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Archaeological soil and sediment micromorphology

Author: Cristiano Nicosia; Georges Stoops
Publisher: Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017. ©2017
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology goes beyond a mere review of current literature and features the most up to date contributions from numerous scientists working in the field. The book  Read more...

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Archaeological soil and sediment micromorphology.
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2017
(DLC) 2017013126
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Cristiano Nicosia; Georges Stoops
ISBN: 9781118941058 1118941055
OCLC Number: 978252189
Description: xix, 476 pages ; 29 cm
Contents: Contributors xiii Referees xvii Abbreviations xix Introduction 1Georges Stoops and Cristiano Nicosia I.1 Aims and Structure of the Book 1 I.2 Definition and History of Soil Micromorphology 1 I.3 Micromorphology and Archaeology 2 I.4 Use of Micromorphology in Geoarchaeology 2 I.5 Techniques 4 I.6 Concluding Remarks 5 References 5 Part I: Inclusions in Archaeological Soils and Sediments 9 1 Bone and Other Skeletal Tissues 11Ximena S. Villagran, Dirk J. Huisman, Susan M. Mentzer, Christopher E. Miller and Miranda M. Jans 1.1 Introduction 11 1.2 Micromorphology 11 1.3 Taphonomy of Bone 20 1.4 Guidelines for Micromorphological Analysis 32 References 33 2 Avian Eggshell 39Matthew G. Canti 2.1 Introduction 39 2.2 Biological Characteristics 39 2.3 Optical and Morphological Properties 39 2.4 Examples 39 2.5 Conclusions 39 References 41 3 Mollusc Shell 43Matthew G. Canti 3.1 Biological Characteristics 43 3.2 Optical and Morphological Properties 43 3.3 Examples 43 3.4 Conclusions 46 References 46 4 Biospheroids Produced by Earthworms 47Matthew G. Canti 4.1 Introduction 47 4.2 Morphological and Optical Characteristics 47 4.3 Preservation Potential 47 4.4 Archaeological Examples 47 4.5 Arion Granules 49 References 49 5 Faecal Spherulites 51Matthew G. Canti and Jacques Elie Brochier 5.1 Introduction 51 5.2 Biological Characteristics 51 5.3 Optical Characteristics 51 5.4 Preservation Potential 53 5.5 Archaeological Examples 53 References 54 6 Excrements of Herbivores 55David Broennimann, Kristin Ismail Meyer, Philippe Rentzel, Christine Pumpin and Lenka Lisa 6.1 Introduction 55 6.2 Micromorphology 55 6.3 Taphonomy 60 References 63 7 Excrements of Omnivores and Carnivores 67David Broennimann, Christine Pumpin, Kristin Ismail Meyer, Philippe Rentzel and Natalia Eguez 7.1 Introduction 67 7.2 Excrements of Omnivores 67 7.3 Excrements of Carnivores 69 7.4 Human Excrements 75 7.5 Future Research 77 References 78 8 Guano 83Panagiotis Karkanas 8.1 Introduction 83 8.2 Micromorphology 83 8.3 Archaeological Implications 86 8.4 Future Prospects 87 References 87 9 Ova of Intestinal Parasites 91Christine Pumpin, Matthieu Le Bailly and Sandra Pichler 9.1 Introduction 91 9.2 Characteristics of Specific Parasite Eggs 91 9.3 Limitations of the Study of Helminth Eggs in Micromorphological Thin Sections 94 9.4 Conclusion 96 References 96 10 Earth Construction Materials 99David E. Friesem, Julia Wattez and Marylise Onfray 10.1 Introduction 99 10.2 Mud Bricks 99 10.3 Cob 102 10.4 Wattle and Daub 104 10.5 Conclusion 106 References 107 11 Laterite as Construction Material 111Georges Stoops References 112 12 Turf as Construction Material 113Dirk J. Huisman and Karen B. Milek 12.1 Introduction 113 12.2 Micromorphology 114 References 118 13 Plant Remains 121Kristin Ismail Meyer 13.1 Introduction 121 13.2 Micromorphology 122 13.3 Future Prospects 130 References 133 14 Chaff 137Cristiano Nicosia and Matthew G. Canti 14.1 Introduction 137 14.2 Micromorphology 137 14.3 Conclusion 139 References 139 15 Charred Plant Remains 141Matthew G. Canti References 142 16 Coal 143Matthew G. Canti 