WorldCat Identities

Morgan, Ross L.

Works: 17 works in 24 publications in 1 language and 36 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Ross L Morgan
Teaching machines in the modern military organization by Gordon A Eckstrand( Book )

1 edition published in 1960 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To provide an overview of the possible impact of teaching machines on military training, several strategies were pursued: (1) several teaching machines were described; (2) the techniques of Pressey, Skinner, Crowder, and Pask were examined; (3) relevant research projects were reviewed; (4) appropriate military uses were suggested; and (5) methods for assuring proper use of teaching machine technology in military training were discussed. (Emh)
The effect of variations in control-display ratio during training on transfer to a low ratio by Marty R Rockway( Book )

1 edition published in 1956 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between amount of transfer of a two dimensional tracking skill end degree of physical similarity between training and test control-display (C/D) ratios. Each of three groups of subjects received training using one of three different C/D ratios. Following training, all groups were tested while using the lowest (i.e., most sensitive) of the three ratios. The experimental results were as follows: (a) During training, tracking performance was a function of the C/D ratio employed. (b) Practice with all of the training ratios produced significant positive transfer to the test ratio. (c) The differences among the groups during the test period were not statistically significant."--Abstract
Human factors considerations in the design proposals for a ballistic missile unit proficiency system by Felix F Kopstein( Book )

1 edition published in 1957 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A comparison of modes of presentation of pairedassociates on the subject-matter trainer( Book )

1 edition published in 1963 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of each of four modes of the SubjectMatter trainer. The modes were (a) the Quiz Mode, in which the subject was shown sequentially the correct response following the presentation of each stimulus, (b) the Modified-Quiz Mode, in which the subject was allowed one free choice before being shown the correct response, (c) the Practice Mode, in which the subject responded freely until he found the correct response, and (d) the Single-Try Mode, in which the subject was allowed only one response to each stimulus. The Quiz Mode was superior to the other modes, all of which involved active participation and some degree of feedback. Retention after one day was almost perfect for all groups. The amount retained after seven days did not differ significantly among the groups. The results seem to contradict the general principle that active responding with feedback tends to produce more efficient learning. An explanation of the apparent contradiction undoubtedly lies in (a) the temporal relationships between stimuli and their associated responses and (b) the mediating processed between stimuli and responses of the type used in this study. Information on these relationships will contribute significantly to both training and educational technology and to more comprehensive theories of human learning. (Author)
Influence on student achievement of redundancy in self-instructional materials by Horace H Valverde( Book )

2 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Five versions of an instructional program on medical terminology were experimentally evaluated to determine the effect of redundancy or repetition on learning. The subjects were assigned to five groups. A different instructional mode was administered to the subjects in each group. The modes contained identical terminal behaviors, and a 79-item multiple-choice test, which exhausted the population of behaviors, served as the achievement criterion. (Author)
The influence of training on the tactual discriminability of knob shapes by Gordon A Eckstrand( Book )

1 edition published in 1956 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Transfer of training as a joint function of first task learning, response similarity and time between tasks by Ross L Morgan( )

1 edition published in 1956 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Implications of Training Research for CAI by Ross L Morgan( Book )

2 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Prior training research for contemporary efforts to exploit computers for training suggests the following precautions: 1) Computer-based training should always be conceived of in such a way that it can be related to what is known about conditions for effective training. 2) No computer offers a training system which is obviously so superior that no evaluation need be made or records kept. 3) Apply the computer not only to training, but also to any functions of the total training process that need automation. 4) Remember that systematic practice with feedback is still the best condition for learning. 5) Don's rely on any one type of research and development effort. (Author/JY)
Transfer of training in a simple motor skill along the speed dimension by Robert B Ammons( Book )

2 editions published in 1954 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The required speed of response is one of the many dimensions along which tasks vary. Although it is well-known that, in general, as the speed of a task increases, proficiency of performance decreases, the relationship between the performance of a first and second task as a function of the difference in their speed requirements is not so well known. For optimal performance of a second task there must be some best speed of the first or training task. At present, however, the specification of the speed for the optimal training task (for any given second task) must be based upon speculation unsupported by reliable data. The study being reported was designed to obtain information on the general problem of the influence of the speed of a training task upon the performance of a following task. The task used in the research was rotary pursuit at four different speeds. The speeds were assigned to the training and transfer periods in such a manner as to obtain all 16 possible combinations of speeds in the two periods. The 16 different combinations of speeds were presented under three different conditions of distribution of practice; thus, a total of 48 subgroups were employed in the experiment
An experimental comparison of an intrinsically programed text and a narrative text by R. J Senter( Book )

2 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study compared three methods of instruction in binary and octal arithmetic, I.E., (1) Norman Crowder's branched programed text, "The Arithmetic of Computers," (2) another version of this text modified so that subjects could not see the instructional material while answering "branching" questions, and (3) a narrative text version presenting the same content material. The principal behavioral measure was relative performance on a pre- and post-trainin criterion test. The results indicated that prohibiting visual contact with instructional material while answering questions significantly increased the number of erroneous alternatives selected by the subjects, but did not significantly alter the amount of learning manifested nor the time necessary to complete training. The programed instructional methods resulted in significantly greater improvement on the criterion test than was attained by using the narrative text. The time to complete instruction was significantly less with the narrative text version of the material. Records were kept of the number of "wrong answer" branches taken by the subjects receiving instruction via the branched programs. Only about 6% of the total possible "wrong" branches were actually taken. This suggests that branched programing may be wasteful by virtue of providing a quantity of material that is never studied. (Ddc)
A study of verbal mediation as a factor in transfer of training by Gordon A Eckstrand( Book )

