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Advanced plasma technology

Author: Riccardo D'Agostino; Wiley InterScience (Online service)
Publisher: Weinheim ; Chichester : Wiley-VCH, ©2008.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
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Advanced plasma technology.
Weinheim ; Chichester : Wiley-VCH, ©2008
(OCoLC)191751326
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Riccardo D'Agostino; Wiley InterScience (Online service)
ISBN: 9783527622184 3527622187 9783527622191 3527622195
OCLC Number: 264615338
Description: 1 online resource (xxii, 457 pages) : illustrations
Contents: Preface XV List of Contributors XVII 1 Basic Approaches to Plasma Production and Control 1N. Sato 1.1 Plasma Production 2 1.1.1 Under Low Gas Pressure (<0.1 torr) 2 1.1.2 Under Medium Gas Pressure (0.1-10 torr) 4 1.1.3 Under High (Atmospheric) Gas Pressure (>10 torr) 6 1.2 Energy Control 7 1.2.1 Electron-Temperature Control 7 1.2.2 Ion-Energy Control 10 1.3 Dust Collection and Removal 11 References 15 2 Plasma Sources and Reactor Configurations 17P. Colpo, T. Meziani, and F. Rossi 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Characteristics of ICP 18 2.2.1 Principle 18 2.2.2 Transformer Model 19 2.2.3 Technological Aspects 20 2.3 Sources and Reactor Configuration 23 2.3.1 Substrate Shape 23 2.4 Conclusions 31 References 32 3 Advanced Simulations for Industrial Plasma Applications 35S.J. Kim, F. Iza, N. Babaeva, S.H. Lee, H.J. Lee, and J.K. Lee 3.1 Introduction 35 3.2 PIC Simulations 37 3.2.1 Capacitively Coupled O2/Ar Plasmas 37 3.2.2 Three-Dimensional (3D) Charge-up Simulation 42 3.3 Fluid Simulations 47 3.3.1 Capacitively Coupled Discharges 48 3.3.2 Large Area Plasma Source 49 3.4 Summary 51 References 52 4 Modeling and Diagnostics of He Discharges for Treatment of Polymers 55E. Amanatides and D. Mataras 4.1 Introduction 55 4.2 Experimental 56 4.3 Model Description 57 4.4 Results and Discussion 60 4.4.1 Electrical Properties 61 4.4.2 Gas-Phase Chemistry 66 4.4.3 Plasma-Surface Interactions 71 4.5 Conclusions 72 References 73 5 Three-Dimensional Modeling of Thermal Plasmas (RF and Transferred Arc) for the Design of Sources and Industrial Processes 75V. Colombo, E. Ghedini, A. Mentrelli, and T. Trombetti 5.1 Introduction 76 5.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma Torches 77 5.2.1 Modeling Approach 77 5.2.2 Selected Simulation Results 82 5.2.2.1 High-Definition Numerical Simulation of Industrial 5.3 DC Transferred Arc Plasma Torches 85 5.3.1 Modeling Approach 85 5.3.2 Selected Simulation Results 89 References 95 6 Radiofrequency Plasma Sources for Semiconductor Processing 99F. F. Chen 6.1 Introduction 99 6.2 Capacitively Coupled Plasmas 99 6.2.1 Dual-Frequency CCPs 100 6.3 Inductively Coupled Plasmas 103 6.3.1 General Description 103 6.3.2 Anomalous Skin Depth 106 6.3.3 Magnetized ICPs 107 6.4 Helicon Wave Sources 109 6.4.1 General Description 109 6.4.2 Unusual Features 110 6.4.3 Extended Helicon Sources 114 References 114 7 Advanced Plasma Diagnostics for Thin-Film Deposition 117R. Engeln, M.C.M. van de Sanden, W.M.M. Kessels, M. Creatore, and D.C. Schram 7.1 Introduction 117 7.2 Diagnostics Available to the (Plasma) Physicist 118 7.3 Optical Diagnostics 118 7.3.1 Thomson-Rayleigh and Raman Scattering 118 7.3.2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence 121 7.3.3 Absorption Techniques 122 7.3.4 Surface Diagnostics 126 7.4 Applications 127 7.4.1 Thomson-Rayleigh Scattering and Raman Scattering 127 7.4.2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence 128 7.4.3 Absorption Spectroscopy 130 