|関連の人物：||Blanche Brewer; Lillie Doyle; Mary Fonda; Hugh Fraser; Lauer family.; Sarah F Wheatley; William A Wheatley|
Howard J Anderson, Mrs; Clarence Atkins, Mrs; Ruth Richardson; Christal Thope; Ethel Waldron; Nina Austin Watts; Muriel Sibell Wolle
|注記：||The popularity of the daguerreotype declined in the late 1850s when the ambrotype, a faster and less expensive photographic process, became available.
Ambrotypes first appeared in 1854, peaked during the years of 1855-1860, and then began to decline popularity. The Ambrotype photograph was made by coating a piece of glass with silver solution and exposing this to the image. The image is on the BACK of the glass and is sandwiched with another glass behind it. The back glass is coated with a black substance. Care must be taken to not scratch the back, dark surface, as you will scratch away the photograph. Because the photograph is glass and very fragile, all Ambrotype pictures were mounted in a frame, usually brass, and then placed in protective case.
The tintype (aka ferrotype) was produced on metallic sheets (not, actually, tin) instead of glass, like the ambrotypes. The plate was coated with collodion and sensitized just before use, as in the wet plate process. It was introduced by Adolphe Alexandre Martin in 1853, and became instantly popular. The process appealed to street photographers since it was simple enough to enable one to set up business without much capital. It was much faster than other processes of the time: first, the base did not need drying, and secondly, no negative was needed, so it was a one-stage process, and cheap to produce. More durable than the ambrotypes, it could be carried about, sent in the post, or mounted in an album. The material could easily be cut up and therefore fitted into lockets, brooches, etc. The most common size was about the same as the carte-de-visite, 2 1/4'' x 3 1/2'', but both larger and smaller ones were made. The smallest were "Little Gem" tintypes, about the size of a postage-stamp. This process was significant since it made photography available to the working classes, not just to the more well-to-do. Less of a "special event", the images generally contain more relaxed and spontaneous poses. The print would come out laterally reversed (as one sees oneself in a mirror). Tintypes were eventually superseded by gelatin emulsion dry plates in the 1880s, though street photographers in various parts of the world continued with this process until the 1950s.
|コンテンツ：||Photo 1 --
Boy. Ambrotype of Gutekunst of Philadelphia, PA. Donor: Mrs. H.J. Anderson. Photo 2 --
Young man. Ambrotype. November 1858. Donor: Ruth Richardson. Photo 3 --
Woman. Ambrotype. Donor: Christal Thope. Photo 4 --
Man and woman. Ambrotype. Donor: Nina Watts. Photo 5 --
Two men. Ambrotype. Donor: Nina Watts. Photo 6 --
Girl. Ambrotype. Donor: Muriel Sibell Wolle. Photo 7 --
Woman. Ambrotype. Donor: Muriel Sibell Wolle. Photo 8 --
Young man. Ambrotype. Donor: Muriel Sibell Wolle. Photo 9 --
Young man, second pose. Ambrotype. Donor: Muriel Sibell Wolle. Photo 10 --
Woman. Tintype. Donor: Mrs. Clarence Atkins. Photo 11 --
Blanche Brewer. Tintype. Photo 12 --
Major Hugh Fraser and wife. Tintypes. Donor: Nina Watts. Photo 13 --
Lauer". Young child sitting on a woman's lap. Tintype. Photo 14 --
Three young women. Tintype. Donor: believed to have been Ethel Waldron. Photo 15 --
Lillie Doyle (right) and Sarah F. Wheatley (left). Tintype. Photo 16 --
Sarah Wheatley (standing) with a seated unidentified woman. Tintype. Photo 17 --
Sarah F. Wheatley. Tintype. Photo 18 --
William A. Wheatley. Tintype. Photo 19 --
Civil War soldier. Tintype. Photo 20 --
Civil War soldier with a drum. Tintype. Photo 21 --
Civil War soldier with a rifle. Tintype. Photo 22 --
Lillie Doyle. Tintype in a case. Photo 23 --
Mary Fonda. "Age 7 yrs. Aug. 20." Tintype in a case.