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Alkaloids

Author: H F Linskens; J F Jackson; R A Andersen
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1994.
Series: Modern methods of plant analysis, v. 15.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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This text treats alkaloid analysis with all the latest techniques such as inverse-detected two dimensional NMR, GC/MS, and HPLC associated techniques. Analysis of alkaloids produced by tobacco root  Read more...

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Alkaloids.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1994
(OCoLC)645893558
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: H F Linskens; J F Jackson; R A Andersen
ISBN: 9783540527381 3540527389 9780387527383 0387527389
OCLC Number: 31501957
Description: xviii, 237 pages : illustrations.
Contents: Isolation, Identification, and Structure Elucidation of Alkaloids A General Overview.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Isolation.- 2.1 Extraction.- 2.2 Chromatography.- 2.3 Artifacts.- 2.4 Selective Detection.- 3 Identification and Structure Elucidation.- 3.1 Spectroscopic Method.- 3.1.1 UV (Ultaviolet).- 3.1.2 IR (Infrared).- 3.1.3 ORD and CD (Optical Rotation Dispersion and Circular Dichromism).- 3.1.4 X-Ray Crystallography.- 3.1.5 MS (Mass Spectrometry).- 3.1.6 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance).- 3.1.7 1H-NMR.- 3.1.8 13C-NMR.- 3.1.9 2D-NMR.- 4 Strategy.- 5 Future Prospects.- References.- Inverse-Detected 2D-NMR Applications in Alkaloid Chemistry.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Historical Background.- 3 Suppression of Unwanted Magnetization Arising from 1H-12C Species.- 4 Inverse-Detected One-Bond Heteronuclear Shift Correlation Experiments.- 4.1 HMQC.- 4.2 DEPT-HMQC.- 4.3 HSQC.- 4.4 HMQC Using Spin-Locking Fields.- 4.5 Comparison of the Available Inverse-Detected One-Bond Heteronuclear Correlation Experiments.- 5 Long-Range Heteronuclear Chemical Shift Correlation - HMBC.- 6 HMQC-TOCSY and Other Hyphenated Inverse-Detected 2D Experiments.- 6.1 Interpretation of HMQC-TOCSY Spectra.- 6.2 Modifications of the HMQC-TOCSY Experiment - Inverted Direct Responses.- 6.3 DEPT-HMQC-TOCSY.- 6.4 Suppression of Direct Responses in HMQC-TOCSY Spectra.- 7 Other Inverse-Detected NMR Experiments -Selective and F1 Region-Selected Experiments.- 7.1 Selective One-Dimensional Analogs of HMBC - SIMBA.- 7.2 One-Dimensional HMQC-TOCSY.- 7.3 F1 Region-Selected HMBC.- 7.4 HMQC-NOESY and HMQC-ROESY.- 8 Sample Requirements.- 9 Applications of Inverse-Detected NMR Techniques to Alkaloid Chemistry. Structural Problems.- 9.1 Terrestrial Alkaloids.- 9.1.1 Carbazole Alkaloids.- 9.1.2 Indolizidine Alkaloids.- 9.1.3 Diterpene Alkaloids.- 9.1.4 Indole-Derived Alkaloids.- 9.1.5 Pyrrole, Imidazole, Pyrrolizidine, Pyridine, and Related Alkaloids.- 9.2 Marine Alkaloids.- 9.2.1 Quinoline Alkaloids.- 9.2.2 Acridine Alkaloids.- 9.2.3 Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids.- 9.2.4 Pyrrole and Imidazole-Derived Alkaloids.- 9.2.5 Pyridine-Containing Alkaloids.- 9.2.6 Indole Alkaloids.- 9.2.7 Carbazole Alkaloids.- 9.2.8 Oxazole/Thiazole Containing Alkaloids.- 9.2.9 Bromotyrosine/Bromodopamine-Derived Alkaloids.- 9.2.10 Guanidine-Derived Alkaloids.- 10 Conclusion.- References.- Electrochemical Detection of Alkaloids in HPLC.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Principles of HPLC with Electrochemical Detection.- 2.1 Basic Principles of Electrochemical Detection.- 2.2 Electroactive Functional Groups in Alkaloids.- 2.3 Mobile Phase.- 2.3.1 Conductivity.- 2.3.2 Background Current and Noise.- 2.3.3 pH.- 2.4 Electrode Materials and Flow Cells.- 2.5 Selection of Applied Potential.- 3 Methods of Detection in Plants.- 3.1 Psilocin and Psilocybin in Fungi.- 3.2 Hordenine in Germinating Barley.- 3.3 Catharanthus Alkaloids in Cell Culture.- 3.4 Atropine in Belladonna Preparations.- 3.5 Castanospermine in Leaves.- 4 Possible Methods for Detecting Other Alkaloids.- 4.1 Opium Alkaloids.- 4.2 Physostigmine.- 4.3 Coca Alkaloids.- 4.4 Sparteine.- 5 Conclusions and Future Directions.- References.- Gas Chromatography in the Analysis of Alkaloids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.- 3 Quinolizidine Alkaloids.- 4 Tropane Alkaloids.- 5 Quinoline Alkaloids.- 6 Morphinan Alkaloids.- 7 Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids.- 8 Ergot Indole Alkaloids.