YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CONN Dept. of COMPUTER SCIENCE
Overview
Works:  71 works in 71 publications in 1 language and 90 library holdings 

Classifications:  PN3377.5.C57, 808.30285 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by
YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CONN Dept. of COMPUTER SCIENCE
The Modified Conjugate Residual Method for Partial Differential Equations by R Chandra(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents the Modified Conjugate Residual (MCR) Method, a stabilized version of Luenberger's Method of Conjugate Residuals, for solving large sparse systems of linear equations. This iterative method has special significance when the system is not positive definite so that methods like Conjugate Gradients are inapplicable. In the special case when the system is positive definite, MCR reduces to one of the family of general conjugate gradient methods discussed by Hestenes
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents the Modified Conjugate Residual (MCR) Method, a stabilized version of Luenberger's Method of Conjugate Residuals, for solving large sparse systems of linear equations. This iterative method has special significance when the system is not positive definite so that methods like Conjugate Gradients are inapplicable. In the special case when the system is positive definite, MCR reduces to one of the family of general conjugate gradient methods discussed by Hestenes
Skimming Newspaper Stories by Computer by
G. F Dejong(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report describes a program that takes a novel approach to understanding natural language. it domain is newspaper articles and it is unique in that it skims the stories rather than reading them carefully. The program is able to understand the important facts in an article while ignoring the less important text. (Author)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report describes a program that takes a novel approach to understanding natural language. it domain is newspaper articles and it is unique in that it skims the stories rather than reading them carefully. The program is able to understand the important facts in an article while ignoring the less important text. (Author)
Yale Sparse Matrix Package. II. The Nonsymmetric Codes by S. C Eisenstat(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Consider the NxN system of linear equations M x = b, where the coefficient matrix M is large, sparse, and nonsymmetric. Assume that M can be factored in the form M = L D U, where L is a lower triangular matrix, D is a diagonal matrix, and U is a unit upper triangular matrix. Such systems arise frequently in scientific computation, e.g., in finite difference and finite element approximations to nonselfadjoint elliptic boundary value problems. This report presents a package of efficient, reliable, welldocumented, and portable FORTRAN subroutines for solving these systems
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Consider the NxN system of linear equations M x = b, where the coefficient matrix M is large, sparse, and nonsymmetric. Assume that M can be factored in the form M = L D U, where L is a lower triangular matrix, D is a diagonal matrix, and U is a unit upper triangular matrix. Such systems arise frequently in scientific computation, e.g., in finite difference and finite element approximations to nonselfadjoint elliptic boundary value problems. This report presents a package of efficient, reliable, welldocumented, and portable FORTRAN subroutines for solving these systems
The metanovel : writing stories by computer by
James Richard Meehan(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
People draw on many diverse sources of realworld knowledge in order to make up stories, including the following: knowledge of the physical world; rules of social behavior and relationships; techniques for solving everyday problems such as transportation, acquisition of objects, and acquisition of information; knowledge about physical needs such as hunger and thirst; knowledge about stories their organization and contents; knowledge about planning behavior and the relationships between kinds of goals; and knowledge about expressing a story in a natural language. This thesis describes a computer program which uses all information to write stories. The areas of knowledge, called problem domains, are defined by a set of representational primitives, a set of problems expressed in terms of those primitives, and a set of procedures for solving those problems. These may vary from one domain to the next. All this specialized knowledge must be integrated in order to accomplish a task such as storytelling. The program, called TALESPIN, produces stories in English, interacting with the user, who specifies characters, personality characteristics, and relationships between characters. Operating in a different mode, the program can make those decisions in order to produce Aesoplike fables. (Author)
1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
People draw on many diverse sources of realworld knowledge in order to make up stories, including the following: knowledge of the physical world; rules of social behavior and relationships; techniques for solving everyday problems such as transportation, acquisition of objects, and acquisition of information; knowledge about physical needs such as hunger and thirst; knowledge about stories their organization and contents; knowledge about planning behavior and the relationships between kinds of goals; and knowledge about expressing a story in a natural language. This thesis describes a computer program which uses all information to write stories. The areas of knowledge, called problem domains, are defined by a set of representational primitives, a set of problems expressed in terms of those primitives, and a set of procedures for solving those problems. These may vary from one domain to the next. All this specialized knowledge must be integrated in order to accomplish a task such as storytelling. The program, called TALESPIN, produces stories in English, interacting with the user, who specifies characters, personality characteristics, and relationships between characters. Operating in a different mode, the program can make those decisions in order to produce Aesoplike fables. (Author)
