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Arthropod venoms

Author: David W Alsop; Sergio Bettini
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1978.
Series: Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie : New series, v. 48.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Arthropod venoms.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1978
(OCoLC)561227229
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: David W Alsop; Sergio Bettini
ISBN: 038708228X 9780387082288 354008228X 9783540082286
OCLC Number: 3186517
Description: xxxiii, 977 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: 1 Introduction to Venomous Arthropod Systematics.- A. Introduction.- I. What are Arthropoda?.- II. The Main Divisions of the "Type".- III. The Chelicerata.- 1. Scorpionida.- 2. Uropygi or Thelyphonida.- 3. Pseudoscorpionida.- 4. Opiliones.- 5. Acarina.- 6. Araneae.- IV. The Crustacea.- V. The "Myriapoda".- 1. Chilopoda.- 2. Diplopoda.- VI. The Hexapoda or Insecta.- 1. Blattodea and Dermaptera.- 2. Rhynchota and Anoplura.- 3. Aphaniptera.- 4. Coleoptera.- 5. Hymenoptera.- 6. Diptera.- 7. Lepidoptera.- VII. Some General Advices.- 1. How to Identify an Arthropod.- 2. How to Conserve an Arthropod.- 3. What to Expect from the Bibliography.- References.- 2 Venoms of Crustacea and Merostomata.- A. Introduction.- B. Crustaceans Suspected of Being Poisonous..- C. Toxicity of Crabs.- I. Crabs Containing Saxitoxin.- II. Toxicity of Lophozozymus pictor.- D. Biology of Poisonous Xanthid Crabs.- I. Zosimus aeneus.- 1. Description.- 2. Color in Life.- 3. Habitat and Distribution.- 4. Feeding Habits and Spawning Season.- II. Platypodia granulosa.- 1. Description.- 2. Color in Life.- 3. Habitat and Distribution.- III. Atergatis floridus.- 1. Description.- 2. Color in Life.- 3. Habitat and Distribution.- IV. Lophozozymus pictor.- 1. Description.- 2. Coloration.- 3. Distribution.- E. Chemistry of Toxins in Crabs.- I. Purification of Z. aeneus Toxin.- II. Chemical Properties of Z. aeneus Toxin.- III. Chemical Properties of Toxins from Other Crabs.- F. Pharmacology of Toxins in Crabs.- I. Z. aeneus Toxin.- 1. Poisoning Cases and Symptoms.- 2. Signs in Test Animals.- 3. Effects on Nerve Excitation.- II. The Toxin of L. pictor.- III. Toxin in Other Crabs.- G. Coconut Crab Poisoning.- I. Biology of Coconut Crab.- 1. Description.- 2. Color when Alive, Habitat, and Distribution.- II. Toxicity of the Coconut Crab.- H. Horseshoe-Crab Poisoning.- I. Biology of Horseshoe Crabs.- II. Toxicity of Horseshoe Crabs.- III. Clinical Characteristics.- I. Prevention and Treatment of Crab Poisoning.- References.- 3 Defensive Secretions of Millipeds.- A. Distribution, Structure, and Mode of Operation of the Glands.- B. Chemistry of the Secretions.- C. Biochemistry of the Secretions.- D. Defensive Effectiveness of the Glands.- E. Implications to Humans.- F. Other Defenses of Millipeds.- References.- 4 Secretions of Centipedes.- A. The Centipedes.- B. Glands and Secretions.- I. Defensive and Offensive Weapons of Centipedes.- II. Topography of the Exocrine Glands.- III. Histology of the Glands.- 1. The Forcipular Gland.- 2. Ventral and Coxal Glands of the Geophilomorphs.- IV. Secretions.- 1. Sticky Secretions.- 2. Luminescent Secretions.- 3. Smelling Secretions.- 4. Venom of the Forcipular Glands.- a) Effects of Bite on Humans.- b) Effects of Bite on Laboratory Animals.- c) Chemistry of the Venom.- References.- 5 Secretions of Opilionids, Whip Scorpions and Pseudoscorpions.- A. Order Opiliones.- B. Order Uropygi.- C. Order Pseudoscorpiones.- References.- 6 Review of the Spider Families, with Notes on the Lesser-Known Poisonous Forms.