WorldCat Identities

Scassellati, Brian

Overview
Works: 19 works in 20 publications in 1 language and 21 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by Brian Scassellati
Retrieving images by 2D shape : a comparison of computation methods with human perceptual judgments by Brian Scassellati( Book )

1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: "In content based image retrieval, systems allow users to ask for objects similar in shape to a query object. However, there is no clear understanding of how computational shape similarity corresponds to human shape similarity. In this paper several shape similarity measures were evaluated on planar, connected, non-occluded binary shapes. Shape similarity using algebraic moments, spline curve distances, cumulative turning angle, sign of curvature and Hausdorff-distance were compared to human similarity judgments on twenty test shapes against a large image database."
Eye Finding via Face Detection for a Foveated Active Vision System( )

1 edition published in 1998 in Undetermined and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Oz of Wizard: Simulating the Human for Interaction Research( Book )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Wizard of Oz experiment method has a long tradition of acceptance and use within the field of human-robot interaction. The community has traditionally downplayed the importance of interaction evaluations run with the inverse model: the human simulated to evaluate robot behavior, or "Oz of Wizard". We argue that such studies play an important role in the field of human-robot interaction. We differentiate between methodologically rigorous human modeling and placeholder simulations using simplified human models. Guidelines are proposed for when Oz of Wizard results should be considered acceptable. This paper also describes a framework for describing the various permutations of Wizard and Oz states
AAAI Mobile Robot Competition : papers from the AAAI workshop by Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition( Book )

1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Eye Finding via Face Detection for a Foveated, Active Vision System( )

1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Eye finding is the first step toward building a machine that can recognize social cues, like eye contact and gaze direction, in a natural context. In this paper, we present a real-time implementation of an eye finding algorithm for a foveated active vision system. The system uses a motion-based pre filter to identify potential face locations. These locations are analyzed for faces with a template-based algorithm developed by Sinha (1996). Detected faces are tracked in real time, and the active vision system saccades to the face using a learned sensorimotor mapping. Once gaze has been centered on the face, a high-resolution image of the eye can be captured from the foveal camera using a self-calibrated peripheral-to-foveal mapping. We also present a performance analysis of Sinha's ratio template algorithm on a standard set of static face images. Although this algorithm performs relatively poorly on static images, this result is a poor indicator of real-time performance of the behaving system. We find that our system finds eyes in 94% of a set of behavioral trials. We suggest that alternate means of evaluating behavioral systems are necessary
Infant-Like Social Interactions Between a Robot and a Human Caregiver( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

From birth human infants are immersed in a social environment that allows them to learn by leveraging the skills and capabilities of their caregivers. A critical pre-cursor to this type of social learning is the ability to maintain interaction levels that are neither overwhelming nor under-stimulating. In this paper we present a mechanism for an autonomous robot to regulate the intensity of its social interactions with a human. Similar to the feedback from infant to caregiver the robot uses expressive displays to modulate the interaction intensity. This mechanism is integrated within a general framework that combines perception attention drives emotions behavior selection and motor acts. We present a specific implementation of this architecture that enables the robot to react appropriately to both social stimuli (faces) and non-social stimuli (moving toys) while maintaining a suitable interaction intensity. We present results from both face-to-face interactions and interactions mediated through a toy
Theory of Mind ... for a Robot( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

One of the fundamental social skills for humans is a theory of other minds. This set of skills allows us to attribute beliefs, goals and desires to other individuals. To take part in normal human social dynamics, a robot must not only know about the properties of objects, but also the properties of animate agents in the world. This paper presents the theories of Leslie (1994) and Baron-Cohen (1995) on the development of theory of mind in human children and discusses the potential application of both of these theories to building robots with similar capabilities. Initial implementation details and basic skills (such as finding faces and eyes and distinguishing animate from inanimate stimuli) are introduced. We further speculate on the usefulness of a robotic implementation in evaluating and comparing these two models
A Binocular, Foveated Active Vision System( )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report documents the design and implementation of a binocular, foveated active vision system as part of the Cog project at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The active vision system features a 3 degree of freedom mechanical platform that supports four color cameras, a motion control system, and a parallel network of digital signal processors for image processing. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present results from four sample visual-motor tasks
Active Vision for Sociable Robots( )

1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1991, Ballard described the implications of having a visual system that could actively position the camera coordinates in response to physical stimuli. In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy. In this paper, we describe an integrated visual-motor system that has been implemented on a humanoid robot to negotiate the robot's physical constraints, the perceptual needs of the robot's behavioral and motivational systems, and the social implications of motor acts
Alternative Essences of Intelligence( )

1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We present a novel methodology for building humanlike artificially intelligent systems. We take as a model the only existing systems which are universally accepted as intelligent: humans. We emphasize building intelligent systems which are not masters of a single domain, but, like humans, are adept at performing a variety of complex tasks in the real world. Using evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience, we suggest four alternative essences of intelligence to those held by classical AI. These are the parallel themes of development, social interaction, embodiment, and integration. Following a methodology based on these themes, we have built a physical humanoid robot. In this paper we present our methodology and the insights it affords for facilitating learning, simplifying the computation underlying rich behavior, and building systems that can scale to more complex tasks in more challenging environments
Investigating Models of Social Development Using a Humanoid Robot( )

