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Alberta oil sands : energy, industry and the environment

Author: Kevin E Percy
Publisher: Amsterdam ; Boston : Elsevier, ©2012.
Series: Developments in environmental science, v. 11.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 1st edView all editions and formats
Summary:
At 170 billion barrels, Canada's Oil Sands are the third largest reserves of developable oil in the world. The Oil Sands now produce about 1.6 million barrels per day, with production expected to double by 2025 to about 3.7 million barrels per day. The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta is the largest of the three oil sands deposits. Bitumen in the oil sands is recovered through one of two  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Kevin E Percy
ISBN: 9780080977607 008097760X 0080994431 9780080994437
OCLC Number: 795763162
Description: xxviii, 496 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 24 cm.
Contents: 1 Energy Production: A Global Perspective / R.L. Orbach Orbach, R.L. 1 --
1.1 The Situation 1 --
1.2 Some Remedies 10 --
1.2.1 Cost-Effective Capture and Storage of CO₂ Through Energy Production from Saline Aquifers 10 --
1.2.2 Solar Energy to Produce Transportation Fuels 12 --
1.2.3 Electrical Energy Storage at Base-Load Levels 14 --
1.3 Summary 16 --
References 17 --
2 Energy Developments in Canada's Oil Sands / C. Stringham Stringham, C. 19 --
2.1 Introduction 20 --
2.2 Early Days 21 --
2.3 Opportunities and Challenges 24 --
2.3.1 Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality 25 --
2.3.2 Water Use, Tailings Ponds, and Quality 27 --
2.3.3 Land-Impact and Reclamation 29 --
2.3.4 Market Access 30 --
2.4 The Path Forward 31 --
2.4.1 Governments 32 --
2.4.2 Industry 32 --
2.4.3 Working Together 33 --
References 33 --
3 Energy and Environment: Toward Achieving the Balance in Alberta / M. Lowey Lowey, M. 35 --
3.1 Introduction 35 --
3.2 Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 38 --
3.3 Water Management 43 --
3.4 Land Use and Waste Management 44 --
3.5 Summary 44 --
References 45 --
4 Air Quality in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region 2011 / K.E. Percy Percy, K.E., M.C. Hansen Hansen, M.C., T. Dann Dann, T. 47 --
4.1 The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Network 48 --
4.2 Major Emission Sources in the Athabasca Oil Sands 52 --
4.3 Continuously Monitored Air Pollutants 52 --
4.3.1 Sulfur Dioxide 55 --
4.3.2 Nitrogen Dioxide 56 --
4.3.3 Ozone 56 --
4.3.4 Fine Particulate Matter (PM₂.₅) 58 --
4.3.5 Ammonia 60 --
4.3.6 Total Reduced Sulfur/Hydrogen Sulfide 61 --
4.3.7 Hydrocarbons 63 --
4.4 Time-Integrated Measurements 64 --
4.4.1 Volatile Organic Compounds 64 --
4.4.2 Reduced Sulfur Compounds 67 --
4.4.3 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 70 --
4.4.4 Total Gaseous Mercury Monitoring at AMS 6 Patricia McInnes 74 --
4.5 2011 Air Quality Health Index Values 82 --
4.6 Trends and Other Regions 84 --
4.6.1 Long-Term Trends 84 --
4.6.2 Other Regions 85 --
4.7 Summary 87 --
Acknowledgments 89 --
References 89 --
5 Development and Application of Statistical Approaches for Reducing Uncertainty in Ambient Air Quality Data / M. Nosal Nosal, M., A.H. Legge Legge, A.H., E.M. Nosal Nosal, E.M., M.C. Hansen Hansen, M.C. 93 --
5.1 Introduction 94 --
5.2 Recent Attempts Related to Uncertainty 95 --
5.3 ISO Measurement Uncertainty Estimation Methodology 97 --
5.4 Alternative Approach to Uncertainty Using the Weibull Distribution 99 --
5.5 MCMs for Uncertainty Estimation 102 --
5.6 Estimation of Uncertainty in WBEA Measurements 105 --
5.7 Conclusions 108 --
Acknowledgments 109 --
References 109 --
6 Co-measurement of Volatile Organic and Sulfur Compounds in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region by Dual Detector Pneumatic Focusing Gas Chromatography / R.J. O'Brien O'Brien, R.J., K.E. Percy Percy, K.E., A.H. Legge Legge, A.H. 113 --
6.1 Introduction 114 --
6.2 Background Review 116 --
6.2.1 VOC Measurements 116 --
6.2.2 Sulfur Measurements 117 --
6.3 Experimental Methods-Pneumatic Focusing Gas Chromatography 117 --
6.3.1 VOC Measurements 117 --