- A. Orthognatha = Theraphosomorphae = Mygalomorphae.- B. Labidognatha = Araneomorphae.- I. Haplogynae.- II. Entelegynae = Trionychae.- 1. Araneoidea.- a) Araneidae = Argiopidae.- b) Linyphiidae.- c) Theridiidae.- 2. Lycosoidea.- a) Agelenidae.- b) Argyronetidae.- c) Pisauridae.- d) Lycosidae.- e) Oxyopidae.- III. Entelegynae = Dionychae.- 1. Gnaphosidae (= Drassodidae = Drassidae).- 2. Clubionidae.- 3. Ctenidae.- 4. Eusparassidae (= Heteropodidae).- 5. Thomisidae.- 6. Salticidae.- IV. Cribellatae.- References.- 7 Venoms of Dipluridae.- A. Systematics and Distribution.- B. Biology and Venoms.- I. Introduction.- II. Notes on Atrax robustus.- III. Source of Venom for Experimentation.- 1. Maintenance of Spiders in the Laboratory.- 2. Collection of Venom and Venom Yields.- IV. Structure of the Venom Glands in Atrax robustus.- V. Toxicity of Venom in Various Animal Species.- 1. Atrax robustus Venom.- 2. Venom of Other Species of Atrax.- VI. Chemistry of Sydney Funnel-Web Spider (Atrax robustus) Venom.- VII. Pharmacopathologic Studies with Atrax robustus Venom.- 1. Intact Animal Experiments.- 2. Studies Upon Isolated Preparations.- 3. Investigation of Antidotes.- VIII. Immunologic Studies on Atrax Venom.- IX. Human Envenomation by Atrax robustus.- 1. General.- 2. Signs and Symptoms of Envenomation.- 3. Treatment of Victims.- 4. Prognosis.- X. Discussion.- References.- 8 Venoms of Theridiidae, Genus Latrodectus.- A. Systematics, Distribution and Biology of Species; Chemistry, Pharmacology and Mode of Action of Venom.- I. Systematics and Distribution of Species.- II. Biology.- 1. Habitat.- 2. Habits.- 3. Life Cycle.- 4. Biting Act.- III. Venomous Apparatus.- IV. Venom.- 1. Methods for Obtaining the Venom.- 2. Chemistry.- 3. Separation of Venom Components.- V. Toxicity of Venom in Different Animal Species.- 1. Whole Venom.- 2. Venom Components.- VI. Pharmacology and Mode of Action on Different Zoological Groups.- 1. Invertebrates.- a) Crustacea.- b) Insecta.- c) Mollusca.- 2. Vertebrates.- a) Pisces.- b) Amphibia.- c) Aves.- d) Mammalia.- 3. Toxicity in Cells Cultivated in vitro.- 4. Effect of Toxin on Lipid Bilayer Membranes.- 5. Distribution of Venom in Envenomed Animals.- 6. Protective Activity of Venom Against Botulin Toxin.- VII. Toxicity of Eggs and Tissue Extracts.- References.- B. Epidemiology of Envenomation, Symptomatology, Pathology and Treatment.- I. Epidemiology.- 1. Geographical Distribution.- a) Europe.- b) Asia.- c) Africa.- d) America.- e) Australia.- 2. Factors Influencing Number of Spiders and Frequency of Contacts with Man. Epidemics of Latrodectism.- 3. Other Epidemiological Data.- II. Human Symptomatology.- III. Differential Diagnosis.- IV. Clinical Course, Duration of Hospitalization, Convalescence, and Complications.- 1. Course.- 2. Convalescence.- 3. Complications.- V. Prognosis.- VI. Post-Mortem Findings.- VII. Aspecific Therapy.- VIII. Specific Therapy.- 1. Preparation of Sera.- 2. Cross Activity of Sera Obtained with Antigens from Different Species of Spiders.- 3. Time and Dose of Serum Administration.- IX. Prevention of Latrodectism.- References.- 9 Venoms of Theridiidae, Genus Steatoda.- A. Introduction.- B. Venomous Spiders of the Genus Steatoda.- I. Steatoda paykulliana.- 1. Distribution, Biology, Morphology, and Venomous Apparatus..- 2. Effects of the Toxin.- II. Steatoda grossa.- References.- 10 Venoms of Ctenidae.- A. Introduction.- B. Morphology of the Venomous Apparatus.- I. Chelicerae.- 1. Fangs or Claws.- 2. Basal Segment.- 3. Musculature.- II. Venom Glands.- 1. Musculature.- 2. Histology of the Glandular Tissue.- C. Methods of Collecting Venoms.