STANFORD UNIV CALIF Dept. of COMPUTER SCIENCE
Overview
Works:  458 works in 465 publications in 1 language and 554 library holdings 

Genres:  Handbooks and manuals 
Classifications:  Q335, 651.8 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by
STANFORD UNIV CALIF Dept. of COMPUTER SCIENCE
Project technical report by
John McCarthy(
Book
)
3 editions published between 1968 and 1971 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
An overview is presented of current research at Standford in artificial intelligence and heuristic programming. This report is largely the text of a proposal to the Advanced Research Projects Agency for fiscal years 19723. (Author)
3 editions published between 1968 and 1971 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
An overview is presented of current research at Standford in artificial intelligence and heuristic programming. This report is largely the text of a proposal to the Advanced Research Projects Agency for fiscal years 19723. (Author)
The fourteen primitive actions and their inference by
Roger C Schank(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In order to represent the conceptual information underlying a natural language sentence, a conceptual structure was established that uses the basic actoractionobject framework. It was the intent that these structures have only one representation for one meaning, regardless of the semantic form of the sentence being r presented. Actions were reduced to their basic parts so as to effect this. It was found that only fourteen basic actions were needed as building blocks by which all verbs can be represented. Each of these actions has a set of actions or states which can be inferred when they are present. (Author)
1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In order to represent the conceptual information underlying a natural language sentence, a conceptual structure was established that uses the basic actoractionobject framework. It was the intent that these structures have only one representation for one meaning, regardless of the semantic form of the sentence being r presented. Actions were reduced to their basic parts so as to effect this. It was found that only fourteen basic actions were needed as building blocks by which all verbs can be represented. Each of these actions has a set of actions or states which can be inferred when they are present. (Author)
A Fast Algorithm for finding Dominators in a Flow Graph by
T Lengauer(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents a fast algorithm for finding dominators in a flow graph. The algorithm uses depthfirst search and an efficient method of computing functions defined on paths in trees. A simple implementation of the algorithm runs in O(m log n) time, where m is the number of edges and n is the number of vertices in the problem graph. A sophisticated implementation runs in O(M alpha (m, n)) time, where alpha(m, n) is a functional inverse of Ackermann's function. Both versions of the algorithm were implemented in Algol W, and tested on an IBM 370/168. The programs were compared with an implementation by Purdom and Moore of a straightforward O(mn)  time algorithm, and with a bit vector algorithm. The fast algorithm beat the straightforward algorithm and the bit vector algorithm on all but the smallest graphs tests
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents a fast algorithm for finding dominators in a flow graph. The algorithm uses depthfirst search and an efficient method of computing functions defined on paths in trees. A simple implementation of the algorithm runs in O(m log n) time, where m is the number of edges and n is the number of vertices in the problem graph. A sophisticated implementation runs in O(M alpha (m, n)) time, where alpha(m, n) is a functional inverse of Ackermann's function. Both versions of the algorithm were implemented in Algol W, and tested on an IBM 370/168. The programs were compared with an implementation by Purdom and Moore of a straightforward O(mn)  time algorithm, and with a bit vector algorithm. The fast algorithm beat the straightforward algorithm and the bit vector algorithm on all but the smallest graphs tests
Camera models and machine perception by
Irvin Sobel(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The report developes a parametric model for a computercontrolled moveable camera on a pantilt head. The model expresses the transform relating object space to image space as a function of the control variables of the camera. We constructed a calibration system for measuring the model parameters which has a demonstrated accuracy more than adequate for our present needs. We have also identified the major source of error in model measurement to be undesired image motion and have developed means of measuring and compensating for some of it and eliminating other parts of it. The system can measure systematic image distortions if they become the major accuracy limitation. It has been shown how to generalize the model to handle small systematic errors due to aspects of pantilt head geometry not presently accounted for. The report demonstrates the model's application in stereo vision and have shown how it can be applied as a predictive device in locating objects of interest and centering them in an image. (Author)
1 edition published in 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The report developes a parametric model for a computercontrolled moveable camera on a pantilt head. The model expresses the transform relating object space to image space as a function of the control variables of the camera. We constructed a calibration system for measuring the model parameters which has a demonstrated accuracy more than adequate for our present needs. We have also identified the major source of error in model measurement to be undesired image motion and have developed means of measuring and compensating for some of it and eliminating other parts of it. The system can measure systematic image distortions if they become the major accuracy limitation. It has been shown how to generalize the model to handle small systematic errors due to aspects of pantilt head geometry not presently accounted for. The report demonstrates the model's application in stereo vision and have shown how it can be applied as a predictive device in locating objects of interest and centering them in an image. (Author)