6.3.2 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry 117 --
6.3.3 "Baseline" VOCs 118 --
6.3.4 Sulfur Gas Measurements 118 --
6.3.5 Dual-Detector Pneumatic Focusing GC-Principles and Operation 119 --
6.3.6 Chromatographic Separation 121 --
6.4 Current Locations for PFGC Monitoring in the AOSR 123 --
6.5 Results and Discussion 123 --
6.5.1 Sulfur Compounds 125 --
6.5.2 Compound Identification, Calibration, and Quantification 130 --
6.6 Recent Sulfur Measurements 136 --
6.6.1 RSC Chromatograms 136 --
6.6.2 Cartridge Versus Canister Samples for GC/MS Analysis 136 --
6.7 Summary and Conclusions 137 --
6.7.1 Current Measurement Status 137 --
6.7.2 Potential Odor Compounds 139 --
6.7.3 On-Going Efforts and Goals 141 --
Acknowledgments 141 --
References 143 --
7 Overview of Real-World Emission Characterization Methods / J.G. Watson Watson, J.G., J.C. Chow Chow, J.C., X.L Wang Wang, X.L, S.D. Kohl Kohl, S.D., L.-W.A. Chen Chen, L.-W.A., V. Etyemezian Etyemezian, V. 145 --
7.1 Introduction 145 --
7.2 Stationary Source Emissions 148 --
7.3 Engine Exhaust Emissions 151 --
7.4 Fugitive Dust Emissions 158 --
7.5 Emerging Technologies for Source Characterization 161 --
Acknowledgments 162 --
References 162 --
8 Measurement of Real-World Stack Emissions with a Dilution Sampling System / X.L. Wang Wang, X.L., J.C. Watson Watson, J.C., J.C. Chow Chow, J.C., S.D. Kohl Kohl, S.D., L.-W.A. Chen Chen, L.-W.A., D.A. Sodeman Sodeman, D.A., A.H. Legge Legge, A.H., K.E. Percy Percy, K.E. 171 --
8.1 Introduction 171 --
8.2 Material and Methods 174 --
8.2.1 Source Description and Sampling Conditions 174 --
8.2.2 Dilution Sampling System 174 --
8.2.3 Data Reduction 178 --
8.3 Results and Discussion 178 --
8.3.1 PM₂.₅ Source Profiles 178 --
8.3.2 PM Size Distributions and Optical Properties 181 --
8.3.3 Gas and PM Concentrations and Emission Rates 184 --
8.4 Summary 188 --
Acknowledgments 189 --
References 189 --
9 Applying the Forest Health Approach to Monitoring Boreal Ecosystems in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region / K.E. Percy Percy, K.E., D.G. Maynard Maynard, D.G., A.H. Legge Legge, A.H. 193 --
9.1 Introduction 194 --
9.2 Terrestrial Environmental Monitoring in the Athabasca Oil Sands Prior to 2008 195 --
9.3 Defining Forest Health 200 --
9.4 TEEM Forest Health Network Design 201 --
9.4.1 Conceptual Design, Area Restriction, and Adaptive Capacity 201 --
9.4.2 Ecologically Analogous Plots, Indicators, and Endpoints 203 --
9.4.3 Deployment and Comeasurement 206 --
9.5 Investigative Studies to Enhance the TEEM Program 211 --
9.6 Summary 213 --
Acknowledgments 214 --
References 214 --
10 Ecological Analogues for Biomonitoring Industrial Sulfur Emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada / D.R. Jaques Jaques, D.R., A.H. Legge Legge, A.H. 219 --
10.1 Introduction 220 --
10.2 Overview of Methods 221 --
10.3 Results 222 --
10.3.1 Atmospheric Emissions 222 --
10.3.2 Wind Patterns 223 --
10.3.3 EAT Classification 223 --
10.3.4 Air-Photo Interpretation of EAT #3 Sites 228 --
10.3.5 Jack Pine Forest Stand Edges and Early Warning for Pollutant Effects 233 --
10.4 Application Examples 234 --
10.5 Conclusions 238 --
Acknowledgment 238 --
References 238 --
11 Tracing Industrial Nitrogen and Sulfur Emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region Using Stable Isotopes / B.C. Proemse Proemse, B.C., B. Mayer Mayer, B. 243 --
11.1 Introduction 243 --
11.2 Study Area and Sampling 244 --
11.3 Methods 246 --
11.4 Results and Discussion 247 --
11.4.1 Stack Emitted Particulate Matter (PM₂.₅) 247 --
11.4.2 Atmospheric Deposition 248 --
11.4.3 Lichens as Bioindicators 251 --
11.4.4 Conifer Needles 255 --
11.5 Summary 261 --
11.6 Acknowledgments 262 --
References 262 --
12 Air Quality Modeling in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region / M.J.E. Dawes Dawes, M.J.E. 267 --
12.1 Introduction 267 --
12.2 Historical Model Applications 268 --
12.2.1 Regulatory Models 268 --
12.2.2 The AOSERP/RMD and Industry Period 269 --
12.2.3 The RSDS and CEMA Period 273 --
12.3 WBEA Case Study: Model Input 275 --
12.3.1 Spatial Boundaries 276 --
12.3.2 Source and Emission Inventory 276 --
12.3.3 Topography 279 --
