti-ricin ELISA IgG and neutralizing antibody responses, and the vaccine was only marginally protective against a lethal ricin toxin aerosol challenge. However, in the presence of 4, 2, or 1 micro-gram of the mucosal adjuvant LTR72, a mutant of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, the low antibody response and protection were substantially enhanced. In comparison to the vaccination with DGCA alone, vaccination with DGCA in the presence of three dose levels of LTR72, the anti-ricin ELISA serum IgG geometric mean titer (GMT) was increased, respectively, 191-, 572-, and 51-fold for IgG; 91-, 93-, and 60-fold for IgG1; nine-, six-, and two-fold for IgG2a; zero-, two-, and zero-fold for IgA. The three dose levels of the adjuvant enhanced the anti-ricin ELISA immunoglobulin GMTs in the lung lavage 4-, 14-, and 7-fold for IgG; two-, five-, and six-fold for IgG1; two-, six-, and two-fold IgG2a; and zero-, three-, and zero-fold for IgA, respectively. Compared to GMT obtained with the aqueous vaccine (1:2), the 10% serum neutralizing antibody GMT for the three dose levels was enhanced 25-, 60-, and 62-fold, respectively while the 50% neutralizing antibody GMT was enhanced more than 3-, 19- and 10-fold. Only 20% of the mice immunized with DGCA survived the lethal whole body aerosol challenge with 5-10 LD(50) ricin toxin, while in the presence of 4, 2, and 1 micro-gram LTR72, 100, 100 and 90% of the vaccinated mice survived, respectively
 
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English (38)