Numerical Computation of the SchwarzChristoffel Transformation by
Lloyd N Trefethen(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A program is described which computes SchwartzChristoffel transformations that map the unit disk conformally onto the interior of a bounded or unbounded polygon in the complex plane. The inverse map is also computed. The computational problem is approached by setting up a nonlinear system of equations whose unknowns are essentially the accessory parameters z sub k. This system is then solved with a packaged subroutine. New features of this work include the evaluation of integrals within the disk rather than along the boundary, making possible the treatment of unbounded polygons; the use of a compound form of GaussJacobi quadrature to evaluate the SchwarzChristoffel integral, making possible high accuracy at reasonable cost; and the elimination of constraints in the nonlinear system by a simple change of variables. SchwarzChristoffel transformations may be applied to solve the Laplace and Poisson equations and related problems in twodimensional domains with irregular or unbounded (but not curved or multiply connected) geometries. Computational examples are presented. The time required to solve the mapping problem is roughly proportional to Ncubed, where N is the number of vertices of the polygon. A typical set of computations to 8place accuracy with N <or = 10 takes 1 to 10 seconds on an IBM 370/168. (Author)
1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A program is described which computes SchwartzChristoffel transformations that map the unit disk conformally onto the interior of a bounded or unbounded polygon in the complex plane. The inverse map is also computed. The computational problem is approached by setting up a nonlinear system of equations whose unknowns are essentially the accessory parameters z sub k. This system is then solved with a packaged subroutine. New features of this work include the evaluation of integrals within the disk rather than along the boundary, making possible the treatment of unbounded polygons; the use of a compound form of GaussJacobi quadrature to evaluate the SchwarzChristoffel integral, making possible high accuracy at reasonable cost; and the elimination of constraints in the nonlinear system by a simple change of variables. SchwarzChristoffel transformations may be applied to solve the Laplace and Poisson equations and related problems in twodimensional domains with irregular or unbounded (but not curved or multiply connected) geometries. Computational examples are presented. The time required to solve the mapping problem is roughly proportional to Ncubed, where N is the number of vertices of the polygon. A typical set of computations to 8place accuracy with N <or = 10 takes 1 to 10 seconds on an IBM 370/168. (Author)
The application of theorem proving to questionanswering systems by
Claude Cordell Green(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The paper shows how a questionanswering system can use firstorder logic as its language and an automatic theorem prover, based upon the resolution inference principle, as its deductive mechanism. The resolution proof procedure is extended to a constructive proof procedure. An answer construction algorithm is given whereby the system is able not only to produce yes or no answers but also to find or construct an object satisfying a specified condition. A working computer program, QA3, based on these ideas, is described. Methods are presented for solving state transformation problems. In addition to questionanswering, the program can do automatic programming, control and problem solving for a simple robot, pattern recognition, and puzzles. (Author)
2 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The paper shows how a questionanswering system can use firstorder logic as its language and an automatic theorem prover, based upon the resolution inference principle, as its deductive mechanism. The resolution proof procedure is extended to a constructive proof procedure. An answer construction algorithm is given whereby the system is able not only to produce yes or no answers but also to find or construct an object satisfying a specified condition. A working computer program, QA3, based on these ideas, is described. Methods are presented for solving state transformation problems. In addition to questionanswering, the program can do automatic programming, control and problem solving for a simple robot, pattern recognition, and puzzles. (Author)
TimeSpace Tradeoffs in a Pebble Game by
W. J Paul(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A certain pebble game on graphs has been studied in various contexts as a model for the time and space requirements of computations. In this note it is shown that there exists a family of directed acyclic graphs G(n) and constants c(1), c(2), c(3) such that (1) G(n) has n nodes and each node in G(n) has indegree at most 2; (2) Each graph G(n) can be pebbled with c(1) sq. rt. n pebbles in n moves; and (3) Each graph G(n) can also be pebbled with c(2) sq. rt. n pebbles, c(2) <c(1), but every strategy which achieves this has at least 2 to the power (c(3) sq. rt. n) moves. (Author)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A certain pebble game on graphs has been studied in various contexts as a model for the time and space requirements of computations. In this note it is shown that there exists a family of directed acyclic graphs G(n) and constants c(1), c(2), c(3) such that (1) G(n) has n nodes and each node in G(n) has indegree at most 2; (2) Each graph G(n) can be pebbled with c(1) sq. rt. n pebbles in n moves; and (3) Each graph G(n) can also be pebbled with c(2) sq. rt. n pebbles, c(2) <c(1), but every strategy which achieves this has at least 2 to the power (c(3) sq. rt. n) moves. (Author)