- 1. Method of Collecting Venom by its Extraction from the Glands..- 2. Method of Collecting Venom by Electrical Stimulation.- D. Physiology of Biting.- E. Crude Venom Pharmacology.- I. Effect on Dogs.- 1. Excruciating Local Pain.- 2. Sneezing.- 3. Lacrimation and Mydriasis.- 4. Hypersalivation.- 5. Erection.- 6. Ejaculation.- 7. Toxicity.- 8. Hypotensive Response.- 9. Tachyphylaxis.- II. Guinea Pig Ileum Contraction.- III. Effects on Mice.- 1. Local Pain.- 2. Hypersalivation.- 3. Erection.- 4. Ejaculation.- 5. Toxicity.- 6. Distensive Paralysis.- IV. Effects on Other Animals.- F. Biochemistry of the Phoneutria nigriventer Venom, and Procedures for its Fractionation.- I. Immunologic Aspects of the Venom.- II. Enzymic Inactivation.- III. Physicochemical Properties of the Active Polypeptides.- IV. Dialysis.- V. Venom Fractionation.- 1. Ammonium Sulfate, Electrophoresis, Barium Sulfate Adsorption.- 2. Flaccid Paralysis.- 3. Hemorrhagic Effect.- VI. Gel Chromatography.- VII. Ion Exchange Columns.- G. Envenomation in Man.- I. Symptomatology.- II. Frequency of Cases.- III. Therapy of Envenomation.- References.- 11 Venoms of Scytodidae. Genus Loxosceles.- A. Distribution and Biology of Venomous Species. Chemistry, Toxicity, Pharmacology and Mode of Action of Venom.- I. Systematics and Distribution of Species.- II. Morphology and Biology.- III. Anatomy and Histology of the Venomous Apparatus.- IV. Physiology, in Particular Physiology of the Bite.- V. Chemistry of the Venom.- 1. Methods of Obtaining the Venom.- 2. Chemical Composition of Venom Extracts.- 3. Fractionation and Characterization of Venom Proteins.- 4. Enzymatic Properties of Venom.- 5. Immunogenicity of the Venom.- VI. Toxicity of Venom and other Components of Loxosceles on Various Animal Species.- 1. In vivo Studies.- 2. In vitro Studies.- VII. Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action.- B. Epidemiology, Symptomatology, Pathology, Prognosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Envenomations.- I. Epidemiology of Envenomations. Geographic and Temporal Distribution of Cases. Other Epidemiologic Data.- II. Human Symptomatology.- 1. Cutaneous Form of Loxoscelism.- 2. Viscerocutaneous Form of Loxoscelism.- III. Differential Diagnosis.- 1. Cutaneous Forms.- 2. Viscerocutaneous Form.- IV. Clinical Course and Duration of Hospitalization.- 1. Local Necrosis and Ulcer.- 2. Viscerocutaneous Involvement.- V. Prognosis and Frequency of Lethal Cases.- VI. Pathology.- VII. Laboratory Findings.- VIII. Treatment.- 1. Nonspecific.- 2. Specific.- IX. Prevention.- References.- 12 The Genus Centruroides (Buthidae) and Its Venom.- A. Species and Their Distribution.- B. Some Aspects of Behavior.- C. The Prevention and Control of Scorpions.- D. Morphology and Function of the Venom Apparatus.- E. Extracting Venom.- F. Mammalian Physiologic Reaction to the Venom.- I. Clinical Observations.- 1. Symptoms of Severe Envenomization (Children under 16 Years of Age).- 2. Symptoms of Envenomization in Adults.- II. Preclinical Observations.- 1. Pharmacologic Considerations.- 2. Pathologic Effects.- 3. Allergic Potentialities.- G. Human Behavior and Scorpions.- H. Venom Chemistry.- J. Suggestions for Therapy.- References.- 13 Venoms of Buthinae.- A. Systematics and Biology of Buthinae.- References.- B. Symptomatology and Treatment of Buthinae Stings.- I. Pathophysiology of the Envenomation.- II. Treatment.- References.- C. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Buthinae Scorpion Venoms.- I. Introduction.- II. Chemistry.- 1. Isolation and Purification.- 2. Composition and Structure.- 3. Chemical Modifications.- III. Pharmacology.