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Aquaculture desk reference

Author: R LeRoy Creswell
Publisher: New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, ©1993.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Today's expanding field of aquaculture requires data and techniques from a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including marine and aquatic sciences, chemistry, animal nutrition, engineering, and mathematics. Since this information is typically found only in texts and technical reports specific to each discipline, it can be very time-consuming for aquaculturists to access the facts they need. Aquaculture Desk  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Handbooks and manuals
Handbooks, manuals, etc
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: R LeRoy Creswell
ISBN: 0442010818 9780442010812
OCLC Number: 26161631
Notes: "An AVI book."
Description: ix, 206 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm
Contents: I. Conversions and Equivalents.- 1-1: Temperature Equivalents - Centigrade to Farenheit.- 1-2: Temperature Equivalents - Farenheit to Centigrade.- 1-3: Conversions for Units of Weight.- 1-4: Conversions for Units of Length.- 1-5: Conversions for Units of Volume.- 1-6: Conversions for Units of Velocity.- 1-7: Conversions for Units of Energy.- 1-8: Conversions for Units of Power.- 1-9: Conversion Factors of Radiant Energy, Power, and Intensity Units.- 1-10: Conversion Factors for Illumination.- 1-11: Conversions for Pressure Equivalents.- 1-12: Converting Water Pressure to Feet Head.- 1-13: Converting Feet Head of Water to PSI.- 1-14: Decimal Equivalents Fractions.- 1-15: Multipliers for Conversion of Units.- 1-16: Treatment Conversion Chart.- 1-17: Geometric Formulas.- 1-18: Water Volumes and Capacities of Circular Tanks.- 1-19: Calculating the Volume of a Cone-Bottomed Tank.- II. Water Chemistry.- 2-1: Basic Information on Common Elements.- 2-2: Basic Information on Common Inorganic Chemicals Used in Water Treatment.- 2-3: Surface Water Criteria for Public Water Supplies.- 2-4: Common Radicals Encountered in Freshwater.- 2-5: Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) for Fresh Water in Equilibrium With Air at Altitude.- 2-6: Density of Freshwater at Different Temperatures.- 2-7: Corresponding Densities and Salinities.- 2-8: Differences to Convert Hydrometer Readings at Any Temperature to Density.- 2-9: Air Solubility of Oxygen (mg/1) in Seawater.- 2-10: Seawater Properties as a Function of Temperature and Salinity.- 2-11: Mole Fraction of Un-Ionized Ammonia: 0-5 g/kg Salinity.- 2-12: Mole Fraction of Un-Ionized Ammonia: 5-40 g/kg Salinity.- 2-13: Solubility of Nitrogen in Water at Different Temperatures and Salinities From Moist Air With Pressure.- 2-14: Vapor Pressure of Pure Water at Different Temperatures.- 2-15: Percentage Un-Ionized Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous Solution at Different pH Values and Temperatures.- 2-16: Factors for Converting Total Alkalinity to Milligrams of Available Carbon per Liter.- 2-17: Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Different Temperatures and Salinities from Moist Air With Pressure of 760 mm Hg.- 2-18: Elemental Composition of Seawater.- III. Enrichment Formulations.- 3-1: Salt Concentrations for the Modified Segedi-Kelley Medium Formula.- 3-2: Ott's Artificial Seawater.- 3-3: Instant Ocean (TM) Artificial Seawater Mixture.- 3-4: Salt Concentrations for the GP Medium Formula.- 3-5: Gates and Wilson's NH Artificial Seawater Medium.- 3-6: Bolds Basal Medium.- 3-7: BBM Trace Metal Stock Solution.- 3-8: Chu 10 Freshwater Medium pH 6.5-7.0.- 3-9: Modified Chu No. 10 Solution.- 3-10: Modified Chu No. 10 Trace Element Solution.- 3-11: Hughes, Gorham, and Zehnder's Medium.- 3-12: Gaffron's Trace-Element Solution.- 3-13: Allen's Modification of Hughes, Gorham, and Zehnder's Medium.- 3-14: Allen's Trace-Element Solution.- 3-15: Rodhe VIII pH 7.0-7.5 Freshwater Medium.- 3-16: Waris pH 6.0 Freshwater Medium.- 3-17: Bozniak Community pH 8.0 Freshwater Medium.