16.1 Introduction 143 16.2 Types of Coal (after Read 1971) 143 16.3 Optical and Morphological Properties 143 16.4 Alteration of Coal by Burning 144 16.5 Archaeological Examples 144 16.6 Conclusions 145 References 145 17 Plant Ash 147Natthew G. Canti and Jacques Elie Brochier 17.1 Introduction 147 17.2 Micromorphology 147 17.3 Ash Taphonomy 152 References 153 18 Opal Phytoliths 155Luc Vrydaghs, Yannick Devos and Akos Pet 18.1 Introduction 155 18.2 Micromorphology 155 18.3 Brief Review of Previous Micromorphological Studies Reporting Phytoliths 157 18.4 Deposition and Accumulation in Archaeological Units 157 References 160 19 Siliceous Microfossils from Single Celled Organisms: Diatoms and Chrysophycean Stomatocysts 165Elie Verleyen, Koen Sabbe, Wim Vyverman and Cristiano Nicosia 19.1 Introduction 165 19.2 Habitat Preferences of Diatoms and Chrysophycean Cysts 165 19.3 Identification of Siliceous Microfossils produced by Single Celled Organisms 165 19.4 Siliceous Microfossils from Single Celled Organisms in Archaeological Soil Micromorphology 168 References 168 20 Opal Sponge Spicules 171Luc Vrydaghs 20.1 Introduction 171 20.2 Micromorphology 171 References 172 21 Burnt Soils and Sediments 173Astrid Roepke and Carlo Dietl 21.1 Introduction 173 21.2 Physical,Chemical, Mineralogical and Micromorphological Changes 173 21.3 Experiments at Different Temperature Regimes 175 21.4 Conclusion 177 References 178 22 Burnt Carbonates 181Matthew G. Canti 22.1 Introduction 181 22.2 Thermal Diagenesis of Carbonate Materials 181 22.3 Carbonate Materials from Different Temperature Regimes 181 22.4 Archaeological Examples 183 22.5 Conclusions 183 References 188 23 Calcareous Mortars, Plasters and Floors 189Georges Stoops, Matthew G. Canti and Selim Kapur 23.1 Introduction 189 23.2 Micromorphology 189 23.3 Alteration of Mortars and Plasters 196 23.4 Conclusion 197 References 197 24 Gypsic Mortars and Plasters 201Georges Stoops, Alexander Tsatskin and Matthew G. Canti 24.1 Introduction 201 24.2 Micromorphology 201 24.3 Alteration 203 24.4 Conclusion 203 References 204 25 Ceramic Materials 205Lara Maritan 25.1 Introduction 205 25.2 Micromorphology 205 25.3 Conclusion 210 References 210 26 Metals and Metalworking Residues 213Ivana Angelini, Gilberto Artioli and Cristiano Nicosia 26.1 Introduction 213 26.2 Micromorphology 214 26.3 Conclusions 220 References 221 27 Lithic Artefacts 223Diego E. Angelucci 27.1 Introduction 223 27.2 Micromorphology 224 27.3 Discussion 226 References 229 Part II Current Topics in Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology 231 28 Soils Disturbed by Vegetation Clearance and Tillage 233Judit Deak, Anne Gebhardt, Helen Lewis, Maria Raimonda Usai, and Heejin Lee 28.1 Introduction 233 28.2 Micromorphological Features related to Vegetation Clearance by Fire 235 28.3 Micromorphological Features Indicative of Bare Surfaces 238 28.4 Micromorphology of Structural and Textural Features Revealing the use of Implements 247 28.5 Final Remarks 259 References 259 29 Animal Gathering Enclosures 265Ruth Shahack Gross 29.1 Introduction 265 29.2 Organic Rich Dung Deposits 267 29.3 Organic Poor Dung Deposits 270 29.4 Conclusion 275 References 279 30 Trampling, Poaching and the Effect of Traffic 281Philippe Rentzel, Cristiano Nicosia, Anne Gebhardt, David Broennimann, Christine Pumpin and Kristin Ismail Meyer 30.1 Introduction 281 30.2 Trampling 281 30.3 Poaching 286 30.4 Traffic 287 30.5 Experimentally Trampled Sediments and Surfaces 287 30.6 Conclusion 293 References 295 31 Combustion Features 299Carolina Mallol, Susan M. Mentzer and Christopher E. Miller 31.1 Introduction 299 31.2 Classification of Combustion Features 300 31.3 Analytical Strategy 300 31.4 Common Microscopic Products of Combustion 300 31.5 Stratigraphy, Fabric and Classification of Intact Combustion Structures 301 31.6 Stratigraphy and Fabric of Physically Reworked Combustion Structures 315 31.7 Microscopic Evidence for Chemical Diagenesis of Intact and Reworked Combustion Structures 320 31.8 Synthesis 322 31.9 Conclusion 324 References 326 32 European Dark Earth 331Cristiano Nicosia, Yannick Devos, and Richard I. Macphail 32.1 Introduction 331 32.