- 1. Lethal Potency and Symptomatology.- 2. Cardiovascular Effects.- a) Clinical Investigations.- b) Histopathologic Changes.- c) Vascular Effects.- d) Cardiac Dynamics.- 3. Respiratory Effects.- 4. Muscular Effects.- a) Direct Effects on Skeletal Muscles.- b) Effects Through Neuromuscular Junctions.- c) Effects on Smooth Muscles.- 5. Action on Axonal Membranes.- 6. Action on Arthropods.- IV. Action Mechanisms.- 1. Autopharmacologic Intoxication.- 2. Is There a Direct Excitatory Effect on Muscles?.- 3. Interactions with Sodium, Calcium, and TTX.- 4. The Pharmacologic Diversity of Scorpion Toxins.- References.- 14 Venoms of Tityinae.- A. Systematics, Distribution, Biology, Venomous Apparatus, etc. of Tityinae; Venom Collection, Toxicity, Human Accidents and Treatment of Stings.- 1. The Venomous Species and Their Geographical Distribution.- 2. Description of the Most Venomous Species.- 3. Frequency of the Most Venomous Species.- 4. Food and Life Habits.- 5. Venom Glands.- 6. Quantities and Storage of the Venom.- 7. Toxicity and Human Accidents.- 8. Treatment of Scorpion Envenomation.- References.- B. Chemical and Pharmacologic Aspects of Tityinae Venoms.- I. Chemical Properties of Tityinae Venoms.- 1. Purification of Toxic Components from Tityinae Venoms.- II. Pharmacology of Tityus Venom Intoxication.- 1. Release of Neurotransmitters by Tityus Venom.- a) Acetylcholine.- b) Epinephrine and Norepinephrine.- III. General Effects.- IV. Conclusion.- References.- 15 Chactoid Venoms.- I. Introduction.- II. Morphology of the Telson in Chactoids.- III. Anatomy and Development of the Venom Glands.- IV. Comparative Histology and Histochemistry of the Venom Glands in Adults.- V. Chemical Composition of Chactoid Venoms.- VI. Pharmacology of Chactoid Venoms.- VII. Experimental Toxicity.- VIII. Toxicity for Humans.- IX. Treatment and Prophylaxis of Scorpion Poisoning.- References.- 16 Tick Paralysis.- A. Introduction.- B. Ticks.- I. The Biology of Ixodid Ticks.- II. Classification of Ticks.- III. Feeding in Ixodid Ticks.- IV. Virulence.- C. Hosts.- I. Humans.- 1. Distribution.- 2. Seasonal Incidence.- 3. Age..- 4. Sex.- II. Livestock.- 1. Natural Occurrence.- 2. Experimentally Induced.- III. Wildlife.- IV. Pets.- 1. Natural Occurrence.- 2. Experimentally Induced.- V. Laboratory Animals.- D. Symptomology.- I. Humans.- II. Animals.- E. Mechanism of the Paralysis.- I. Physiology and Pharmacology of Paralysis due to Dermacentor andersoni.- 1. Neuromuscular Transmission.- 2. Nerve Conduction.- 3. Central Nervous Transmission.- 4. Miscellaneous Agents.- II. Experimental Physiological Findings with Other Ticks Species.- 1. Ixodes holocyclus.- 2. Argas (Persicargas) persicus.- III. Identification of the Presence and Removal of the Toxin.- IV. Immunity.- V. Autopsy Findings.- F. Summary.- References.- 17 Toxins of Blattaria.- A. Systematics.- B. Biology.- C. Allergy Caused by Cockroaches.- 1. Contactant Allergens.- 2. Inhalant Allergens.- 3. Injectant Allergens.- 4. Ingestant Allergens.- D. Defensive Glands.- 1. Type I Glands.- 2. Type II Glands.- 3. Type III Glands.- 4. Type IV Glands.- 5. Type V Glands.- References.- 18 Venoms of Rhyncota (Hemiptera).- A. Introduction.- I. Aquatic Heteroptera.- II. Terrestrial Heteroptera.- B. Morphology and Histology of the Scent Glands.- I. Adult Insects.- II. Larvae.- C. Chemistry of the Secretions.- I. Structure of Secretion Components.- 1. Types of Compounds.- 2. Toxins of Aquatic Heteroptera.- 3. Toxins Isolated from Terrestrial Heteroptera.- 4. Toxins Isolated from Homoptera.- II. Extraction Methods.- III. Methods of Purification and Structural Elucidation.- 1. Gas Liquid Chromatography.