1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The evaluation of models of social and behavioral development is difficult in natural settings; ethical concerns, difficulties in implementing experimental procedures, and difficulties in isolating hypothesized variables make experimental evidence difficult or impossible to obtain. We propose the use of human-like robots as a testbed for the evaluation of models of human social development. Robotic implementation of human social models allows for unique opportunities to evaluate those models. In this paper, we review some of the implications of this proposal by examining a case study of an on-going project to implement an existing model of one aspect human social development, the development of joint attention behaviors
Theory of Mind for a Humanoid Robot( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

If we are to build human-like robots that can interact naturally with people, our robots must know not only about the properties of objects but also the properties of animate agents in the world. One of the fundamental social skills for humans is the attribution of beliefs, goals, and desires to other people. This set of skills has often been called a "theory of mind." This paper presents the theories of Leslie and Baron-Cohen on the development of theory of mind in human children and discusses the potential application of both of these theories to building robots with similar capabilities. Initial implementation details and basic skills (such as finding faces and eyes and distinguishing animate from inanimate stimuli) are introduced. I further speculate on the usefulness of a robotic implementation in evaluating and comparing these two models
Social Constraints on Animate Vision( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1991, Ballard described the implications of having a visual system that could actively position the camera coordinates in response to physical stimuli. In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy. In this paper, we describe an integrated visual-motor system that has been implemented on a humanoid robot to negotiate the robot's physical constraints, the perceptual needs of the robot's behavioral and motivational systems, and the social implications of motor acts
How Developmental Psychology and Robotics Complement Each Other( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper presents two complementary ideas relating the study of human development and the construction of intelligent artifacts. First, the use of developmental models will be a critical requirement in the construction of robotic systems that can acquire a large repertoire of motor, perceptual, and cognitive capabilities. Second, robotic systems can be used as a test-bed for evaluating models of human development much in the same way that simulation studies are currently used to evaluate cognitive models. To further explore these ideas, two examples from the author's own work will be presented: the use of developmental models of hand-eye coordination to simplify the task of learning to reach for a visual target and the use of a humanoid robot to evaluate models of normal and abnormal social skill development
Self-Taught Visually-Guided Pointing for a Humanoid Robot( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The authors implemented a system which performs a fundamental visuomotor coordination task on the humanoid robot Cog. Cog's task was to saccade its pair of two degree-of-freedom eyes to foveate on a target, and then to maneuver its six degree-of-freedom compliant arm to point at that target. This task requires systems for learning saccade to visual targets, generating smooth arm trajectories, locating the arm in the visual field, and learning the map between gaze direction and correct pointing configuration of the arm. All learning was self-supervised solely by visual feedback. The task was accomplished by many parallel processes running on a seven processor, extensible architecture, MIMD computer
Humanoid Robots: A New Kind of Tool( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1993, the authors began a humanoid robotics project at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory aimed at constructing a robot for use in exploring theories of human intelligence. In this article, the authors describe three aspects of their research methodology that distinguish their work from other humanoid projects. First, their humanoid robots are designed to act autonomously and safely in natural workspaces with people. Second, their robots are designed to interact socially with people by exploiting natural human social cues. Third, they believe that robotics offers a unique tool for testing models of human intelligence drawn from developmental psychology and cognitive science
How to Build Robots that Make Friends and Influence People( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To interact socially with a human a robot must convey intentionality, that is, the human must believe that the robot has beliefs, desires, and intentions. The authors have constructed a robot, named "Kismet," that exploits natural human social tendencies to convey intentionality through motor actions and facial expressions. They present results on the integration of perception, attention, motivation, behavior, and motor systems that allow the robot to engage in infant-like interactions with a human caregiver
Discriminating Animate from Inanimate Visual Stimuli( )

2 editions published between 2000 and 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

From as early as 6 months of age human children distinguish between motion patterns generated by animate objects from patterns generated by moving inanimate objects even when the only stimulus that the child observes is a single point of light moving against a blank background. The mechanisms by which the animate/inanimate distinction are made are unknown, but have been shown to rely only upon the spatial and temporal properties of the movement. In this paper. I present both a multi- agent architecture that performs this classification as well as detailed comparisons of the individual agent contributions against human baselines
Challenges in Building Robots that Imitate People( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Human (and some other animals) acquire new skills socially through direct tutelage, observational conditioning, goal emulation, imitation, and other methods (Galef, 1988; Hauser, 1996). These social learning skills provide a powerful mechanism for an observer to acquire behaviors and knowledge from a skilled individual (the model). In particular, imitation is an extremely powerful mechanism for social learning which has received a great deal of interest from researchers in the fields of animal behavior and child development
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.85 (from 0.69 for Retrieving ... to 1.00 for The Oz of ...)

Associated Subjects
Languages
English (19)