7.4.4 Surface Diagnostics 133 References 134 8 Plasma Processing of Polymers by a Low-Frequency Discharge with Asymmetrical Configuration of Electrodes 137F. Arefi-Khonsari and M. Tatoulian 8.1 Introduction 137 8.2 Plasma Treatment of Polymers 139 8.2.1 Surface Activation 139 8.2.2 Functionalization (Grafting) Reactions 139 8.2.3 Crosslinking Reactions 140 8.2.4 Surface Etching (Ablation) Reactions 142 8.3 Surface Treatment of Polymers in a Low-Frequency, Low-Pressure Reactor With Asymmetrical Configuration of Electrodes (ACE) 145 8.3.1 Surface Functionalization 147 8.3.2 Ablation Effect of an Ammonia Plasma During Grafting of Nitrogen Groups 148 8.3.3 Acid-Base Properties 151 8.3.4 Aging of Plasma-Treated Surfaces 155 8.4 Plasma Polymerization 158 8.4.1 Influence of the Chemical Composition of the Substrate on the Plasma Polymerization of a Mixture of CF4thH2 160 8.4.2 Plasma Polymerization of Acrylic Acid 165 8.5 Conclusions 169 References 170 9 Fundamentals on Plasma Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films 175A. Milella, F. Palumbo, and R. d'Agostino 9.1 Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films by Continuous Discharges 175 9.1.1 Active Species in Fluorocarbon Plasmas 176 9.1.2 Effect of Ion Bombardment 178 9.1.3 The Activated Growth Model 179 9.2 Afterglow Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films 181 9.3 Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films by Modulated Glow Discharges 183 9.4 Deposition of Nanostructured Thin Films from Tetrafluoroethylene Glow Discharges 185 References 193 10 Plasma CVD Processes for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells 197A. Matsuda 10.1 Introduction 197 10.2 Dissociation Reaction Processes in SiH4 and SiH4/H2 Plasmas 198 10.3 Film-Growth Processes on the Surface 199 10.3.1 Growth of a-Si:H 199 10.3.2 Growth of mc-Si:H 200 10.4 Defect Density Determination Process in a-Si:H and mc-Si:H 203 10.4.1 Growth of a-Si:H and mc-Si:H with SiH3 (H) Radicals 203 10.4.2 Contribution of Short-Lifetime Species 204 10.5 Solar Cell Applications 206 10.6 Recent Progress in Material Issues for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells 207 10.6.1 Control of Photoinduced Degradation in a-Si:H 207 10.6.2 High-Rate Growth of Device-Grade mc-Si:H 208 10.7 Summary 210 References 210 11 VHF Plasma Production for Solar Cells 211Y. Kawai, Y. Takeuchi, H. Mashima, Y. Yamauchi, and H. Takatsuka 11.1 Introduction 211 11.2 Characteristics of VHF H2 Plasma 212 11.3 Characteristics of VHF SiH4 Plasma 214 11.4 Characteristics of Large-Area VHF H2 Plasma 219 11.5 Short-Gap VHF Discharge H2 Plasma 222 References 226 12 Growth Control of Clusters in Reactive Plasmas and Application to High-Stability a-Si:H Film Deposition 227Y. Watanabe, M. Shiratani, and K. Koga 12.1 Introduction 227 12.2 Review of Cluster Growth Observation in SiH4 HFCCP 228 12.2.1 Precursor for Cluster Growth Initiation 228 12.2.2 Cluster Nucleation Phase 230 12.2.3 Effects of Gas Flow on Cluster Growth 231 12.2.4 Effects of Gas Temperature Gradient on Cluster Growth 232 12.2.5 Effects of H2 Dilution on Cluster Growth 233 12.2.6 Effects of Discharge Modulation on Cluster Growth 234 12.3 Cluster Growth Kinetics in SiH4 HFCCP 235 12.4 Growth Control of Clusters 237 12.4.1 Control of Production Rate of Precursor Radicals 238 12.4.2 Control of Growth Reactions and Transport Loss of Clusters 238 12.5 Application of Cluster Growth Control to High-Stability a-Si:H Film Deposition 238 12.6 Conclusions 241 References 241 13 Micro- and Nanostructuring in Plasma Processes for Biomaterials: Micro- and Nano-features as