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Analytical advances for hydrocarbon research

Author: Chang S Hsu
Publisher: New York : Springer, ©2003.
Series: Modern analytical chemistry.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Bibliographic data : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Determining the composition and properties of complex hydrocarbon mixtures in petroleum, synthetic fuels, and petrochemical products usually requires a battery of analytical techniques that detect and measure specific features of the molecules, such as boiling point, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies, etc. there have always been a need for new and improved analytical technology to better understand  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition:
Material Type: Bibliographic data, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Chang S Hsu
ISBN: 9781441992123 144199212X 1461348404 9781461348405
OCLC Number: 840276802
Description: 1 online resource (484 pages).
Contents: 1. Estimation of Physical Properties and Composition of Hydrocarbon Mixtures --
1. Introduction --
2. Pure Hydrocarbons --
2.1 Generalized Correlations for Physical Properties --
2.2 Properties of Heavy Hydrocarbons --
3 Properties of Petroleum Fractions --
4. Composition of Petroleum Fractions --
4.1 Characterization Parameters for Molecular Type --
4.2 Development of Predictive Methods --
4.3 Prediction of Sulfur Content and Carbon Residue --
5. Summary --
6. Nomenclature --
7. References --
2. Advances in Elemental Analysis of Hydrocarbon Products --
1. Introduction --
2. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) --
2.1 Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) --
3. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICPAES) --
4. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS) --
5. Overview of Atomic Spectroscopic Methods --
6. Ion Chromatography (IC) --
7. Microelemental Analysis --
8. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) --
8.1 Radiochemical NAA --
9. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) --
10. Analysis of Used Oils --
11. Sulfur --
12. Concluding Remarks --
13. References --
3. Selective Detection of Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds in Low Boiling Petroleum Streams by Gas Chromatography --
1. Background --
2. Sulfur Compounds in Light Streams --
2.1 Instrumentation --
2.2 Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection System --
2.3 Gas Chromatography --
2.4 Identification of Sulfur Compounds --
2.5 Quantitation of Sulfur Compounds --
3. Nitrogen Compounds in Light Streams --
3.1 Instrumentation --
3.2 Principle of Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection --
3.3 Gas Chromatography --
3.4 Quantitation of Nitrogen Compounds --
4. Future Work --
5. References --
4. Molecular Characterization of Petroleum and Its Fractions by Mass Spectrometry --
1. Introduction --
2. Low ResolutionlHigh Ionizing Voltage Mass Spectrometric Analysis --
3. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry --
4. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) --
5. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) --
6. Future Trends --
7. References --
5. Thin-Layer Chromatography for Hydrocarbon Characterization in Petroleum Middle Distillates --
1. Analysis of Petroleum Middle Distillates --
2. Introduction to Modem Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) --
2.1 Advantages of TLC for the Analysis of Complex Mixtures --
2.2 Previous Research Done on TLC of Petroleum Products --
3. Materials, Methods and TLC Systems Used in this Research --
3.1 Samples Analyzed --
3.2 Stationary Phases --
3.3 Preparation of Berberine-Impregnated Silica Gel Plates --
3.4 Application of Samples --
3.4.1 Automatic Sample Spotter --
3.4.2 Band-sprayer Sample Applicator --
3.5 Elution of Samples --
3.5.1 Conventional Vertical Elution --
3.5.2 Horizontal Developing Chamber --
3.6 Detection by Densitometry --
3.7 TLC Systems Used --
3.7.1 Conventional TLC System --
3.7.2 High-Efficiency TLC System --
3.8 Quantification --
3.8.1 Preparative TLC --
3.9 Validation of Results --
4. Application of TLC to Characterization of Middle Distillates --
4.1 Phenomenon of Fluorescence Induced by Berberine in TLC --
4.2 HTA of Middle Distillates Using Conventional TLC System --
4.3 HTA of Gas Oils Using High-Efficiency TLC System --
5. Conclusions and Future Trends --
6. Acknowledgements --
7. References --
6. Chromatographic Analysis of Fuels --
