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Agriculture and trade liberalisation : extending the Uruguay Round Agreement

Author: Peter S Liapis; Wyatt Thompson; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Publisher: [Paris] : OECD, ©2002.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : International government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
This report provides information on the average tariff levels and on the use of tariff-rate quotas, export subsidies and export credits by selected OECD countries for temperate-zone agricultural products. The implications of further liberalisation of the various instruments over the medium term are examined. The effects of further trade liberalisation of agricultural markets over the medium-term depend significantly  Read more...
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Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Agriculture and trade liberalisation.
[Paris] : OECD, ©2002
(DLC) 2002494391
(OCoLC)49765485
Material Type: Document, Government publication, International government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Peter S Liapis; Wyatt Thompson; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
ISBN: 9789264196292 9264196293
OCLC Number: 655400381
Description: 1 online resource (156 pages) : illustrations
Contents: Part I. Tariff Rate Quotas and Tariffs in OECD Agricultural Markets: A Forward-Looking Analysis --
Preamble --
Summary --
Introduction --
The Economics of TROs --
TROs and Fill Rates --
Tariffs --
How Are Average Tariffs Calculated? --
Calculating the Ad Valorem Equivalent --
Average Tariffs for Aglink Countries Are High --
Tariffs are Very Disperse --
Fewer but Still Significant Number of Mega-Tariffs --
Trade-Weighted Average Tariffs Much Lower for Most Countries --
Average Tariff by In- and Out-of and No-Quota --
Dairy Products among Most Protected --
Applied Rates are also Substantial --
Generalized System of Preferences --
Empirical Implementation --
Aglink Model --
Data Issues --
Scenarios --
Differences between TROBASE and BASELINE --
Changes in World Prices --
Scenario Results --
Gradual Quota Expansion --
TRQ Expansion and In-Quota Tariff Reduction --
Out-of-Quota and Non-Quota Tariff Reduction --
Quota Expansion and Reduction of All Tariffs --
Summary and Conclusions --
Part II. A Forward-Looking Analysis of Export Subsidies in Agriculture --
Introduction --
Data from Country Notifications to the WTO --
Summary of Aglink and the Outlook --
Subsidized Exports in the Outlook are Low for Crops, but Higher for Livestock Products --
Quantity Controls or Support Prices --
Results of the Scenario --
Eliminating Subsidized Exports Lowers Internal Market Prices --
Eliminating Subsidized Exports Increases World Dairy Prices, but Has Less Effect on World Crop Prices --
Key Assumptions --
Sensitivity of Results: The Consequences of Alternate Assumptions Regarding the Euro --
Conclusions --
Annex: Implementation of the Export Subsidy Scenario in Aglink --
Part III. An Analysis of Officially Supported Export Credits in Agriculture --
Introduction --
Use of Export Credits --
Total Export Credit Use Rose over the Survey Period (1995-1998), in Absolute Terms, --
And also Rose Relative to Trade --
Subsidy Rate of Export Credits --
Subsidy Rate Estimates for 1998 Show That Some Export Credits Distort Trade --
Over a Third of the Export Credits of the Survey Target Bulk Cereals, Yet These Account for almost Half of the Subsidy Element of Export Credits --
How Defaults Can Affect the Subsidy Rate --
Importers and Liquidity Constraints --
Can Export Credits Create Demand? --
Recipients of Export Credits are Mostly OECD Members, Not Developing Countries --
Other Uses of Export Credits Excluded from this Study --
Organizations with Legislative Authority --
The Overlap between Export Credits and Food Aid --
Exchange Rate Agreements and Other Possible Programme Benefits or Effects --
Export Credits in World Agricultural Product Markets --
Preliminary Analysis of the World Market Effects of Distorting Export Credits --
Export Credits and Export Subsidies on World Markets --
Conclusions --
Notes --
Glossary --
Annex. Methods and Data Used to Evaluate Export Credits --
References.
Responsibility: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Abstract:

This report provides information on the average tariff levels and on the use of tariff-rate quotas, export subsidies and export credits by selected OECD countries for temperate-zone agricultural products. The implications of further liberalisation of the various instruments over the medium term are examined. The effects of further trade liberalisation of agricultural markets over the medium-term depend significantly on the modalities and prevailing market conditions against which the liberalisation scenarios are compared. On market access, although the largest impact on world prices is from tariff reductions, each of the current trade policy instruments (i.e. out-of-quota tariffs, in-quota tariffs, and tariff rate quotas) would have to be liberalised to obtain the greatest impact. On export subsidies, their current use is already at levels much lower than Uruguay Round commitments, and elimination would have modest effects for most commodities (except dairy products). This situation could change and further discipline on their use would prevent back-tracking. Export credits used by certain countries are also found to distort trade, although the effects on world markets and average prices remain relatively small, due to the small share of trade facilitated by these programmes and their small per-unit effect. Disciplines are necessary, however, to avoid even greater use of all forms of export competition policies. Countries have embarked on a new round of multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture. The challenge facing policy makers is to build upon the foundations of the URAA to further reduce trade distortions. This requires strengthening the disciplines already established and addressing weaknesses of the current agreement, such as those that have been identified in this report.

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