12.3.4 Land Cover 281 --
12.3.5 WBEA Case Study: Meteorology 283 --
12.4 WBEA Case Study: CALPUFF Model Options 287 --
12.5 WBEA Case Study: Model Performance 288 --
12.5.1 SO₂ Comparison 288 --
12.5.2 NO₂ Comparison 291 --
12.6 WBEA Case Study: Deposition 291 --
12.6.1 Calculation Approach 291 --
12.6.2 Background Deposition 294 --
12.6.3 Predicted Sulfur Deposition (With Background) 294 --
12.6.4 Predicted Nitrogen Deposition (With Background) 294 --
12.6.5 Correlations Between Model Predictions 295 --
12.7 WBEA Case Study: Lichen Comparison 297 --
12.7.1 Sulfur Compounds 299 --
12.7.2 Nitrogen Compounds 299 --
12.8 Conclusions 302 --
12.8.1 Model History 302 --
12.8.2 Case Study Findings 302 --
Acknowledgments 303 --
References 303 --
13 WBEA Receptor Modeling Study in the Athabasca Oil Sands: An Introduction / S. Krupa Krupa, S. 311 --
14 Method for Extraction and Multielement Analysis of Hypogymnia physodes samples from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region / E.S. Edgerton Edgerton, E.S., J.M. Fort Fort, J.M., K. Baumann Baumann, K., J.R. Crahey Crahey, J.R., M.S. Landis Landis, M.S., S. Berryman Berryman, S., S. Krupa Krupa, S. 315 --
14.1 Introduction 316 --
14.2 Materials and Methods 317 --
14.2.1 Lichen Samples 317 --
14.2.2 Sample Digestion 319 --
14.2.3 Multielement Analysis via ICPMS 319 --
14.3 Results and Discussion 321 --
14.3.1 Detection Limits 321 --
14.3.2 SRM Recoveries 323 --
14.3.3 Lab Replicates 324 --
14.3.4 Data Overview 326 --
14.3.5 Comparison with H. physodes Data from Previous Studies 336 --
14.4 Conclusions 340 --
Acknowledgments 341 --
References 341 --
15 Coupling Lead Isotopes and Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens to Track Sources of Air Emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region / J.R. Graney Graney, J.R., M.S. Landis Landis, M.S., S. Krupa Krupa, S. 343 --
15.1 Introduction 344 --
15.2 Materials and Methods 346 --
15.3 Results 347 --
15.3.1 Theory for Using Pb Isotopes to Help Identify Sources 347 --
15.3.2 Comparing Results from 2002 to 2008 348 --
15.3.3 Coupling Pb Isotopes and Metal Concentrations in Lichens 351 15.3.4 Contouring Lichen Concentrations to Aid in Spatial Assessments 352 --
15.3.5 Source Samples 358 --
15.4 Discussion 359 --
15.4.1 Other Studies That Document Emissions of Metals from Point Sources of Pollution in Canada 359 --
15.4.2 Controls on Metal Concentrations and Accumulation by Lichens in the AOSR 360 --
15.4.3 Other Work That Examined Pb Isotopes in Lichens 363 --
15.4.4 Comparing Pb Isotope Ratios in Aerosols to those in Lichens from the AOSR 366 --
15.5 Conclusions 367 --
Acknowledgments 368 --
References 368 --
16 Mercury Concentration and Isotopic Composition of Epiphytic Tree Lichens in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region / J.D. Blum Blum, J.D., M.W. Johnson Johnson, M.W., J.D. Gleason Gleason, J.D., J.D. Demers Demers, J.D., M.S. Landis Landis, M.S., S. Krupa Krupa, S. 373 --
16.1 Introduction 374 --
16.2 Methods 376 --
16.2.1 Sample Collection and Preparation 376 --
16.2.2 Hg Concentration Analysis 376 --
16.2.3 Sample Preparation for Isotope Analysis 377 --
16.2.4 Mass Spectrometry 377 --
16.2.5 Analytical Uncertainty 378 --
16.3 Results and Discussion 378 --
16.3.1 Hg Concentrations of H. physodes 378 --
16.3.2 Hg Concentrations of Other Species of Epiphytic Lichens 380 --
16.3.3 Spatial Variation in Hg Concentrations of H. physodes 380 --
16.3.4 Hg Isotopic Composition of H. physodes 381 --
16.3.5 Spatial Variation in Hg Isotopic Composition of H. physodes 384 --
16.3.6 Hg Isotopic Composition of Oil Sands Materials 384 --
16.4 Proposed Mechanism to Explain Hg Isotopic Variability 386 --
16.5 Conclusions 387 --
Acknowledgments 388 --
References 388 --
17 Measurement of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Epiphytic Lichens for Receptor Modeling, in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR): A Pilot Study / W.B. Studabaker Studabaker, W.B., S. Krupa Krupa, S., R.K.M. Jayanty Jayanty, R.K.M., J.H. Raymer Raymer, J.H. 391 --
17.1 Introduction 392 --
17.1.1 Lichens as Bioaccumulators of PAHs 393 --
17.1.2 Factors Affecting Bioaccumulation of PAHs by Lichens 400 --