- 2. Thin-Layer Chromatography.- 3. Spectroscopic Methods.- D. Function of Hemipteran Secretions.- E. Other Glands and Secretions.- References.- 19 Venoms of Coleoptera.- A. Introduction.- B. Morphology and Histology of the Scent Glands.- I. Pygidial Gland.- 1. Reservoir.- 2. Secretory Cells.- 3. Fine Structure of Cells.- 4. Accessory Gland.- II. Thoracic Glands.- III. Other Glands.- C. Chemistry of the Secretions.- I. Structure of Secretion Components.- 1. Types of Compounds.- 2. Toxins of the Alleculidae.- 3. Toxins of the Cantharidae.- 4. Toxins of the Carabidae.- 5. Toxins of the Cerambycidae.- 6. Toxins of the Chrysomelidae.- 7. Toxins of the Coccinellidae.- 8. Toxins of the Dytiscidae.- 9. Toxins of the Gyrinidae.- 10. Toxins of the Meloidae.- 11. Toxins of the Silphidae.- 12. Toxins of the Staphylinidae.- 13. Toxins of the Tenebrionidae.- II. Extraction Methods.- III. Methods of Purification and Structural Elucidation.- 1. Gas Liquid Chromatography.- 2. Thin-Layer and Paper Chromatography.- 3. Spectroscopic Methods.- IV. Biosynthesis.- D. Biological and Physiological Effects of the Toxins.- References.- 20 Venoms of Lepidoptera.- A. Introduction.- B. Erucism.- I. Description.- II. Pathology.- III. Symptomatology.- 1. Pathogenesis.- a) Foreign-Body Syndrome.- b) Toxic Syndrome.- c) Infectious Syndrome.- d) Allergic Syndromes.- 2. Evolution.- 3. Immunity.- IV. Diagnosis.- 1. Super-Family Papilionoidea (Dyar, 1902).- a) Morphidae (Kollar, 1850).- b) Nymphalidae (Swainson, 1872).- 2. Super-Family Bombycoidea (Dyar, 1902).- a) Lasiocampidae (Harris, 1841).- b) Thaumetopoeidae (= Notodontidae).- c) Saturniidae (= Hemileucidae) (Walker, 1855).- 3. Super-Family Noctuoidea (Mosher, 1916).- a) Arctiidae (Stephens, 1829).- b) Lymantriidae (= Liparidae) (Hampson, 1892).- c) Noctuidae (Stephens, 1829).- 4. Super-Family Zygaenoidea (Gravenhorst, 1843).- a) Cochlidiidae (= Eucleidae) (Dyar, 1898).- b) Megalopigydae (Berg, 1882).- 5. The Poison Apparatus.- a) Primitive-Type Poison Apparatus (Beyer, 1922).- b) Developed-Type Poison Apparatus (Foot, 1922).- 6. Toxicology.- a) Obtaining the Poison.- b) Conserving the Poison.- c) Pharmacology of the Extracts of Erucic Poisoning.- V. Treatment.- a) Immediate Treatment.- b) Symptomatic and Preventive Treatment.- c) Treatment of Foreign-Body Syndrome.- VI. Epidemiology.- 1. Erucism on the American Continent.- 2. Erucism on the Continent of Europe.- 3. Erucism in Africa, Asia and Australia.- 4. Epidemiological Structure of Erucism.- a) Factors Relating to the Aetiological Agent.- b) Factors Relating to Erucic Intoxication.- c) Factors Relating to the Environment.- 5. Epidemiological Characteristics of Erucism.- 6. Prevention of Erucism.- a) Measures Directed Against the Primary Source.- b) Measures Directed Against the Means of Transmitting the Poisonous Hairs.- c) Immunization or Desensitization.- C. Lepidopterism.- I. Description.- II. Pathology.- III. Symtomatology.- 1. Pathogenesis.- a) Foreign-Body Syndrome.- b) Toxic Syndrome.- c) Infectious Syndrome.- d) Allergic Syndrome.- 2. Evolution.- 3. Immunity.- IV. Diagnosis.- 1. Families with Poisonous Erucae.- 2. Zygaenidae Family.- 3. Saturnidae Family (= Hemileucidae) (Walker, 1855).- 4. The Poison Apparatus.- 5. Toxicology.- a) Extraction of the Poison.- b) Conservation of the Poison.- c) Pharmacology.- V. Treatment.- a) Immediate.- b) Symptomatic and Preventive.- VI. Epidemiology and Prevention.- 1. South American Lepidopterism.- a) In the Guianas and Venezuela.- b) In Peru.- c) In Brazil.- d) In Argentina.- 2. Epidemiological Structure of Lepidopterism.- a) Factors Relating to the Anthropotoxic Species of the Genus Hylesia.