Considerations in the Design of Software for Sparse Gaussian Elimination by S. C Eisenstat(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1975 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper discusses the design of sparse Gaussian elimination codes, in particular the effects of certain flexibility and cost constraints on the design, and possible tradeoffs among the design goals of flexibility, speed, and small size
1 edition published in 1975 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper discusses the design of sparse Gaussian elimination codes, in particular the effects of certain flexibility and cost constraints on the design, and possible tradeoffs among the design goals of flexibility, speed, and small size
Finite Element Methods for Spherically Symmetric Elliptic Equations(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper considers the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations in spherical domains. When all the functions involved are spherically symmetric (that is, they depend only on distance from the center of the domain), the problem can be replaced by an equivalent twopoint boundary value problem. The resulting problem is singular, but nevertheless has a smooth solution. It should therefore be possible to approximate the solution accurately using the RayleighRitz Galerkin method with a piecewise polynomial subspace on a quasiuniform mesh. Optimalorder error bounds will be obtained, showing that this procedure is theoretically wellfounded. Instead of the usual Sobolev norms, norms are used which are appropriate to the original ndimensional setting of the problem
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper considers the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations in spherical domains. When all the functions involved are spherically symmetric (that is, they depend only on distance from the center of the domain), the problem can be replaced by an equivalent twopoint boundary value problem. The resulting problem is singular, but nevertheless has a smooth solution. It should therefore be possible to approximate the solution accurately using the RayleighRitz Galerkin method with a piecewise polynomial subspace on a quasiuniform mesh. Optimalorder error bounds will be obtained, showing that this procedure is theoretically wellfounded. Instead of the usual Sobolev norms, norms are used which are appropriate to the original ndimensional setting of the problem
Integrated Partial Parsing by
Roger C Schank(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A new type of natural language parser is presented. The idea behind this parser is to map input sentences into the deepest form of the representation of their meaning and inferences, as is appropriate. The parser is not distinct from an entire understanding system. It uses an integrated conception of inferences, scripts, plans, and other knowledge to aid in the parse. Furthermore, it does not attempt to parse everything it sees. Rather it determines what is most interesting and concentrates on that, ignoring the rest. (Author)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A new type of natural language parser is presented. The idea behind this parser is to map input sentences into the deepest form of the representation of their meaning and inferences, as is appropriate. The parser is not distinct from an entire understanding system. It uses an integrated conception of inferences, scripts, plans, and other knowledge to aid in the parse. Furthermore, it does not attempt to parse everything it sees. Rather it determines what is most interesting and concentrates on that, ignoring the rest. (Author)
On the Use of Framed Knowledge in Language Comprehension by
Eugene Charniak(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Notions like 'frames', 'scripts' etc., are now being used in programs to understand connected discourse. We will describe a program in this vein which understands simple stories about painting. In particular, problems of matching, read time inference, and undoing false conclusions will be stressed. The program makes heavy use of real world knowledge, and there is an extensive discussion of various issues in knowledge representation and how they affect frame representations: modularity, the need for problem solving, worldly vs control knowledge, and cleanliness. (Author)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Notions like 'frames', 'scripts' etc., are now being used in programs to understand connected discourse. We will describe a program in this vein which understands simple stories about painting. In particular, problems of matching, read time inference, and undoing false conclusions will be stressed. The program makes heavy use of real world knowledge, and there is an extensive discussion of various issues in knowledge representation and how they affect frame representations: modularity, the need for problem solving, worldly vs control knowledge, and cleanliness. (Author)
Yale Sparse Matrix Package. I. The Symmetric Codes by S. C Eisenstat(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Consider the NxN system of linear equations M x = b, where the coefficient matrix M is large, sparse, symmetric, and positive definite. Such systems arise frequently in scientific computation, e.g., in finite difference and finite element approximations to elliptic boundary value problems. This report presents a package of efficient, reliable, welldocumented, and portable FORTRAN subroutines for solving these systems
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Consider the NxN system of linear equations M x = b, where the coefficient matrix M is large, sparse, symmetric, and positive definite. Such systems arise frequently in scientific computation, e.g., in finite difference and finite element approximations to elliptic boundary value problems. This report presents a package of efficient, reliable, welldocumented, and portable FORTRAN subroutines for solving these systems
On the Synthesis and Analysis of Protection Systems by