17.1.3 Use of Lichens in Source Apportionment of PAHs 401 --
17.1.4 Use of Lichens as Bioaccumulators in the AOSR 404 --
17.2 Methods 404 --
17.2.1 Sample Collection 404 --
17.2.2 Sample Extraction and Cleanup 406 --
17.2.3 GC-MS Analysis 406 --
17.2.4 Quality Control 408 --
17.2.5 Air Samples 408 --
17.2.6 Statistical Analysis 408 --
17.3 Results 409 --
17.3.1 Method Development 409 --
17.3.2 Sample Analyses 410 --
17.4 Discussion 417 --
17.4.1 Analytical Methodology 417 --
17.4.2 Implications of the Current Study for Receptor Modeling 418 --
17.5 Conclusions 419 --
Acknowledgments 421 --
References 422 --
18 Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region / M.S. Landis Landis, M.S., J.P. Pancras Pancras, J.P., J.R. Graney Graney, J.R., R.K. Stevens Stevens, R.K., K.E. Percy Percy, K.E., S. Krupa Krupa, S. 427 --
18.1 Introduction 428 --
18.2 Methods 431 --
18.2.1 Lichen Sampling and Analysis 431 --
18.2.2 Source Sampling and Analysis 431 --
18.2.3 Theory and Concepts of Source Apportionment and Receptor Models 432 --
18.3 Results and Discussion 439 --
18.3.1 AOSR Source Characterization 439 --
18.3.2 Modeling Information 440 --
18.3.3 PCA: Multilinear Regression 447 --
18.3.4 Chemical Mass Balance 450 --
18.3.5 PMF and Unmix Modeling 453 --
18.4 Conclusions 462 --
Acknowledgments 464 --
References 464 --
19 Concluding Remarks / K.E. Percy Percy, K.E., S. Krupa Krupa, S. 469 --
19.1 Introduction 469 --
19.2 Summary of Book Content 471 --
19.3 Symposium Panel Discussion 477 --
19.3.1 The Panel 477 --
19.3.2 Discussion 479 --
19.4 Future Perspectives 480.
Series Title: Developments in environmental science, v. 11.
Responsibility: [edited by] Kevin E. Percy.
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Abstract:

The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta is the largest of the three oil sands deposits. This book contains 19 chapters ranging from a global perspective of energy production,  Read more...

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"This volume contains papers presented at an eponymous international symposium held in conjunction with the 43rd International Air Pollution Workshop (May 2011), in Alberta, Canada. These papers, Read more...

 
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   schema:description "At 170 billion barrels, Canada's Oil Sands are the third largest reserves of developable oil in the world. The Oil Sands now produce about 1.6 million barrels per day, with production expected to double by 2025 to about 3.7 million barrels per day. The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta is the largest of the three oil sands deposits. Bitumen in the oil sands is recovered through one of two primary methods - mining and drilling. About 20 per cent of the reserves are close to the surface and can be mined using large shovels and trucks. Of concern are the effects of the industrial development on the environment. Both human-made and natural sources emit oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace elements and persistent organic compounds. Of additional concern are ground level ozone and greenhouse gases. Because of the requirement on operators to comply with the air quality regulatory policies, and to address public concerns, the not-for-profit, multi-stakeholder Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) has since 1997 been closely monitoring air quality in AOSR. In 2008, WBEA assembled a distinguished group of international scientists who have been conducting measurements and practical research on various aspects of air emissions and their potential effects on terrestrial receptors. This book is a synthesis of the concepts and results of those on-going studies. It contains 19 chapters ranging from a global perspective of energy production, measurement methodologies and behavior of various air pollutants during fossil fuel production in a boreal forest ecosystem, towards designing and deploying a multi-disciplinary, proactive, and long-term environmental monitoring system that will also meet regulatory expectations."@en ;
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