Powerful Tools to Address Selective Biological Responses 243E. Sardella, R. Gristina, R. d'Agostino, and P. Favia 13.1 Introduction: Micro and Nano, a Good Point of View in Biomedicine 243 13.2 Micro- and Nanofeatures Modulate Biointeractions In Vivo and In Vitro 246 13.3 Micro- and Nano-fabrication Technologies 249 13.3.1 Photolithography: The Role of Photolithographic Masks 249 13.3.2 Soft Lithography 255 13.3.3 Plasma-Assisted Micropatterning: The Role of Physical Masks 256 13.3.4 Novel Approaches in Plasma-Patterning Procedures 262 13.4 Conclusions 264 References 264 14 Chemical Immobilization of Biomolecules on Plasma-Modified Substrates for Biomedical Applications 269L.C. Lopez, R. Gristina, Riccardo d'Agostino, and Pietro Favia 14.1 Introduction 270 14.2 Immobilization of Biomolecules 274 14.2.1 Immobilization of PEO Chains (Unfouling Surfaces) 274 14.2.2 Immobilization of Polysaccharides 275 14.2.3 Immobilization of Proteins and Peptides 276 14.2.4 Immobilization of Enzymes 280 14.2.5 Immobilization of Carbohydrates 281 14.3 Conclusions 282 14.4 List of Abbreviations 283 References 284 15 In Vitro Methods to Assess the Biocompatibility of Plasma-Modified Surfaces 287M. Nardulli, R. Gristina, Riccardo d'Agostino, and Pietro Favia 15.1 Introduction 287 15.2 Surface Modification Methods: Plasma Processes and Biomolecule Immobilization 289 15.3 In Vitro Cell Culture Tests of Artificial Surfaces 290 15.4 Cytotoxicity Analysis 292 15.4.1 Viability Assays 292 15.4.2 Metabolic Assays 293 15.4.3 Irritancy Assays 294 15.5 Analysis of Cell Adhesion 294 15.6 Analysis of Cell Functions 298 15.7 Conclusions 299 References 299 16 Cold Gas Plasma in Biology and Medicine 301E. Stoffels, I.E. Kieft, R.E.J. Sladek, M.A.M.J. Van Zandvoort, and D.W. Slaaf 16.1 Introduction 301 16.2 Experiments 303 16.3 Plasma Characteristics 307 16.4 Bacterial Inactivation 311 16.5 Cell and Tissue Treatment 314 16.6 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 317 References 317 17 Mechanisms of Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces by Low-Pressure Plasma 319F. Rossi, O. Kylian, and M. Hasiwa 17.1 Introduction 319 17.1.1 Overview of Sterilization and Decontamination Methods 320 17.2 Bacterial Spore Sterilization 322 17.3 Depyrogenation 324 17.4 Protein Removal 324 17.5 Experimental 325 17.5.1 Experimental Setup 325 17.5.2 Biological Tests 326 17.5.3 Pyrogen Samples Detection 326 17.5.4 Protein Removal Tests 327 17.6 Results 327 17.6.1 Sterilization 327 17.6.2 Depyrogenation 329 17.6.3 Protein Removal 331 17.7 Discussion 332 17.7.1 Plasma Sterilization 332 17.7.2 Depyrogenation 338 17.7.3 Protein Removal 338 17.8 Conclusions 338 References 339 18 Application of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Plasma: Powder Coating in Atmospheric Pressure Glow Plasma 341M. Kogoma and K. Tanaka 18.1 Introduction 341 18.2 Development of Silica Coating Methods for Powdered Organic and Inorganic Pigments with Atmospheric Pressure Glow Plasma 341 18.2.1 Experimental 342 18.2.2 Results and Discussion 343 18.2.3 Conclusion 347 18.3 Application to TiO2 Fine Powder Coating with Thin Film of SiO2 to Quench the Photosensitive Ability of the Powder 348 18.3.1 Experimental 348 18.3.2 Results and Discussion 349 18.3.3 Conclusion 352 References 352 19 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Thin Film Deposition in Atmospheric Pressure Glow Dielectric Barrier Discharges 353F. Fanelli, R. d'Agostino, and F. Fracassi 19.1 Introduction 353 19.2 DBDs for Thin Film Deposition: State of the Art 354 19.2.1 Filamentary and Glow Dielectric Barrier Discharges 354 19.2.2 Electrode Configurations