Lawrence Snyder(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The design of a protection system for an operating system is seen to involve satisfying the competing properties of richness and integrity. Achieving both requires the interplay of analysis and synthesis. Using a formal model from the literature, three designs are developed whose integrity (with the help of the model) can be shown. (Author)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The design of a protection system for an operating system is seen to involve satisfying the competing properties of richness and integrity. Achieving both requires the interplay of analysis and synthesis. Using a formal model from the literature, three designs are developed whose integrity (with the help of the model) can be shown. (Author)
The Complexity of Searching Lines in the Plane: Preliminary Version by
David Dobkin(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1975 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Searching is a fundamental operation of computer science. Yet a number of key mathematical questions about searching in Euclidian spaces remains open. A number of such questions are formulated and answered here for searching lines in the plane. Relationships between the results here and higher dimensional analogs for other problems of interest are given. Among the new results is a mathematical framework in which questions about searching can be stated in a more uniform manner than was possible before. Specific results are also given on the searching complexity of various sets of lines in the plane. In particular, it is shown that there are easy and hard sets of lines to search and establish methods of generating upper and lower bounds on the search complexities of such sets
1 edition published in 1975 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Searching is a fundamental operation of computer science. Yet a number of key mathematical questions about searching in Euclidian spaces remains open. A number of such questions are formulated and answered here for searching lines in the plane. Relationships between the results here and higher dimensional analogs for other problems of interest are given. Among the new results is a mathematical framework in which questions about searching can be stated in a more uniform manner than was possible before. Specific results are also given on the searching complexity of various sets of lines in the plane. In particular, it is shown that there are easy and hard sets of lines to search and establish methods of generating upper and lower bounds on the search complexities of such sets
Script application: Computer understanding of newspaper stories by
Richard E Cullingford(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The report describes a computer story understander which applies knowledge of the world to comprehend what it reads. The system, called SAM, reads newspaper articles from a variety of domains, then demonstrates its understanding by summarizing or paraphrasing the text, or answering questions about it. (Author)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The report describes a computer story understander which applies knowledge of the world to comprehend what it reads. The system, called SAM, reads newspaper articles from a variety of domains, then demonstrates its understanding by summarizing or paraphrasing the text, or answering questions about it. (Author)
Inference in the Conceptual Dependency Paradigm: A Personal History by
Roger C Schank(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The history of inferences at the Yale Artificial Intelligence Project is discussed. (Author)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The history of inferences at the Yale Artificial Intelligence Project is discussed. (Author)
MicroSAM and MicroELI : exercises in popular cognitive mechanics by
Christopher K Riesbeck(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report contains a detailed descriptionplus all the LISP codeof a miniature versions of wellknown natural language understanding programs; SAM, Script Applying Mechanism, and ELI, English Language Interpreter. The programs are intended to be simple enough so that interested computer scientists and psychologists, with only an introductory knowledge of LISP, can understand, modify, and extend programs dealing with knowledge structure based understanding. (Author)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report contains a detailed descriptionplus all the LISP codeof a miniature versions of wellknown natural language understanding programs; SAM, Script Applying Mechanism, and ELI, English Language Interpreter. The programs are intended to be simple enough so that interested computer scientists and psychologists, with only an introductory knowledge of LISP, can understand, modify, and extend programs dealing with knowledge structure based understanding. (Author)
Increasing Confidence in Software through Program Perturbations by
David R Hanson(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A new method for increasing confidence in software based on the premise that competent programmers write correct or 'nearly' correct software is presented. The envisioned system takes as input a program and a set of test data. It produces and executes a set of perturbation programs, and generates a list indicating which perturbation programs are indistinguishable from the original program (with the given data). A nonempty list indicates that the data is not adequate, that there exist equivalent programs in the list, or that the original program is incorrect. An empty list indicates that the original program is either correct or 'far' from correct. While the set of perturbation programs should be large enough to include many commonly made errors, it appears that there is a coupling effect suggesting that errors not present in the set of perturbation programs are still checked by this method. Two examples of the use of this method are given. (Author)