- b) Factors Relating to the Source of Lepidopteran Intoxication.- c) Factors Relating to the Environment.- 3. Prevention of Lepidopterism.- a) Measures Against the Primary Source of Intoxication.- b) Measures Against the Means of Transmission of the Poison-Bearing Flechettes.- References.- 21 Venoms of Apidae.- A. Venom Apparatus, Sting Mechanism, and Venom Collection.- I. Venom Apparatus.- 1. Apini.- 2. Bombini.- 3. Meliponini.- II. Venom Formation.- 1. Apini.- 2. Bombini.- 3. Meliponini.- III. Venom Collection.- 1. Venom Sac and Gland Extraction.- 2. Electrical Excitation of Groups of Bees.- 3. Pure Venom from Individual Hymenoptera.- B. Composition of Apis mellifera Venom.- I. Venom Quantity and Purity.- II. Water Content.- III. Volatile Components.- IV. General Composition.- V. Enzymes.- 1. Hyaluronidase.- 2. Phospholipase A System.- 3. Other Enzyme Studies.- VI. Large Peptides.- 1. General Characteristics.- 2. The Melittin Family.- 3. Apamin, a Neurotoxin.- 4. The Mast Cell Degranulating (MCD) Peptide.- 5. Other Active Peptides.- VII. Small Molecules.- 1. Some General Considerations.- 2. Small Peptides and Free Amino Acids.- 3. Biogenic Amines.- 4. Non-Nitrogenous Compounds.- VIII. Compounds Shown to be Absent.- IX. Summary of Unresolved Questions on Venom Composition.- C. Physiologic Activity of Apis mellifera Venom.- I. Direct and Indirect Activity.- II. Toxicity Studies.- III. Antigenic Character.- 1. Venom Hypersensitivity and Immunity.- 2. Antigenic Comparisons among Various Venoms.- IV. The Arthritis Question.- 1. General Considerations.- 2. Possible Mechanisms.- 3. Potentially Interesting Components.- 4. Speculations.- V. Radioprotective Properties.- VI. Other Physiologic Properties.- D. Venoms of Other Apidae.- I. Other Apini.- II. Bombini.- Summary.- References.- 22 Venoms of Sphecidae, Pompilidae, Mutillidae, and Bethylidae.- A. Introduction.- B. Venoms of Sphecidae.- I. General Aspects.- 1. Biological Notes.- 2. Sting Apparatus and Venom Glands.- 3. Stinging of the Prey.- 4. Venom Actions.- 5. Effectiveness of Paralysis.- 6. Specificity of Venoms.- II. Venoms of Specific Genera.- 1. Genus Philanthus.- a) Aspects of Biology and Preying.- b) Philanthus triangulum.- ?) Anatomy of the Sting Apparatus.- ?) Stinging of the Bee and Action of the Venom.- ?) Mechanism of Action of the Venom.- ?) Specificity of the Venom.- 2. Genus Sceliphron.- a) Composition of the Venom.- C. Venoms of Pompilidae.- I. General Aspects.- II. Stinging and Effects of the Venom on Locomotion.- D. Venoms of Mutillidae.- E. Venoms of Bethylidae.- Appendix 1: Classification of the Family Sphecidae.- References.- 23 Venoms of Vespidae.- A. Introduction.- B. Biology of Vespidae.- I. Taxonomy and Geographical Distribution.- 1. Stenogastrinae.- 2. Polistinae.- 3. Vespinae.- II. Social Behavior.- 1. Life Cycle.- 2. The Nest Entrance.- 3. Foraging Behavior.- 4. Enemies and Parasites.- 5. Defensive Behavior.- 6. Hornet Traps.- 7. Aggressive Behavior-Stinging.- 8. Aggressiveness of Various Species.- C. The Venomous Apparatus.- I. The Nonglandular Parts of the Sting Apparatus. Mechanism of Stinging.- II. The Glandular Parts of the Sting Apparatus.- III. Collection of the Venom.- IV. Quantity of Venom Collected from a Single Wasp or Hornet.- D. Chemistry of Vespidae Venoms.- I. Physico-Chemical Properties.- II. Components of Vespidae Venoms.- 1. Low-Molecular-Weight Substances.- a) Acetylcholine.- b) Histamine.- c) Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).- d) Dopamine, Noradrenaline, and Adrenaline.- e) Kinins.- 2. High-Molecular-Weight Substances: Enzymes.- a) Cholinesterase.- b) Histidine Decarboxylase.