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Arms and armour of the warrior saints : tradition and innovation in Byzantine iconography (843-1261)

Author: Piotr L Grotowski
Publisher: Leiden, The Netherlands ; Boston : Brill, 2010.
Series: Medieval Mediterranean, v. 87.
Edition/Format:   Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:

This study investigates whether military equipment shown in images of warrior saints reflects items used by the mid-Byzantine Army or repeats Classical forms. This in turn answers questions on the  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Exhibition catalogs
Exhibitions
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Piotr L Grotowski
ISBN: 9789004185487 9004185488
OCLC Number: 659246766
Language Note: Translated from Polish.
Description: xxv, 483 pages, [104] pages of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm.
Contents: CONTENTS List of illustrations ... ix Acknowledgements ... xix Translator's Note ... xxi Conventions used in this book ... xxiii INTRODUCTION ... 1 Scope of Research ... 4 Time-frame ... 4 Selection of material ... 6 State of Research ... 11 Research on the development of the cult and iconography of warrior saints ... 11 Research on the military equipment of the Middle Byzantine army ... 14 Chapter One SOURCES ... 19 Material Sources (Archaeological) ... 19 Written Sources ... 34 Military treatises (Taktika and Strategika) ... 34 Taktikons and Books of Ceremony ... 40 Lexicography ... 42 Historiography ... 43 Literature ... 50 Non-Greek sources ... 51 Iconographical Sources ... 53 Chapter Two ORIGINS OF THE IMAGE OF THE WARRIOR SAINT ... 57 God's Peace and Holy War in Christian Doctrine ... 63 The Image of the Warrior Saint in Art Before Iconoclasm ... 74 The type of the mounted warrior saint ... 74 The type of the warrior saint on foot ... 86 Warrior Saints and Ancient Gods ... 92 Heavenly supporters of the army ... 98 The Imperial Cohort ... 104 From local cult to nationwide image of the patron warrior saint ... 107 The two saint Theodores ... 117 Conclusions ... 121 Chapter Three ICONOGRAPHY OF THE COSTUME AND ARMOUR OF THE WARRIOR SAINTS ... 125 Armour ... 125 Corselet ... 125 The 'muscled' cuirass ... 129 Scale body armour ... 133 The lamellar cuirass (klibanion) ... 137 Soft armour (neurika, lorikion psilos) ... 151 The zaba and lorikion and the problem of the mail-shirt ... 154 Other elements of armour ... 162 Lower body protection (pteryges and kremasmata) ... 162 Kabadion (and skaramangion) ... 166 Shoulder-guards and sleeves (manikia) ... 170 Lower tunic (himation, peristethidia) ... 174 Shoulder pennants (phlamuliskia) ... 176 Epilorikion (epanoklibanion, epithorakion) ... 177 The Symbolism of Armour ... 179 Protection for Arms and Legs ... 183 Manikellia (cheiromanika, cheiropsella) ... 183 Armour for the lower leg (chalkotouba, podopsella) ... 187 Footwear (pedila) ... 191 Shoes (tzangia) ... 191 Tall boots (krepides, hypodemata) ... 193 Bast sandals-servoula (mouzakia) and kampagia ... 198 Trousers (toubia, anaxyrides) ... 203 The Shield ... 208 Construction of the shield ... 215 Shape of the shield ... 225 Circular and oval shields (thyreos, skoutarion, pelta, parma) ... 225 The kite-shaped shield ... 231 The elongated triangular shield and the Gothic or heater shield ... 234 Devices on the shields of the warrior saints ... 236 Ornamental motifs ... 238 Signs (simeia) for identifying military units ... 240 Inscriptions ... 241 Religious (and apotropaic) symbols ... 243 Proto-heraldic devices ... 246 Symbolism and customs related to the shield ... 250 The Cloak (Mandyas) ... 254 The chlamys or officer's cloak ... 255 Cloaks of junior officers and ordinary soldiers (the sagion) ... 265 Insignia ... 271 Fibula (kornoukopion, porpe) ... 271 The officer's sash (diadema, zone stratiotike) ... 277 Tablion ... 281 Symbolic insignia-diadem and tiara ... 284 Diadem ... 285 Tiara ... 293 The torque (maniakion) ... 294 Unusual Variants of Uniform in the Iconography of the Warrior Saints ... 300 Warrior saints in officer's parade uniform ... 301 The warrior saint in a provincial guise (in a kabadion) ... 307 Continuation of the Early Byzantine image of the equestrian saint in a tunic ... 309 The fantastical image of the holy warrior ... 310 Conclusions ... 311 Chapter Four WEAPONS IN THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WARRIOR SAINTS ... 313 The Lance or Spear of the Warrior Saint ... 313 Types of Shafted Weapon in Byzantium ... 318 Javelins and spears (verytta, akontion, rhiptarion) ... 318 The heavy infantry pike (menaulion) ... 320 Lance and spear (dory, kontarion, longche) ... 323 The lance as a sign of status and a symbolic weapon ... 329 The Crux hastata ... 334 Military flags (phlamoulon, bandon) ... 340 Edged Weapons ... 342 The sword (spatha, xiphos) ... 342 The palash (proto-sabre?)-paramerion ... 357 Symbolism of the sword ... 360 Other Types of Weapons of the Warrior Saints ... 367 Conclusions ... 376 Chapter Five EQUESTRIAN EQUIPMENT ... 379 Horse Tack ... 379 Stirrups (skala, anavoleus) ... 379 Saddle and saddlecloth (sella and ephestris) ... 383 Other elements of riding equipment ... 386 Spurs ... 392 The Horse Armour Problem ... 395 Conclusions ... 397 Conclusions ... 399 Bibliography ... 405 Indices ... 447 Illustration Section
Series Title: Medieval Mediterranean, v. 87.
Responsibility: by Piotr L. Grotowski ; translated by Richard Brzezinski.

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