- 3-18: CG 10 pH 8.0 Freshwater Medium.- 3-19: Beijerinck pH 6.8 Freshwater Medium.- 3-20: Woods Hole MBL pH 7.2 Freshwater Medium.- 3-21: Volvox pH 7.0 Freshwater Medium.- 3-22: Concentrations of Additives in Defined Freshwater Media.- 3-23: Provasoli's Enriched Seawater.- 3-24: "F" Enriched Seater Media.- 3-25: Modified "F" Medium.- 3-26: Formula of Walne Medium for Algae Culture.- 3-27: Erdschreiber Medium.- 3-28: Enriched Seawater Media.- 3-29: Effects of Materials on Algal Cultures.- 3-30: Specific Growth Rates of Algae Cultured at Low and High Temperatures (Marine and Freshwater Strains).- 3-31: Representative Light Saturation Values for Macroalgae.- 3-32: General Lighting Specification for Marine Macroalgae Using Cool White Flourescent Lamps.- 3-33: Technical Data on Light Bulbs.- 3-34: Comparative Characteristics of the Physiological Effectiveness of Various Incandescent Lamps.- 3-35: Comparative Characteristics of the Physiological Effectiveness of Fluorescent and Mercury Lamps.- 3-36: Using a Hemacytometer to Determine Phytoplankton Density.- IV. Hatchery Systems and Methods.- 4-1: Preliminary Water Quality Screen and Production Levels for Marine Applications.- 4-2: Suggested Chemical Values for Hatchery Water Supplies (fresh).- 4-3: Threshold of Toxicity and Maximum Permissible Concentration of Toxic Substances in the Water Supply of Indoor Fish Hatcheries.- 4-4: Filtration Equipment for Use With Seawater Systems.- 4-5: Sieve Separations of 16 Graded Test Sands.- 4-6: Disinfectants and Their Application.- 4-7: Ultraviolet Energy of 2537 A Wave-Length to Inhibit Colony Formation in 90 and 100% of Test Organisms.- 4-8: Ultraviolet Energy for 100% Kill.- 4-9: Sizes and MLD of UV Radiation for Some Microorganisms Free-Living or Parasitic in Aquarium or Hatchery Water.- 4-10: Biological Activity of Antiobiotics Commonly Used in Aquaculture.- 4-11: Stability and Activity of Antibiotics Commonly Used in Aquaculture.- 4-12: Temperature Optima for Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter.- 4-13: The pH Ranges Giving the Best Nitrification Rates for Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter.- 4-14: Growth Requirements and Toxicity of Various Compounds to Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas.- 4-15: Effects of Commonly Used Antibacterial Agents and Parasiticides on Nitrification in Freshwater Aquariums at Therapeutic Levels.- 4-16: Sea Salt Quantities Needed to Adjust Freshwater to the Desired Salinity Level in a Recirculating System.- 4-17: Sea Water and Pump Requirements for Different Penaeid Hatchery Capacities.- 4-18: Compressed Air Requirements for Different Penaeid Hatchery Capacities.- 4-19: Area Requirements of a Penaeid Hatchery Installation for Different Capacities.- 4-20: Methods for Decapsulating Artemia Cysts.- 4-21: Size and Individual Dry Weight of Artemia Nauplii Hatched in Standard Conditons From Different Cyst Sources.- 4-22: Improved Hatching Quality of Artemia Cysts as a Result of Decapsulation.- 4-23: Data on Hatching Efficiency, Hatching Percentage, Hatching Rate, Hatching Output, Individiual Dry Weight and Energy Content of Artemia Nauplii Hatched in Standard Conditions.- 4-24: Representative Biochemical and Nutritional Information for Newly Hatched Artemia salina Nauplii.- 4-25: Diet for Enrichment and Artemia Production.- 4-26: Percent Composition of the 6 Major Fatty Acids in Cultured Artemia.- 4-27: Milliliters of Water Displaced by 50 Eggs Converted to Number of Eggs per Fluid Ounce.- 4-28: Modified Von Bayer Table for the Estimation of the Numbers of Fish Eggs in a Liquid Quart.- 4-29: Pollution Load Measured as Biological Oxygen Demand.- 4-30: Some Oxygen Consumption Values for Farmed Fish.- 4-31: Typical Oxygen Transfer Rates of Various Devices Used in Fish Culture Systems.- 4-32: Aeration Effectiveness of Typical Gravity Aerators.- 4-33: Typical Standardized Aerator Efficiency and Equivalent Aeration Depths for Aerators Used in Aquaculture.- 4-34: Transport Conditions for Various Fish Species.