and Gas Injection Systems 356 19.2.3 Hydrocarbon Thin Film Deposition 357 19.2.4 Fluorocarbon Thin Film Deposition 359 19.3 Experimental Results 360 19.3.1 Apparatus and Diagnostics 360 19.3.2 Deposition of Hydrocarbon Films by Means of He-C2H4GDBDs 361 19.3.3 Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films by Means of He-C3F6 and He-C3F8-H2 GDBDs 364 19.4 Conclusion 366 References 367 20 Remark on Production of Atmospheric Pressure Non-thermal Plasmas for Modern Applications 371R. Itatani 20.1 Introduction 371 20.2 Why Atmospheric Pressure Non-thermal Plasmas Are Attractive 372 20.3 Origin of Activities of Plasmas 373 20.4 Limits of Similarity Law of Gas Discharge 373 20.5 Reduction of Gas Temperature 374 20.6 Examples of Realization of the Above Discussion 375 20.7 Large-Area Plasma Production 376 20.8 Summery of Evidence To Date to Obtain Uniform DBDs 376 20.9 Consideration to Realize Uniform Plasmas of Large Area 377 20.10 Factors to be Considered to Realize Uniformity of DBD Plasma 377 20.11 Remote Plasmas 378 20.12 Conclusion 379 References 380 21 Present Status and Future of Color Plasma Displays 381T. Shinoda 21.1 Introduction 381 21.2 Development of Color PDP Technologies 383 21.2.1 Panel Structure 383 21.2.2 Driving Technologies 387 21.3 Latest Research and Development 388 21.3.1 Analysis of Discharge in PDPs 388 21.3.2 High Luminance and High Luminous Efficiency 389 21.3.3 ALIS Structure 390 21.4 Conclusion 391 References 391 22 Characteristics of PDP Plasmas 393H. Ikegami 22.1 Introduction 393 22.2 PDP Operation 394 22.3 PDP Plasma Structure 395 22.4 Plasma Density and Electron Temperature 397 22.5 Remarks 399 References 399 23 Recent Progress in Plasma Spray Processing 401M. Kambara, H. Huang, and T. Yoshida 23.1 Introduction 401 23.2 Key Elements in Thermal Plasma Spray Technology 401 23.3 Thermal Plasma Spraying for Coating Technologies 402 23.3.1 Plasma Powder Spraying 403 23.3.2 Plasma Spray CVD 406 23.3.3 Plasma Spray PVD 407 23.3.4 Thermal Barrier Coatings 407 23.4 Thermal Plasma Spraying for Powder Metallurgical Engineering 414 23.4.1 Thermal Plasma Spheroidization 414 23.4.2 Plasma Spray CVD 415 23.4.3 Plasma Spray PVD 415 23.5 Thermal Plasma Spraying for Waste Treatments 416 23.6 Concluding Remarks and Prospects 417 References 418 24 Electrohydraulic Discharge Direct Plasma Water Treatment Processes 421J.-S. Chang, S. Dickson, Y. Guo, K. Urashima, and M.B. Emelko 24.1 Introduction 421 24.2 Characteristics of Electrohydraulic Discharge Systems 421 24.3 Treatment Mechanisms Generated by Electrohydraulic Discharge 422 24.4 Treatment of Chemical Contaminants by Electrohydraulic Discharge 424 24.5 Disinfection of Pathogenic Contaminants by PAED 429 24.6 Municipal Sludge Treatment 430 24.7 Concluding Remarks 432 References 432 25 Development and Physics Issues of an Advanced Space Propulsion 435M. Inutake, A. Ando, H. Tobari, and K. Hattori 25.1 Introduction 436 25.2 Performance of Rocket Propulsion Systems 437 25.3 Experimental Researches for an Advanced Space Thruster 440 25.3.1 Experimental Apparatus and Diagnostics 440 25.3.2 Improvement of an MPDA Plasma Using aMagnetic Laval Nozzle 442 25.3.3 RF Heating of a High Mach Number Plasma Flow 444 25.4 Summary 447 References 448 Index 449
Responsibility: edited by Riccardo d'Agostino [and others].

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"this book is worth reading for the ambitious graduate student and very interesting for the specialist in academia and industry who intends to revamp his know-how." (Plasma Process. Polym. 2008, 5)

 
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