Conceptual memory: a theory and computer program for processing the meaning content of natural langue utterances by
Charles J Rieger(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1974 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Humans perform vast quantities of spontaneous, subconscious computation in order to understand even the simplest language utterances. The computation is principally meaningbased. With syntax and traditional semantics playing insignificant roles. This thesis supports this conjecture by synthesis of a theory and computer program which account for many aspects of language behavior in humans. It is a theory of language and memory. (Modified author abstract)
1 edition published in 1974 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Humans perform vast quantities of spontaneous, subconscious computation in order to understand even the simplest language utterances. The computation is principally meaningbased. With syntax and traditional semantics playing insignificant roles. This thesis supports this conjecture by synthesis of a theory and computer program which account for many aspects of language behavior in humans. It is a theory of language and memory. (Modified author abstract)
Formalization of properties of programs by
Zohar Manna(
Book
)
2 editions published between 1968 and 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Given a program, an algorithm will be described for constructing an expression, such that the program is valid (i.e., terminates and yields the right answer) if and only if the expression is inconsistent. Similar result for the equivalence problem of programs is given. These results suggest a new approach for proving the validity and the equivalence of programs. (Author)
2 editions published between 1968 and 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Given a program, an algorithm will be described for constructing an expression, such that the program is valid (i.e., terminates and yields the right answer) if and only if the expression is inconsistent. Similar result for the equivalence problem of programs is given. These results suggest a new approach for proving the validity and the equivalence of programs. (Author)
What is a satisfactory quadratic equation solver by
George E Forsythe(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1967 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The report discusses precise requirements for a satisfactory computer program to solve a quadratic equation with floatingpoint coefficients. The principal practical problem is coping with overflow and underflow
1 edition published in 1967 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The report discusses precise requirements for a satisfactory computer program to solve a quadratic equation with floatingpoint coefficients. The principal practical problem is coping with overflow and underflow
On the Inference of Turing Machines from Sample Computations by
A. W Biermann(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1971 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
An algorithm is presented which, when given a complete description of a set of Turing machine computations, finds a Turing machine which is capable of doing those computations. This algorithm can serve as the basis for designing a trainable device which can be trained to simulate any Turing machine by being led through a series of sample computations done by that machine. A number of examples illustrate the use of the techniques and the possibility of its application to other types of problems. (Author)
1 edition published in 1971 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
An algorithm is presented which, when given a complete description of a set of Turing machine computations, finds a Turing machine which is capable of doing those computations. This algorithm can serve as the basis for designing a trainable device which can be trained to simulate any Turing machine by being led through a series of sample computations done by that machine. A number of examples illustrate the use of the techniques and the possibility of its application to other types of problems. (Author)
A control language for transformational grammar by
Joyce Friedman(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1968 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Various orders of application of transformations have been considered in transformational grammar, ranging from unorder to cyclical orders involving notions of 'lowest sentence' and of numerical indices on depth of embedding. The general theory of transformational grammar does not yet offer a uniform set of 'traffic rules' which are accepted by most linguists. Thus, in designing a model of transformational grammar, it seems advisable to allow the specification of the order and point of application of transformations to be a proper part of the grammar. In this paper we present a simple control language designed to be used by linguists for this specification. (Author)
1 edition published in 1968 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Various orders of application of transformations have been considered in transformational grammar, ranging from unorder to cyclical orders involving notions of 'lowest sentence' and of numerical indices on depth of embedding. The general theory of transformational grammar does not yet offer a uniform set of 'traffic rules' which are accepted by most linguists. Thus, in designing a model of transformational grammar, it seems advisable to allow the specification of the order and point of application of transformations to be a proper part of the grammar. In this paper we present a simple control language designed to be used by linguists for this specification. (Author)