- c) Phospholipases.- d) Acid, Alkaline, and Natural DNAses.- e) Hyaluronidase.- f) Protease.- g) Poly- and Disaccharidases.- 3. Miscellaneous Substances.- E. Toxicology.- I. Systemic Toxicity of V.v.- II. Toxicity of V.v. as Related to Ontogenesis.- III. Pathological Findings.- F. Pharmacology.- I. Cardiovascular Apparatus.- 1. Blood Pressure.- 2. Hemolysis.- 3. Anticoagulant Activity.- 4. Hyperglycemia.- 5. Increase in Permeability of Microcirculation Vessels.- 6. Respiratory Apparatus.- 7. Striated Muscle.- 8. Ocular Irritation.- 9. Isolated Organ Preparations.- 10. Release of Histamine.- 11. Pharmacology of Vespidae Kinins.- G. Antigenicity and Immunological Aspects.- H. Clinical Aspects of Envenomation.- I. Incidence of Sting and Dangers.- II. Symptomatology.- 1. Local Symptoms.- 2. Generalized Symptoms.- a) Toxic Reactions.- b) Allergic Reactions.- III. Pathology.- IV. Treatment.- 1. First Aid.- 2. Emergency Treatment.- 3. Preventive Therapy-Desensitization.- V. Prevention of Stinging.- VI. Control of Vespidae.- J. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 24 Venoms of Braconidae.- A. Parasitism by Braconidae.- I. Stinging and Parasitism.- II. Paralysis of Hosts.- III. The Preferred Species for Study.- B. The Venom Apparatus.- I. Morphology and Histology.- II. Mechanism of Action.- III. Volume of Ejected Venom.- C. Methods of Obtaining Venom for Study.- D. Injection and Transport of Venom.- E. Assays of Venom Activity.- F. Braconid Venom.- I. Chemistry.- II. Stability.- III. Potency.- IV. Production, Storage, and Use of Venom.- 1. Synthesis.- 2. Storage and Volume of Venom Used.- 3. Rate of Venom Production.- G. Mode of Action of Venom.- I. Effect on the Heart.- II. Effect on the Gut.- III. Effect on Gross Respiration.- IV. Effect on Neuromuscular Activity.- V. Biochemical Studies.- H. Host Preferences and Host Sensitivity to Venom.- J. Immune Relationships.- References.- 25 Venoms and Venom Apparatuses of the Formicidae: Myrmeciinae, Ponerinae, Dorylinae, Pseudomyrmecinae, Myrmicinae and Formicinae.- A. Introduction.- B. Venoms and Dufour's Gland Constituents.- I. Myrmeciinae.- 1. Venom.- a) Histamine.- b) Smooth Muscle Stimulant.- c) Hyaluronidase.- d) Direct Hemolytic Factor.- e) Phospholipase A.- f) Histamine-Releasing Activity.- 2. Dufour's Gland Constituents.- II. Ponerinae.- 1. Venom.- 2. Dufour's Gland Constituents.- III. Dorylinae.- 1. Venom.- IV. Pseudomyrmecinae.- 1. Venom.- 2. Dufour's Gland Constituents.- V. Myrmicinae.- 1. Venom.- 2. Dufour's Gland Constituents.- VI. Formicinae.- 1. Venom.- 2. Dufour's Gland Constituents.- C. Morphology of the Hymenopterous Venom Apparatus.- D. General Formicid Venom Apparatus.- E. Venom Apparatus Sclerites and their Musculature = General Formicid Structure.- I. Myrmeciinae and Ponerinae.- II. Dorylinae.- III. Pseudomyrmecinae.- IV. Myrmicinae.- V. Formicinae.- F. Abdominal Muscles That Indirectly Affect the Movement of the Venom Apparatus.- G. Muscles of the Venom Apparatus.- H. Evolution of the Venom Sclerites.- I. Glands Associated with the Venom Apparatus.- I. Myrmeciinae, Ponerinae, Dorylinae and Pseudomyrmecinae.- II. Myrmicinae.- III. Formicinae.- J. Gland Phylogeny.- K. Envenomization.- L. Mandibular Gland Constituents.- I. Ponerinae.- II. Dorylinae.- III. Pseudomyrmecinae.- IV. Myrmicinae.- V. Formicinae.- M. Morphology of the Mandibular Glands.- N. Metapleural Gland Products.- I. Myrmicinae.- O. Morphology of the Metapleural Glands.- P. Natural Products of the Formicidae = An, Overview.- Q. The Formicid Venom Apparatus = Phyletic Implications.- I. Relationship to Wasps.- II. Formicinae.- III. Pseudomyrmecinae.