1. Analysis of Naphthasl Motor Gasolines by Gas Chromatography --
1.1 Introduction --
1.2 Classification of GC Methods for Naphtha Analysis --
1.3 Terminology --
1.4 Single Capillary Methods --
1.5 "Pressurized" Naphtha Samples --
1.6 Multidimensional Methods --
1.7 Combination of Micropackedl/Packed PIONA and Single Capillary Column Analyses --
1.8 Capillary Column Multidimensional Systems --
1.9 Comprehensive Two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) --
1.10 Other GC Methods for Blended Gasoline Analysis --
2. Analyses of Naphtha, Motor Gasolines, Jet Fuels, Diesel Fuels and Higher Petroleum Fractions by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) and Liquid Chromatography (LC) --
2.1 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (gasolines, jet fuels and diesel fuels) --
2.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for Higher Boiling Petroleum Fractions (Lube FeedslProducts, Vacuum Gas Oils) --
2.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for Lower Boiling Petroleum Fractions (Jet Fuels, Diesels) --
2.4 Characterization of High Boiling Petroleum Fractions by Thin Layer Chromatography with FlO Detection (TLC-FID) --
3. References --
7. Temperature-Programmed Retention Indices for GC and GC-MS of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Simulated Distillation GC of Heavy Oils --
1. Introduction --
2. Experimental --
2.1 Reagents and Fuels --
2.2 Retention Index --
2.3 Chromatographic Separation of Distillate Fuels --
2.4 Solvent Extraction of Petroleum Resids --
2.5 High-temperature Simulated Distillation GC --
2.6 Quantitative Calculations from SimDis GC Data --
2.7 Hydroprocessing of Resids --
3. Results and Discussion --
3.1 GC and GC-MS of Distillate Fuels --
3.1.1 Retention Index of Model Compounds --
3.1.2 Temperature Dependence of Retention Index --
3.1.3 Dependence of Retention Index on Polarity of GC Column --
3.1.4 Characterization of JP-8 Jet Fuels Using RI --
3.1.5 Potential Applications of Temperature-Programmed RI --
3.2 SimDis GC and GC-MS of Middle Distillate Fuels --
3.3 High-Temperature SimDis GC for Petroleum Resids --
3.3.1 High-Temperature SimDis GC Method --
3.3.2 HT-SimDis GC Analysis of Resids --
3.3.3 Analysis of Upgraded Products --
4. Conclusions --
5. Acknowledgements --
6. References --
8. Mass Spectrometric Analyses for Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds in Petroleum Products and Crude Oils --
1. Introduction --
2. Analysis for Elemental Sulfur by Mass Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry --
3. Analysis of Thiophenic Compounds in Petroleum Streams by Mass Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry --
4. Monitoring Thioaromatics in Refinery Processes --
5. Monitoring Reaction Products of Elemental Sulfur with Hydrocarbons --
6. Summary --
7. References --
9. Biomarker Analysis in Petroleum Exploration --
1. Introduction --
2. Biological Markers in Oils --
3. Biomarker Analysis by GC and GC-MS --
4. GC-MS-MS Analysis of Steranes --
5. Principal Component Analysis of GC-MS and GC-MS-MS Data --
6. Future Prospectives --
7. References --
10. Applications of Light Hydrocarbon Molecular and Isotopic Compositions in Oil and Gas Exploration --
1. Introduction --
2. Methods of Analysis --
2.1 Gas Chromatography of Light Hydrocarbons (C2-C9+) --
2.2 C6-C7 Chromatographic Separations --
2.3 Compound Specific Isotopic Analysis (CSIA) --
3. Applications of Light Hydrocarbons to Petroleum Systems Analysis --
3.1 Thermal Maturity --
3.2 Oil-eondensate Correlations --
3.3 Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR) --
4. Future Directions --
5. Acknowledgements --
6. References --
11. Coupling MassSpectrometry with Liquid Chromatography for Hydrocarbon Research --
1. Introduction --
2. Mass Spectrometry Review --
3. LC-MS Interfaces --
3.1 Moving Belt (MB) Interface --
3.2 Thermospray (TSP) --
3.3 Electrospray (ESP) --
3.4 Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) --
4. Homologous Z-Series for Elemental Composition Determination --
5. LC-MS for Petroleum Fractions --
5.1 Saturates --
5.2 Aromatics --
5.3 Polars --
5.4 Resids --
6. Future Trends --
7. References --
12. Advanced Molecular Characterization by Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Petroleum and Petrochemicals --
1. Introduction --
2. Application Areas --
3. Crude Assays --
3.1 Unseparated Fractions --
3.2 Whole Crude Oils --
3.3 Saturated Hydrocarbon Fractions --
3.4 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fractions --
3.5 Olefins --
4. Corrosion --
4.1 Sulfur Compound Types --