- 9 Steroidal Alkaloids.- 10 Diterpenoid Alkaloids.- 11 Other Alkaloids.- 12 Conclusion.- References.- Alkaloid Analysis in Flue-Cured Tobacco.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Factors Affecting Alkaloid Concentration.- 3 Methods of Analysis of Tobacco Alkaloids.- 3.1 Steam Distillation.- 3.2 Autoanalyzer.- 3.3 Chromatographic Analysis of Tobacco Alkaloids.- 3.3.1 Paper Chromatography.- 3.3.2 Paper Chromatography - Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer.- 3.3.3 Thin-Layer Chromatography.- 3.3.4 Gas Chromatography.- 3.3.5 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.- 3.4 Cundiff-Markunas Extraction Method.- 3.5 Alternative Methods.- 4 Summary.- References.- Assessment of Burley and Dark Tobacco Alkaloids During Storage, Aging, and Fermentation.- 1 Importance of Pyridine Alkaloids to Tobacco Quality and Usability.- 2 Importance of Storage, Aging, and Fermentation.- 3 Chemical Analyses.- 3.1 Total Tobacco Alkaloids.- 3.2 Individual Tobacco Alkaloids.- 3.3 Nitrite.- 3.4 Calcium.- 3.5 Moisture.- References.- Detection of Alkaloids in Environmental Tobacco Smoke.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke.- 1.2 Tobacco-Related Alkaloids.- 1.3 Pyrolysates of Tobacco Alkaloids.- 1.4 Tobacco-Related Alkaloids as Tracers of ETS in Indoor Air.- 2 Overview of Sampling and Analysis Methods.- 3 Time-Integrated Sampling/Gas Chromatographic Analysis.- 3.1 Active Sampling and XAD-4 Sorbent Collection.- 3.1.1 Principle.- 3.1.2 Apparatus.- 3.1.3 Reagents.- 3.1.4 Preparation of Standard Solutions.- 3.1.5 Collection and Preparation of Samples.- 3.1.6 Alkaloids Determination.- 3.1.7 Desorption Efficiency Determination.- 3.1.8 Calculations.- 3.2 Active Sampling and Bisulfate-Treated Filter Collection.- 3.2.1 Principle.- 3.2.2 Apparatus.- 3.2.3 Reagents.- 3.2.4 Preparation of Standard Solutions.- 3.2.5 Collection and Preparation of Samples.- 3.2.6 Alkaloids Determination.- 3.2.7 Desorption Efficiency Determination.- 3.2.8 Calculations.- 3.3 Passive Sampling and Bisulfate-Treated Filter Collection.- 3.3.1 Principle.- 3.3.2 Apparatus.- 3.3.3 Reagents.- 3.3.4 Preparation of Standard Solutions.- 3.3.5 Collection and Prekparation of Samples.- 3.3.6 Alkaloids Determination.- 3.3.7 Desorption Efficiency Determination.- 3.3.8 Calculations.- 4 Real-Time Sampling/Mass Spectrometric Analysis.- 4.1 Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.- 4.2 Real-Time Quantitative Analysis.- 4.2.1 Calibration.- 4.2.2 Alkaloids Determination.- 4.2.3 Internal Standard.- 5 Summary.- References.- Methods for Production of Alkaloids in Root Cultures and Analysis of Products.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Induction of Transformed Roots.- 2.1 Choice of Bacterial Strains.- 2.2 Culture of Bacteria.- 2.3 Transformation of Plant Tissues.- 2.4 Culture of Root Tissues and Decontamination.- 2.5 Growth and Maintenance of Root Cultures.- 2.6 A Protocol for Cryopreservation of Transformed Roots of Nicotiana rustica.- 3 Proof of Transformation.- 3.1 DNA Extraction from Transformed Roots.- 3.1.1 "Pure DNA" Isolation Procedure.- 3.1.2 DNA "Miniprep" Method.- 3.2 Detection of T-DNA.- 3.2.1 Sources of Probes.- 3.2.2 Recovery of DNA from Agarose Gels.- 3.3 Southern Blotting to Detect T-DNA in Tissues of Plant Material.- 3.4 DNA Labeling and Hybridization.- 3.4.1 Labeling Buffer.- 3.4.2 DNA Labeling.- 3.5 DNA Hybridization.- 3.6 Detection of T-DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).- 4 Alkaloid Extraction and Quantification.- References.- Genetic and Chemical Analysis for Alkaloids in Papaver.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Genetics of Major Opium Alkaloids and Importance of Chemical Analysis.- 2.1 Genetics of Alkaloids of Sections Papaver and Oxytona.- 2.2 Importance of Chemical Analysis.- 3 Chemical Analysis of Major Opium Alkaloids.- 3.1 Isolation of Alkaloids from Opium.- 3.2 Quantitation of Alkaloids.- 3.2.1 Gravimetric/Volumetric Methods.- 3.2.2 Colorimetric Methods.- 3.2.3 Spectrofluorimetric Determination.- 3.2.4 Thin Layer (TLC) and Paper Chromatographs (PC).- 3.2.5 Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC).- 3.2.6 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.- 4 Concluding Remarks.- References.
Series Title: Modern methods of plant analysis, v. 15.
Responsibility: edited by H.F. Linskens and J.F. Jackson ; contributors, R.A. Andersen [and others].

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