Eigenvectors of a real matrix by inverse iteration by J. M Varah(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1966 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report contains the description and listing of an ALGOL 60 program which calculates the eigenvectors of an arbitrary real matrix, using the technique of inverse iteration. (Author)
1 edition published in 1966 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report contains the description and listing of an ALGOL 60 program which calculates the eigenvectors of an arbitrary real matrix, using the technique of inverse iteration. (Author)
Estimating the efficiency of backtrack programs by
Donald Ervin Knuth(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1974 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
One of the chief difficulties associated with the socalled backtracking technique for combinatorial problems has been the inability to predict the efficiency of a given algorithm, or to compare the efficiencies of different approaches, without actually writing and running the programs. This paper presents a simple method which produces reasonable estimates for most applications, requiring only a modest amount of hand calculation. The method should prove to be of considerable utility in connection with D.H. Lehmer's branchandbound approach to combinatorial optimization
1 edition published in 1974 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
One of the chief difficulties associated with the socalled backtracking technique for combinatorial problems has been the inability to predict the efficiency of a given algorithm, or to compare the efficiencies of different approaches, without actually writing and running the programs. This paper presents a simple method which produces reasonable estimates for most applications, requiring only a modest amount of hand calculation. The method should prove to be of considerable utility in connection with D.H. Lehmer's branchandbound approach to combinatorial optimization
Fast algorithms for solving path problems by
Robert E Tarjan(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph with a distinguished source vertex s. The singlesource path expression problem is to find, for each vertex v, a regular expression P(s, v) which represents the set of all paths in G from s to v. A solution to this problem can be used to solve shortest path problems, solve sparse systems of linear equations, and carry out global flow analysis. We describe a method to compute path expressions by dividing G into components, computing path expressions on the components by Gaussian elimination, and combining the solutions. This method requires 0 (m alpha o(m, n)) time on a reducible flow graph, where n is the vertices in G, m is the number of edges in G, and alpha is a functional inverse of Ackermann's function. The method makes use of an algorithm for evaluating functions defined on paths in trees. A simplified version of the algorithm, which runs in 0(m log n) time on reducible flow graphs, is quite easy to implement and efficient in practice. (Author)
1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph with a distinguished source vertex s. The singlesource path expression problem is to find, for each vertex v, a regular expression P(s, v) which represents the set of all paths in G from s to v. A solution to this problem can be used to solve shortest path problems, solve sparse systems of linear equations, and carry out global flow analysis. We describe a method to compute path expressions by dividing G into components, computing path expressions on the components by Gaussian elimination, and combining the solutions. This method requires 0 (m alpha o(m, n)) time on a reducible flow graph, where n is the vertices in G, m is the number of edges in G, and alpha is a functional inverse of Ackermann's function. The method makes use of an algorithm for evaluating functions defined on paths in trees. A simplified version of the algorithm, which runs in 0(m log n) time on reducible flow graphs, is quite easy to implement and efficient in practice. (Author)
A study of grammatical inference by
J. J Horning(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1969 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Grammatical inference is an inductive process of discovering an acceptable grammar for a language, on the basis of finite samples from the language. The study has the goals of devising useful inference procedures and of demonstrating a sound formal basis for such procedures. It states the general grammatical inference problem for formal languages, reviews previous work, establishes definitions and notation, and states a position on evaluation measures. It indicates a solution for a particular class of grammatical inference problems, based on an assumed probabilistic structure. (Author)
1 edition published in 1969 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Grammatical inference is an inductive process of discovering an acceptable grammar for a language, on the basis of finite samples from the language. The study has the goals of devising useful inference procedures and of demonstrating a sound formal basis for such procedures. It states the general grammatical inference problem for formal languages, reviews previous work, establishes definitions and notation, and states a position on evaluation measures. It indicates a solution for a particular class of grammatical inference problems, based on an assumed probabilistic structure. (Author)