- 4-35: Recommended Loading Rates for Transporting Fish Without Artificial Aeration.- 4-36: Typical Packing Densities and Shipping Durations for Various Shrimp Stages.- 4-37: Concentrations of Some Drugs Used to Tranquilize Fish for Transport.- V. Plumbing and Materials.- 5-1: PVC Pipe Specifications - Schedule 40.- 5-2: PVC Pipe Specifications - Schedule 80.- 5-3: Estimated Solvent Cement Requirements.- 5-4: Drill Sizes for Pipe Taps.- 5-5: Tap and Drill Sizes.- 5-6: Recommended Support Spacing in Feet for PVC Pipe.- 5-7: Symbols Used to Designate Standard Pipe Fittings.- 5-8: Loss Coefficients for Standard Pipe Fittings.- 5-9: Values of L/D Ratios for Selected Fittings.- 5-10: Frictional Losses in Plastic Schedule 80 Pipes.- 5-11: Frictional Losses for Air as a Function of Flow and Pipe Size.- 5-12: Discharge of Air Through an Orifice Under Pressure.- 5-13: Row Rate, Q for Airlift Pumps as a Function of Length and Diameter at 5-Submergence Values.- 5-14: Pump Selection: Shallow Wells, Low Pressure.- 5-15: Pump Selection: Shallow Wells, High Presssure.- 5-16: Pumps for Lifting Water From More Than 25 Feet Depth.- 5-17: The Physical Properties of Various Rigid Mesh Materials Used in Cage Fabrication.- 5-18: Specifications of 7-Strand Galvanized Steel Cable.- 5-19: Specifications of Open Link Proof Steel Chain.- 5-20: Characteristics of Synthetic Fibres.- 5-21: Comparative Properties of Three-Strand Fibre Ropes.- 5-22: Mass and Breaking Strength of Common Braided and Three Strand Laid Synthetic Fiber Ropes.- 5-23: Summary of Mechanical Properties of Bamboo, Compared with Timber, Concrete and Steel.- 5-24: Approximate Densities of Common Materials.- 5-25: Heat Transfer Coefficients (U) for Common Construction Materials.- 5-26: Fixing Coefficient, K, of Sandbag Anchors on Different Substrates and Varying Mooring Cable Length Water to Depth Ratio.- 5-27: The Fixing Coefficient, K, of Kedge-Type Anchors on Different Substrates and Varying Cable Length:Water Depth Ratios.- VI. Feeds and Nutrition.- 6-1: Recommended Amounts of Food to Feed Rainbow Trout for Different Sizes and Water Temperatures in Intensive Culture Systems.- 6-2: Feeding Chart for Tilapia Cultured in Semi-Intensive, and Polyculture Systems.- 6-3: Feeding Chart for Channel Catfish as Percentage of Body Weight per Day.- 6-4: Feeding Chart for Common Carp Cultured in Ponds During Summer.- 6-5: Published Feeding Tables for Marine Shrimp.- 6-6: Dietary Protein Requirement of Fish and Shrimp.- 6-7: Calculated Dietary Essential Amino Acid Requirements of Fish and Shrimp at Varying Dietary Protein Levels.- 6-8: Recommended Dietary Nutrient Levels for Omnivorous Fish Species.- 6-9: Recommended Dietary Nutrient Levels for Carnivorous Fish Species.- 6-10: Recommended Dietary Nutrient Levels for Omnivorous Shrimp Species.- 6-11: Recommended Dietary Nutrient Levels for Carnivorous Shrimp Species.- 6-12: Average Proximate Composition of the Major Oilseeds and Their By-Products.- 6-13: Average Essential Amino Acid Composition of the Major Oilseeds and Their By-Products.- 6-14: Average Fatty Acid Composition of the Major Oilseed and Plant By-Product Oils.- 6-15: Average Proximate Composition of Grass, Green Fodder Crops, and Some Miscellaneous Plant Feedstuffs.- 6-16: Average Essential Amino Acid Composition of the Major Grass and Green Fodder Crops and Some Selected Miscellaneous Plant Feedstuff.- 6-17: Average Proximate Composition of Selected Invertebrate Food Organisms.- 6-18: Average Essential Amino Acid Composition of Selected Invertebrate Food Organisms.- 6-19: Average Proximate Composition of the Major Root Crops and Their By-products.- 6-20: Average Essential Amino Acid Composition of the Major Root Crops and Their By-products.- 6-21: Average Proximate Composition of the Major Edible Fruits and Their By-products.- 6-22: Average Proximate Composition of the Major Aquatic Macrophytes Used for Aquaculture Feeding.- 6-23: Average Essential Amino Acid Composition of Some Aquatic Macrophytes.- 6-24: Average Proximate Composition of the Major Cereal Grains and Their By-products.