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedures 331 32.3 Features Associated with Natural Formation Processes 332 32.4 Features Associated with Human Activities 336 32.5 Concluding Remarks 339 References 340 33 Amazonian Dark Earths 345Manuel Arroyo Kalin 33.1 Introduction 345 33.2 Sampling Considerations 347 33.3 Soil Micromorphology of ADEs 348 34.4 Conclusions 352 References 354 34 Cave and Rock Shelter Sediments 359Carolina Mallol and Paul Goldberg 34.1 Introduction 359 34.2 Common Microfabrics from Rock Shelter and Cave Sites 360 34.3 Conclusion 375 References 377 Part III Additional Techniques 383 35 Sampling for Soil Micromorphology 385Georges Stoops and Cristiano Nicosia 35.1 Introduction 385 35.2 Sampling Strategy 385 35.3 Taking Samples in the Field 386 35.4 Labelling 389 35.5 Transport and Preservation 390 References 391 36 Fluorescence Microscopy 393Georges Stoops 36.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 393 36.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 393 36.3 Applications in Archaeology 395 36.4 Concluding Remarks 396 References 396 37 Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 399Lisa Marie Shillito 37.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 399 37.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 399 37.3 Archaeological Applications 401 References 401 38 Isotope Mass Spectrometry (On Microdrilled Powders) 403Susan M. Mentzer 38.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 403 38.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 404 38.3 Archaeological Applications 405 38.4 Concluding Remarks 408 References 408 39 FTIR Microscopy 411Francesco Berna 39.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 411 39.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 411 39.3 Archaeological Applications 412 References 414 40 X ray Microdiffraction 417Christoph Berthold and Susan M. Mentzer 40.1 Fundamentals of X ray Diffraction 417 40.2 XRD Instrumentation 417 40.3 Output and Analysis 421 40.4 Applications to Archaeological Micromorphology Samples 422 40.5 Concluding Remarks 427 References 427 41 Micro XRF 431Susan M. Mentzer 41.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 431 41.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 432 41.3 Archaeological Applications 435 41.4 Concluding Remarks 438 References 438 42 Micro CT Scanning 441Dominique J.M. Ngan Tillard and Dirk J. Huisman 42.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 441 42.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedures 442 42.3 Archaeological Applications 444 42.4 Concluding Remarks 446 References 447 43 Electron Probe X ray Microanalysis (SEM EPMA) Techniques 451Clare A. Wilson 43.1 Principles of the Techniques 451 43.2 Sample Preparation and Analysis 451 43.3 Archaeological Applications 453 References 457 44 Reflected Light 461Bertrand Ligouis 44.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 461 44.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 461 44.3 Archaeological Applications 465 References 469 Index 471
Responsibility: edited by Dr. Cristiano Nicosia, Centre de Recherches en Archaologie et Patrimoine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, and Em. Prof. Dr. Georges Stoops, Vakgroep Geologie, Faculteit Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Belgium.

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"An impressive and appealing handbook and sourcebook on the materials, problems, techniques, achievement, and prospects of the subject." Geoscientist Online

 
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