FAIL by F. H. G Wright II(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1974 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This is a reference manual for FAIL, a fast, onepass assembler for PDP10 and PDP6, machine language. FAIL statements, pseudooperations, macros, and conditional assembly features are described. Although FAIL uses substantially more main memory than MACRO10, it assembles typical programs about five times faster. FAIL assembles the entire Stanford timesharing operating system (two million characters) in less than four minutes of CPU time on a KA10 processor. FAIL permits an ALGOLstyle block structure which provides a way of localizing the usage of some symbols to certain parts of the program, such that the same symbol name can be used to mean different things in different blocks. (Author)
1 edition published in 1974 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This is a reference manual for FAIL, a fast, onepass assembler for PDP10 and PDP6, machine language. FAIL statements, pseudooperations, macros, and conditional assembly features are described. Although FAIL uses substantially more main memory than MACRO10, it assembles typical programs about five times faster. FAIL assembles the entire Stanford timesharing operating system (two million characters) in less than four minutes of CPU time on a KA10 processor. FAIL permits an ALGOLstyle block structure which provides a way of localizing the usage of some symbols to certain parts of the program, such that the same symbol name can be used to mean different things in different blocks. (Author)
DESIGN  THEN AND NOW by
George E Forsythe(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1969 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Design and its subprocesses of analysis, synthesis, and optimization are defined. Design in 1946 is compared with its scope today, both in regard to things designed and the design tools. The paper is concluded with an exhortation to designers, mathematicians, and computer scientists to meld their capabilities for optimum design in the future
1 edition published in 1969 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Design and its subprocesses of analysis, synthesis, and optimization are defined. Design in 1946 is compared with its scope today, both in regard to things designed and the design tools. The paper is concluded with an exhortation to designers, mathematicians, and computer scientists to meld their capabilities for optimum design in the future
Design and analysis of a data structure for representing sorted lists by
M. R Brown(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we explore the use of 23 trees to represent sorted lists. We analyze the worstcase cost of sequences of insertions and deletions in 23 trees under each of the following three assumption: only insertions are performed; only deletions are performed; deletions occur only at the small end of the list and insertions occur only away from the small end. Our analysis leads to a data structure for representing sorted lists when the access pattern exhibits a (perhaps timevarying) locality of reference. This structure has many of the properties of the representation proposed by Guibas, McCreight, Plass, and Roberts, but it is substantially simpler and may be practical for lists of moderate size. (Author)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this paper we explore the use of 23 trees to represent sorted lists. We analyze the worstcase cost of sequences of insertions and deletions in 23 trees under each of the following three assumption: only insertions are performed; only deletions are performed; deletions occur only at the small end of the list and insertions occur only away from the small end. Our analysis leads to a data structure for representing sorted lists when the access pattern exhibits a (perhaps timevarying) locality of reference. This structure has many of the properties of the representation proposed by Guibas, McCreight, Plass, and Roberts, but it is substantially simpler and may be practical for lists of moderate size. (Author)
Parallel programming : an axiomatic approach by
C. A. R Hoare(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The paper develops some ideas expounded in a previous paper. It distinguishes a number of ways of using parallelism, including disjoint processes, competition, cooperation, communication and colluding. In each case an axiomatic proof rule is given. Some light is thrown on traps or ON conditions. The program structuring methods described in the report are not suitable for the construction of operating systems
1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The paper develops some ideas expounded in a previous paper. It distinguishes a number of ways of using parallelism, including disjoint processes, competition, cooperation, communication and colluding. In each case an axiomatic proof rule is given. Some light is thrown on traps or ON conditions. The program structuring methods described in the report are not suitable for the construction of operating systems
more
fewer
Audience Level
0 

1  
Kids  General  Special 
Related Identities
Associated Subjects
Algebras, Linear Algorithms Artificial intelligence Assembling (Electronic computers) Assembly languages (Electronic computers) Automatic theorem proving Backtrack programming Cameras Compiling (Electronic computers) Computational learning theory Computational linguistics Computer programsValidation Computer vision Conformal mapping Data structures (Computer science) Flowgraphs Game theory Gaussian quadrature formulas Generative grammar Global analysis (Mathematics) Grammar, Comparative and general Graphic methods Graph theory Graph theoryData processing Inference Integral transforms Linguistics List processing (Electronic computers) Machine learning Manipulators (Mechanism) Mappings (Mathematics) Mathematical linguistics Natural language processing (Computer science) Numerical analysis Numerical integration Parallel programming (Computer science) PDP10 (Computer) Perceptrons Predicate calculus Probabilities Problem solvingComputer programs Psycholinguistics Questionanswering systems Selforganizing systems Sorting (Electronic computers) Transformations (Mathematics) Trees (Graph theory) Turing machines View cameras
Languages