1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A new method for increasing confidence in software based on the premise that competent programmers write correct or 'nearly' correct software is presented. The envisioned system takes as input a program and a set of test data. It produces and executes a set of perturbation programs, and generates a list indicating which perturbation programs are indistinguishable from the original program (with the given data). A nonempty list indicates that the data is not adequate, that there exist equivalent programs in the list, or that the original program is incorrect. An empty list indicates that the original program is either correct or 'far' from correct. While the set of perturbation programs should be large enough to include many commonly made errors, it appears that there is a coupling effect suggesting that errors not present in the set of perturbation programs are still checked by this method. Two examples of the use of this method are given. (Author)
The role of object primitives in natural language processing by
Wendy G Lehnert(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Natural language processing techniques rely in part on the use of functional knowledge about physical objects, and associative memory structure. In this paper, a representational system called Object Primitives is presented as an extension to the system of Conceptual Dependency for the purpose of representing physical objects and providing an organizing structure for associative memory. A computer program, OPUS, is described which applies this representational system to the problem of analyzing natural language sentences dealing with objects. Inferences derived from Object Primitive descriptions are made during the conceptual analysis by a system of demons, providing a framework for an integrated understanding system. (Author)
1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Natural language processing techniques rely in part on the use of functional knowledge about physical objects, and associative memory structure. In this paper, a representational system called Object Primitives is presented as an extension to the system of Conceptual Dependency for the purpose of representing physical objects and providing an organizing structure for associative memory. A computer program, OPUS, is described which applies this representational system to the problem of analyzing natural language sentences dealing with objects. Inferences derived from Object Primitive descriptions are made during the conceptual analysis by a system of demons, providing a framework for an integrated understanding system. (Author)
On the Power of Applicative Languages by
Richard J Lipton(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The expressive power of applicative structures is investigated (particularly APL oneliners) with the result that all practically computable functions are oneliner expressible. In particular, the class of functions computable by oneliners contains the elementary functions. The problem of reducing the intermediate storage requirements for evaluating applicative structures is shown to be solvable with only modest execution time degradation. The prospect of improving these results is discussed in connection with an outstanding conjecture concerning a timespace relationship. (Author)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The expressive power of applicative structures is investigated (particularly APL oneliners) with the result that all practically computable functions are oneliner expressible. In particular, the class of functions computable by oneliners contains the elementary functions. The problem of reducing the intermediate storage requirements for evaluating applicative structures is shown to be solvable with only modest execution time degradation. The prospect of improving these results is discussed in connection with an outstanding conjecture concerning a timespace relationship. (Author)
Applications of an Element Model for Gaussian Elimination by S. C Eisenstat(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1975 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This section reviews the graphtheoretic elimination model of Gaussian elimination and introduces a new element model
1 edition published in 1975 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This section reviews the graphtheoretic elimination model of Gaussian elimination and introduces a new element model
Minimal Storage Band Elimination by S. C Eisenstat(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A variation of Gaussian elimination is presented for solving band systems of linear equations on computers with limited core storage, without the use of auxiliary storage such as disk or tape. The method is based on the somewhat unusual idea of recomputing rather than saving most nonzero coefficients in the reduced triangular system, thus trading an increase in work for a decrease in storage. For a fivepoint problem on an n x n grid, the storage required is approx. nsquared versus approx. ncubed for band elimination, while surprisingly the work required at most doubles. (Author)
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A variation of Gaussian elimination is presented for solving band systems of linear equations on computers with limited core storage, without the use of auxiliary storage such as disk or tape. The method is based on the somewhat unusual idea of recomputing rather than saving most nonzero coefficients in the reduced triangular system, thus trading an increase in work for a decrease in storage. For a fivepoint problem on an n x n grid, the storage required is approx. nsquared versus approx. ncubed for band elimination, while surprisingly the work required at most doubles. (Author)
Interestingness: Controlling Inferences by
Roger C Schank(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The problem of controlling inference is one of the most serious in Artificial Intelligence. New types of goal and plan inferences seriously compound the problem. This paper attempts to outline one possible solution to controlling inferences, namely following what is interesting and ignoring what is not. (Author)
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The problem of controlling inference is one of the most serious in Artificial Intelligence. New types of goal and plan inferences seriously compound the problem. This paper attempts to outline one possible solution to controlling inferences, namely following what is interesting and ignoring what is not. (Author)
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