1 edition published in 1953 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

There are situations where positive transfer is desired between two tasks and where it is not possible or desirable to select or design the tasks so that positive transfer can be explained on the basis of the similarity relationships which exist. This study investigated one technique of producing transfer between tasks involving physically dissimilar sets of stimuli. This technique involves learning to make the same naming responses to the two sets of dissimilar stimuli. It was found that if the same verbal responses (color names) were learned to a set of six color stimuli and to a set of six nonsense forms, motor responses learned to the color stimuli were more readily learned to the forms than was the case when different verbal responses were learned to the two different kinds of stimuli
Repetition and spaced review in programed instruction by James H Reynolds( Book )

1 edition published in 1964 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The effects of repetition and spaced review in programed instruction were studied. Experiments 1 and 2 covered a one-semester course in General Science at the Junior High School level. In Experiment 3, a 1280-frame portion of the total course was used. In Experiments 1 and 2, comparisons were made among (a) a conventional course, (b) a regular linear version of the program, and (c) a spiral version of the program. The results indicate that the programed course was at least as effective as the conventional instruction in terms of both learning and retention after 15 weeks. The linear program was superior to conventional instruction on some measures. The spiral program offered few, if any, advantages over the regular linear program. Experiment 3 allowed a more precise evaluation of the separate effects of repetition and spaced review. Spaced review produced significant increases in learning which persisted, and even increased, through a 3-week retention interval. Repetition did not produce increased learning or retention. The general conclusions are: (a) repetition of instructional materials above the usual level in a linear program is not beneficial; (b) spaced review is potentially beneficial; and (c) some techniques of obtaining spaced review, eg, spiral programing, may offer disadvantages that equal or outweigh the potential advantages of spaced review. (Author)
Influence of first task practice and intertask similarity on transfer of training in a symbol substitution task by Marvin Levine( Book )

2 editions published in 1964 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This experiment investigated the effects of degree of learning of a first task and degree of similarity between two tasks on the transfer of training from the first to the second task. The basic relationship between the two tasks was such that learning the first might well interfere with learning the second. Twelve groups of 15 college students learned a symbol substitution task to one of four levels of mastery. They were then transferred to a task where the symbols in task I were rearranged to permit three degrees of intertask similarity. Extensive and persistent negative transfer was obtained. During the initial stages of learning task II, negative transfer seemed to decrease as the degree of learning of task I increased. However, during the later stages of task II, negative transfer seemed to increase with an increase in the degree of learning of the first task, especially with the higher degrees of learning of task I. The intertask similarity variable appeared to be significant only during the early stages of learning the second task. These findings differ from previous findings in the extent and persistence of negative transfer and in the tendency for it to increase with higher degrees of first task mastery. The present findings question the generality of existing transfer principles derived from slowly paced tasks involving relatively few discrete stimuli and responses. (Author)
Effects of a changed environmental context upon performance of a tracking task by Ross L Morgan( Book )

1 edition published in 1953 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The use of synthetic training equipment saves operational equipment and personnel. However, the availability of such equipment is influenced by its cost. This report represents an attempt to determine the training value of certain components which contribute to the cost of some synthetic training devices
Tracking performance as a function of exponential delay and learning by Marvin Levine( Book )

2 editions published in 1964 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Eighty subjects performed a one-dimensional compensatory tracking task for 55 one-minute trials. The subjects were divided into five separate groups and each group performed the task with a different exponential delay between the control input and the display, a dot of light on a cathode ray tube. The time constants for the exponential delays were 0.015 seconds, 0.150 seconds, 0.900 seconds, 2.100 seconds and 3.000 seconds respectively. The results indicate that time-on-target scores decrease with increasing delay. For delays greater than 0.150 seconds, the decrease is linear. There is a sharper decrease in performance from 0.015 seconds delay to 0.150 seconds delay than for other portions of the function. Increased practice changes the level, but not the shape, of the total function. The effects of delay and learning were within the same range, indicating that a given level of system performance often can be achieved either by altering the delay or by training the operator. However, performance is maximized if delay is reduced and the operator is trained. (Author)

1 edition published in 1954 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

A further study of the influence of a relevant but unused cue in training upon transfer in a positive transfer situation by Gordon A Eckstrand( Book )

2 editions published in 1964 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

An attempt was made to assess the utility of a cue that was relevant but not used in the solution of a first task in the learning of a second task. The relationship was such that if something were learned about the relevant but unused cue, positive transfer would be expected to occur. In an earlier experiment, no positive transfer was found in this type of situation. The present study essentially duplicated the first but involved an important procedural modification. This modification was intended to rule out the possibility that subjects in the first study had been trained to disregard this relevant but unused cue. The findings of the present study support those of the earlier one. Even with the revised procedure, no transfer was shown from learning the first task to the learning of a second task on the basis of the cue that was originally relevant but unused. (Author)
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English (24)