4.2 Organic Acids --
4.3 Nitrogen Compounds --
5. Additives and Contaminants --
6. Asphalts and Non-Boiling Fractions --
7. Polymers and Residues --
8. Conclusion and Future Challenges --
9. References --
13. Chromatographic Separation and Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometric Analysis of Nitrogen, Sulfur and Oxygen Containing Compounds in Crude Oils --
1. NSO Compounds in Crude Oil --
2. General Separation Methods for Crude Oil and Related Products --
2.1 Distillation --
2.2 Adsorption Chromatography --
2.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography --
2.4 Mass Spectrometry --
3. Methods for NSO Compounds --
3.1 Separation of Acids --
3.2 Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometry of Naphthenic Acids --
3.3 Separation of Nitrogen and Oxygen Compounds --
3.4 Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometry of Nitrogen-containing Compounds --
3.5 Separation of Organosulfur Compounds --
3.6 Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometry of Organosulfur Compounds --
4. Acknowledgements --
5. References --
14. Characterization of Heavy Oils and Heavy Ends --
1. Introduction --
2. Heavy OilslHeavy Ends Separation and Characterization Schemes --
2.1 Chemical Methods --
2.1 Hyphenated Techniques --
2.3 Selective/Specific Element Detection --
2.4 Fraction Separation --
2.5 Mathematical Algorithms --
2.6 Other Characterization Schemes for HC, XHC and Heavy Ends --
3. Illustrative Examples on the Characterization of HC. XHC and Heavy Ends --
3.1 SARA Group-type Analysis --
3.2 Studies on XHC and Isolated ABAN Fractions. One Application of Average Molecular Representations --
3.3 Estimation of Crude Oil and Heavy Ends Quality Parameters Using Neural Network Algorithms --
4. Conclusions --
5. Acknowledgements --
6. Glossary of Frequent Referred Terms --
7. References --
15. Advances in NMR Techniques for Hydrocarbon Characterization --
1. Introduction --
2. Discussion --
2.1 Availability of Higher Magnetic Field Strengths Provides Increased Sensitivity and Resolution --
2.2 Improvements in Sensitivity form Higher Magnetic Fields and New Probe Designs Facilitate Further Development of On-line Coupling with Separation Techniques --
2.3"Chromatography in a NMR Tube": --
Spectral Editing with Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) Techniques Improves Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixture.
Series Title: Modern analytical chemistry.
Responsibility: edited by Chang Samuel Hsu.

Abstract:

Determining the composition and properties of complex hydrocarbon mixtures in petroleum, synthetic fuels, and petrochemical products usually requires a battery of analytical techniques that detect  Read more...

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   schema:description "1. Estimation of Physical Properties and Composition of Hydrocarbon Mixtures -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Pure Hydrocarbons -- 2.1 Generalized Correlations for Physical Properties -- 2.2 Properties of Heavy Hydrocarbons -- 3 Properties of Petroleum Fractions -- 4. Composition of Petroleum Fractions -- 4.1 Characterization Parameters for Molecular Type -- 4.2 Development of Predictive Methods -- 4.3 Prediction of Sulfur Content and Carbon Residue -- 5. Summary -- 6. Nomenclature -- 7. References -- 2. Advances in Elemental Analysis of Hydrocarbon Products -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) -- 2.1 Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) -- 3. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICPAES) -- 4. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS) -- 5. Overview of Atomic Spectroscopic Methods -- 6. Ion Chromatography (IC) -- 7. Microelemental Analysis -- 8. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) -- 8.1 Radiochemical NAA -- 9. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) -- 10. Analysis of Used Oils -- 11. Sulfur -- 12. Concluding Remarks -- 13. References -- 3. Selective Detection of Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds in Low Boiling Petroleum Streams by Gas Chromatography -- 1. Background -- 2. Sulfur Compounds in Light Streams -- 2.1 Instrumentation -- 2.2 Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection System -- 2.3 Gas Chromatography -- 2.4 Identification of Sulfur Compounds -- 2.5 Quantitation of Sulfur Compounds -- 3. Nitrogen Compounds in Light Streams -- 3.1 Instrumentation -- 3.2 Principle of Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection -- 3.3 Gas Chromatography -- 3.4 Quantitation of Nitrogen Compounds -- 4. Future Work -- 5. References -- 4. Molecular Characterization of Petroleum and Its Fractions by Mass Spectrometry -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Low ResolutionlHigh Ionizing Voltage Mass Spectrometric Analysis -- 3. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry -- 4. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) -- 5. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) -- 6. Future Trends -- 7. References -- 5. Thin-Layer Chromatography for Hydrocarbon Characterization in Petroleum Middle Distillates -- 1. Analysis of Petroleum Middle Distillates -- 2. Introduction to Modem Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) -- 2.1 Advantages of TLC for the Analysis of Complex Mixtures -- 2.2 Previous Research Done on TLC of Petroleum Products -- 3. Materials, Methods and TLC Systems Used in this Research -- 3.1 Samples Analyzed -- 3.2 Stationary Phases -- 3.3 Preparation of Berberine-Impregnated Silica Gel Plates -- 3.4 Application of Samples -- 3.4.1 Automatic Sample Spotter -- 3.4.2 Band-sprayer Sample Applicator -- 3.5 Elution of Samples -- 3.5.1 Conventional Vertical Elution -- 3.5.2 Horizontal Developing Chamber -- 3.6 Detection by Densitometry -- 3.7 TLC Systems Used -- 3.7.1 Conventional TLC System -- 3.7.2 High-Efficiency TLC System -- 3.8 Quantification -- 3.8.1 Preparative TLC -- 3.9 Validation of Results -- 4. Application of TLC to Characterization of Middle Distillates -- 4.1 Phenomenon of Fluorescence Induced by Berberine in TLC -- 4.2 HTA of Middle Distillates Using Conventional TLC System -- 4.3 HTA of Gas Oils Using High-Efficiency TLC System -- 5. Conclusions and Future Trends -- 6. Acknowledgements -- 7. References -- 6. Chromatographic Analysis of Fuels -- 1. Analysis of Naphthasl Motor Gasolines by Gas Chromatography -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Classification of GC Methods for Naphtha Analysis -- 1.3 Terminology -- 1.4 Single Capillary Methods -- 1.5 "Pressurized" Naphtha Samples -- 1.6 Multidimensional Methods -- 1.7 Combination of Micropackedl/Packed PIONA and Single Capillary Column Analyses -- 1.8 Capillary Column Multidimensional Systems -- 1.9 Comprehensive Two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) -- 1.10 Other GC Methods for Blended Gasoline Analysis -- 2. Analyses of Naphtha, Motor Gasolines, Jet Fuels, Diesel Fuels and Higher Petroleum Fractions by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) and Liquid Chromatography (LC) -- 2.1 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (gasolines, jet fuels and diesel fuels) -- 2.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for Higher Boiling Petroleum Fractions (Lube FeedslProducts, Vacuum Gas Oils) -- 2.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for Lower Boiling Petroleum Fractions (Jet Fuels, Diesels) -- 2.4 Characterization of High Boiling Petroleum Fractions by Thin Layer Chromatography with FlO Detection (TLC-FID) -- 3. References -- 7. Temperature-Programmed Retention Indices for GC and GC-MS of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Simulated Distillation GC of Heavy Oils -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Experimental -- 2.1 Reagents and Fuels -- 2.2 Retention Index -- 2.3 Chromatographic Separation of Distillate Fuels -- 2.4 Solvent Extraction of Petroleum Resids -- 2.5 High-temperature Simulated Distillation GC -- 2.6 Quantitative Calculations from SimDis GC Data -- 2.7 Hydroprocessing of Resids -- 3. Results and Discussion -- 3.1 GC and GC-MS of Distillate Fuels -- 3.1.1 Retention Index of Model Compounds -- 3.1.2 Temperature Dependence of Retention Index -- 3.1.3 Dependence of Retention Index on Polarity of GC Column -- 3.1.4 Characterization of JP-8 Jet Fuels Using RI -- 3.1.5 Potential Applications of Temperature-Programmed RI -- 3.2 SimDis GC and GC-MS of Middle Distillate Fuels -- 3.3 High-Temperature SimDis GC for Petroleum Resids -- 3.3.1 High-Temperature SimDis GC Method -- 3.3.2 HT-SimDis GC Analysis of Resids -- 3.3.3 Analysis of Upgraded Products -- 4. Conclusions -- 5. Acknowledgements -- 6. References -- 8. Mass Spectrometric Analyses for Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds in Petroleum Products and Crude Oils -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Analysis for Elemental Sulfur by Mass Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry -- 3. Analysis of Thiophenic Compounds in Petroleum Streams by Mass Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry -- 4. Monitoring Thioaromatics in Refinery Processes -- 5. Monitoring Reaction Products of Elemental Sulfur with Hydrocarbons -- 6. Summary -- 7. References -- 9. Biomarker Analysis in Petroleum Exploration -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Biological Markers in Oils -- 3. Biomarker Analysis by GC and GC-MS -- 4. GC-MS-MS Analysis of Steranes -- 5. Principal Component Analysis of GC-MS and GC-MS-MS Data -- 6. Future Prospectives -- 7. References -- 10. Applications of Light Hydrocarbon Molecular and Isotopic Compositions in Oil and Gas Exploration -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methods of Analysis -- 2.1 Gas Chromatography of Light Hydrocarbons (C2-C9+) -- 2.2 C6-C7 Chromatographic Separations -- 2.3 Compound Specific Isotopic Analysis (CSIA) -- 3. Applications of Light Hydrocarbons to Petroleum Systems Analysis -- 3.1 Thermal Maturity -- 3.2 Oil-eondensate Correlations -- 3.3 Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR) -- 4. Future Directions -- 5. Acknowledgements -- 6. References -- 11. Coupling MassSpectrometry with Liquid Chromatography for Hydrocarbon Research -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Mass Spectrometry Review -- 3. LC-MS Interfaces -- 3.1 Moving Belt (MB) Interface -- 3.2 Thermospray (TSP) -- 3.3 Electrospray (ESP) -- 3.4 Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) -- 4. Homologous Z-Series for Elemental Composition Determination -- 5. LC-MS for Petroleum Fractions -- 5.1 Saturates -- 5.2 Aromatics -- 5.3 Polars -- 5.4 Resids -- 6. Future Trends -- 7. References -- 12. Advanced Molecular Characterization by Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Petroleum and Petrochemicals -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Application Areas -- 3. Crude Assays -- 3.1 Unseparated Fractions -- 3.2 Whole Crude Oils -- 3.3 Saturated Hydrocarbon Fractions -- 3.4 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fractions -- 3.5 Olefins -- 4. Corrosion -- 4.1 Sulfur Compound Types -- 4.2 Organic Acids -- 4.3 Nitrogen Compounds -- 5. Additives and Contaminants -- 6. Asphalts and Non-Boiling Fractions -- 7. Polymers and Residues -- 8. Conclusion and Future Challenges -- 9. References -- 13. Chromatographic Separation and Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometric Analysis of Nitrogen, Sulfur and Oxygen Containing Compounds in Crude Oils -- 1. NSO Compounds in Crude Oil -- 2. General Separation Methods for Crude Oil and Related Products -- 2.1 Distillation -- 2.2 Adsorption Chromatography -- 2.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography -- 2.4 Mass Spectrometry -- 3. Methods for NSO Compounds -- 3.1 Separation of Acids -- 3.2 Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometry of Naphthenic Acids -- 3.3 Separation of Nitrogen and Oxygen Compounds -- 3.4 Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometry of Nitrogen-containing Compounds -- 3.5 Separation of Organosulfur Compounds -- 3.6 Atmospheric Pressure IonizationlMass Spectrometry of Organosulfur Compounds -- 4. Acknowledgements -- 5. References -- 14. Characterization of Heavy Oils and Heavy Ends -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Heavy OilslHeavy Ends Separation and Characterization Schemes -- 2.1 Chemical Methods -- 2.1 Hyphenated Techniques -- 2.3 Selective/Specific Element Detection -- 2.4 Fraction Separation -- 2.5 Mathematical Algorithms -- 2.6 Other Characterization Schemes for HC, XHC and Heavy Ends -- 3. Illustrative Examples on the Characterization of HC. XHC and Heavy Ends -- 3.1 SARA Group-type Analysis -- 3.2 Studies on XHC and Isolated ABAN Fractions. One Application of Average Molecular Representations -- 3.3 Estimation of Crude Oil and Heavy Ends Quality Parameters Using Neural Network Algorithms -- 4. Conclusions -- 5. Acknowledgements -- 6. Glossary of Frequent Referred Terms -- 7. References -- 15. Advances in NMR Techniques for Hydrocarbon Characterization -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Discussion -- 2.1 Availability of Higher Magnetic Field Strengths Provides Increased Sensitivity and Resolution -- 2.2 Improvements in Sensitivity form Higher Magnetic Fields and New Probe Designs Facilitate Further Development of On-line Coupling with Separation Techniques -- 2.3"Chromatography in a NMR Tube": -- Spectral Editing with Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) Techniques Improves Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixture."@en ;
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