- 6-25: Average Essential Amino Acid Composition of the Major Cereal Grains and Their By-products.- 6-26: Average Proximate Composition of the Single-Cell Proteins.- 6-27: Average Proximate Composition of Selected Animal By-Products.- 6-28: Average Essential Amino Acid Composition of Selected Animal By-Products.- 6-29: Binding Agents Used in Steam Pelleted Aquaculture Feeds.- 6-30: Food and Drug Administration Action Levels for Toxic or Deleterious Substances in Finished Animal Feeds.- 6-31: Proximate Analysis of Organisms Serving as Food for Pond Fishes.- VII. Aquaculture Ponds.- 7-1: Soil Classification After BFAR-UNDP/FAO.- 7-2: Classification of Soil Particles According to the International System and the United States Department of Agriculture System.- 7-3: Settlement Allowance for Different Soil Condition.- 7-4: Permissible Canal Velocities.- 7-5: Permissible Velocities for Open Channels Lined With Vegetation.- 7-6: End Areas in Square Feet of Embankment Sections for Different Side Slopes and Top Widths.- 7-7: Volume of Earth Needed for an Earthfill Dam Using "Sum-of-End-Areas" Method.- 7-8: Recommended Side Slopes and Top Width of Pond Dikes.- 7-9: Minimum Crown Width, in Feet as Related to Height of Pond Embankments.- 7-10: Size of Outlet Pipes for Various Sizes of Pond.- 7-11: Characteristic Dimensions of Optimum Trapezoidal Channel for Given Cross-Sectional Area and Side Slope.- 7-12: Relation Between Head and Discharge for Cippoletti and Rectangular Weirs.- 7-13: Discharge Through Cipolletti Trapezoidal Weir With End Contractions.- 7-14: Discharge Through A 90 Triangular Weir.- 7-15: Discharge Through a Parshall Flume Under Free Flow.- 7-16: Discharge From a Rectangular Weir With Full End Contractions.- 7-17: Rates of Flow Through Ditch-to-Furrow Pipes for Various Heads.- 7-18: Rates of Flow Through Ditch-to-Furrow Siphons for Various Heads.- 7-19: Acre-Feet Equivalent to a Given Number of Second-Feet Flowing for a Given Length of Time.- 7-20: Estimated Lime Requirement Needed to Increase the Total Hardness and Alkalinity of Pond Water to 20 mg/l or Greater.- 7-21: Lime Requirements of Bottom Muds Based on pH and Texture of Mud.- 7-22: Chemical Compounds Commonly Used to Disinfect Pond Bottoms and Eliminate Predators.- 7-23: Amount of Cube, Derris, or Emulsifiable Rotenone Required to Kill Fish in Ponds of Various Sizes and Depths.- 7-24: Nitrogen Fertilizers for Pond Enrichment.- 7-25: Fertilization Regimes Utilized in Shrimp Ponds.- 7-26: Average Elemental Composition of Organic Manures.- 7-27: Composition of Fresh Manure From Various Animal Species.- 7-28: Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Aquatic Macrophytes Compared With Animal Wastes.- 7-29: The 24 Hour Biochemical Oxygen Demand for Various Inputs Into Pond Culture of Fish.- 7-30: Critical Secchi Disc Depths for 1-Meter Deep Fish Pond as a Function of Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Concentration at Dusk.- 7-31: Predicted Gains and Losses of Dissolved Oxygen Because of Diffusion From a Fish Pond During the Night Based on Observed Oxygen Saturation at Dusk.- VIII. Chemicals and Treatments.- 8-1: Summary of Chemicals Used to Control Diseases and Parasites of Warmwater Fishes.- 8-2: Possible Treatments for Common Parasites of Warmwater Fish.- 8-3: Some Chemical Herbicides With Recommended Dosages for Aquatic Use.- 8-4: Agriculture Chemcial Toxicity to Selected Aquatic Animals.- 8-5: Suggested Safe Levels for Some Pesticides for Aquatic Life.- 8-6: Toxicity of Selected Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides to Aquatic Life.- 8-7: Maximum Permissible Pesticide Concentrations Which May Be Tolerated by Fish.- 8-8: Toxicity of Selected Heavy Metals to Aquatic Life.- References.
Responsibility: R. LeRoy Creswell.


This resource provides aquaculturists and growers with easy access to information they need both in planning aquaculture projects and in the day-to-day operation of aquaculture facilities.  Read more...


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