"The 2010 Report on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Report) is a new, specialized report dedicated to describing significant barriers to U.S. food and farm exports arising from measures that foreign governments apply on the ground that they are necessary to protect human, animal, or plant life or health from risks arising from the entry or spread of pests, from plant-or animal-borne pests or diseases, or from additives, contaminants, toxins, or disease-causing organisms in foods, beverages, or feedstuffs. These measures, known in World Trade Organization (WTO) parlance as 'sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures' play an increasingly critical role in shaping the flow of global trade. The United States strongly supports the right of governments to protect their people, animals, and plants from health risks of this kind. This report is focused on SPS measures that appear to be unscientific, unduly burdensome, discriminatory, or otherwise unwarranted and create significant barriers to U.S. exports. Many of these measures are hard to detect and can present particular challenges for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that typically lack the resources to identify and address such barriers. This report is intended to describe and advance U.S. efforts to identify and eliminate these measures. Section II of this report presents an overview of SPS measures, describes the relevant international agreements governing these measures, and discusses the U.S. and international mechanisms for addressing them. In particular, Section II covers the following topics: (1) the genesis of this report; (2) the growing importance of SPS measures in global trade; (3) rules governing SPS measures under the WTO's Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement); (4) rules and mechanisms regarding SPS measures in U.S. free trade agreements; (5) international standard setting in the SPS area; (6) the role of various U.S. Government agencies in addressing SPS-related trade issues; (7) sources of information about SPS trade barriers; and (8) U.S. trade policy mechanisms for considering and addressing SPS measures, including bilateral engagement and WTO dispute settlement. Section III discusses important SPS issues that affect U.S. exports in multiple foreign markets. Among the most significant of these cross-cutting barriers are restrictions related to the H1N1 influenza virus, biotechnology, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), avian influenza (AI), ractopamine, and maximum residue limits (MRLs) on pesticides. The heart of this report is Section IV, which identifies and describes significant unwarranted SPS-related trade barriers currently facing U.S. exporters, along with U.S. Government initiatives to eliminate or reduce the impact of these barriers. The report identifies SPS measures in the following countries and groups of countries: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, the European Union, Guatemala, the Gulf Cooperation Council, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, the South African Development Community, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Section V discusses the U.S. Government's efforts to provide technical assistance to developing countries on SPS issues. Such assistance is instrumental to U.S. efforts to ensure that countries adopt and maintain science-based SPS measures."--Executive summary, p. 1-2.