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Arms and armour of the warrior saints : tradition and innovation in Byzantine iconography (843-1261)

Author: Piotr L Grotowski
Publisher: Leiden, The Netherlands ; Boston : Brill, 2010.
Series: Medieval Mediterranean, v. 87.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

This study investigates whether military equipment shown in images of warrior saints reflects items used by the mid-Byzantine Army or repeats Classical forms. This in turn answers questions on the  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Exhibition catalogs
Exhibitions
utställningar
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Piotr L Grotowski
ISBN: 9789004185487 9004185488
OCLC Number: 659246766
Language Note: Translated from Polish.
Description: xxv, 483 pages, [104] pages of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm.
Contents: CONTENTSList of illustrations ... ixAcknowledgements ... xixTranslator's Note ... xxiConventions used in this book ... xxiiiINTRODUCTION ... 1Scope of Research ... 4Time-frame ... 4Selection of material ... 6State of Research ... 11Research on the development of the cult and iconography of warrior saints ... 11Research on the military equipment of the Middle Byzantine army ... 14Chapter One SOURCES ... 19Material Sources (Archaeological) ... 19Written Sources ... 34Military treatises (Taktika and Strategika) ... 34Taktikons and Books of Ceremony ... 40Lexicography ... 42Historiography ... 43Literature ... 50Non-Greek sources ... 51Iconographical Sources ... 53Chapter Two ORIGINS OF THE IMAGE OF THE WARRIOR SAINT ... 57God's Peace and Holy War in Christian Doctrine ... 63The Image of the Warrior Saint in Art Before Iconoclasm ... 74The type of the mounted warrior saint ... 74The type of the warrior saint on foot ... 86Warrior Saints and Ancient Gods ... 92Heavenly supporters of the army ... 98The Imperial Cohort ... 104From local cult to nationwide image of the patron warrior saint ... 107The two saint Theodores ... 117Conclusions ... 121Chapter Three ICONOGRAPHY OF THE COSTUME AND ARMOUR OF THE WARRIOR SAINTS ... 125Armour ... 125Corselet ... 125The `muscled' cuirass ... 129Scale body armour ... 133The lamellar cuirass (klibanion) ... 137Soft armour (neurika, lorikion psilos) ... 151The zaba and lorikion and the problem of the mail-shirt ... 154Other elements of armour ... 162Lower body protection (pteryges and kremasmata) ... 162Kabadion (and skaramangion) ... 166Shoulder-guards and sleeves (manikia) ... 170Lower tunic (himation, peristethidia) ... 174Shoulder pennants (phlamuliskia) ... 176Epilorikion (epanoklibanion, epithorakion) ... 177The Symbolism of Armour ... 179Protection for Arms and Legs ... 183Manikellia (cheiromanika, cheiropsella) ... 183Armour for the lower leg (chalkotouba, podopsella) ... 187Footwear (pedila) ... 191Shoes (tzangia) ... 191Tall boots (krepides, hypodemata) ... 193Bast sandals-servoula (mouzakia) and kampagia ... 198Trousers (toubia, anaxyrides) ... 203The Shield ... 208Construction of the shield ... 215Shape of the shield ... 225Circular and oval shields (thyreos, skoutarion, pelta, parma) ... 225The kite-shaped shield ... 231The elongated triangular shield and the Gothic or heater shield ... 234Devices on the shields of the warrior saints ... 236Ornamental motifs ... 238Signs (simeia) for identifying military units ... 240Inscriptions ... 241Religious (and apotropaic) symbols ... 243Proto-heraldic devices ... 246Symbolism and customs related to the shield ... 250The Cloak (Mandyas) ... 254The chlamys or officer's cloak ... 255Cloaks of junior officers and ordinary soldiers (the sagion) ... 265Insignia ... 271Fibula (kornoukopion, porpe) ... 271The officer's sash (diadema, zone stratiotike) ... 277Tablion ... 281Symbolic insignia-diadem and tiara ... 284Diadem ... 285Tiara ... 293The torque (maniakion) ... 294Unusual Variants of Uniform in the Iconography of the Warrior Saints ... 300Warrior saints in officer's parade uniform ... 301The warrior saint in a provincial guise (in a kabadion) ... 307Continuation of the Early Byzantine image of the equestrian saint in a tunic ... 309The fantastical image of the holy warrior ... 310Conclusions ... 311Chapter Four WEAPONS IN THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WARRIOR SAINTS ... 313The Lance or Spear of the Warrior Saint ... 313Types of Shafted Weapon in Byzantium ... 318Javelins and spears (verytta, akontion, rhiptarion) ... 318The heavy infantry pike (menaulion) ... 320Lance and spear (dory, kontarion, longche) ... 323The lance as a sign of status and a symbolic weapon ... 329The Crux hastata ... 334Military flags (phlamoulon, bandon) ... 340Edged Weapons ... 342The sword (spatha, xiphos) ... 342The palash (proto-sabre?)-paramerion ... 357Symbolism of the sword ... 360Other Types of Weapons of the Warrior Saints ... 367Conclusions ... 376Chapter Five EQUESTRIAN EQUIPMENT ... 379Horse Tack ... 379Stirrups (skala, anavoleus) ... 379Saddle and saddlecloth (sella and ephestris) ... 383Other elements of riding equipment ... 386Spurs ... 392The Horse Armour Problem ... 395Conclusions ... 397Conclusions ... 399Bibliography ... 405Indices ... 447Illustration Section
Series Title: Medieval Mediterranean, v. 87.
Responsibility: by Piotr L. Grotowski ; translated by Richard Brzezinski.

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