- IV. Myrmicinae.- V. Ponerinae, Dorylinae, Cerapachyinae.- VI. Old and New World Dorylinae.- References.- 26 Venom and Venom Apparatuses of the Formicidae: Dolichoderinae and Aneuretinae.- A. Introduction and Taxonomy.- B. Dolichoderine Natural Products and Anatomy of the Venom Apparatus.- I. Mandibular Gland Constituents.- II. Poison Gland Constituents.- III. Anatomy of the Venom Apparatus Components in the Dolichoderinae.- IV. Anatomy of Venom Sclerites.- V. Dufour's Gland Constituents.- VI. Anatomy of Dufour's Gland.- C. Anal Gland Constituents.- I. Anatomy of the Anal Glands in the Dolichoderinae.- II. Biological Activities of Dolichoderine Anal Gland Products.- D. Dolichoderine Natural Products = An Overview.- E. Phyletic Implications Based on Venom Slerites and Associated Glands.- References.- Author Index.
Series Title: Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie : New series, v. 48.
Responsibility: contributors, D.W. Alsop [and others] ; editor, Sergio Bettini.
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   library:placeOfPublication <http://dbpedia.org/resource/New_York_City> ; # New York
   library:placeOfPublication <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/gw> ;
   library:placeOfPublication <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Place/berlin> ; # Berlin
   schema:about <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85008140> ; # Poisonous arthropoda--Venom
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Topic/arthropodes_venimeux_venin> ; # Arthropodes venimeux--Venin
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Topic/arthropod_venoms> ; # Arthropod Venoms
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Topic/tiergift> ; # Tiergift
   schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1068161> ; # Poisonous arthropoda--Venom
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Topic/gliederfusser> ; # Gliederfüßer
   schema:about <http://dewey.info/class/615.108/> ;
   schema:bookFormat bgn:PrintBook ;
   schema:contributor <http://viaf.org/viaf/306178411> ; # David W. Alsop
   schema:contributor <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Person/bettini_sergio_1916> ; # Sergio Bettini
   schema:datePublished "1978" ;
   schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/365122612> ;
   schema:inLanguage "en" ;
   schema:isPartOf <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Series/handbuch_der_experimentellen_pharmakologie_new_series> ; # Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie : New series ;
   schema:isPartOf <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Series/handbook_of_experimental_pharmacology_new_series> ; # Handbook of experimental pharmacology : New series ;
   schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/561227229> ;
   schema:name "Arthropod venoms"@en ;
   schema:productID "3186517" ;
   schema:publication <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/3186517#PublicationEvent/berlin_new_york_springer_verlag_1978> ;
   schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Agent/springer_verlag> ; # Springer-Verlag
   schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780387082288> ;
   schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/isbn/9783540082286> ;
   umbel:isLike <http://d-nb.info/780105869> ;
   wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/3186517> ;
    .


Related Entities

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/New_York_City> # New York
    a schema:Place ;
   schema:name "New York" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Agent/springer_verlag> # Springer-Verlag
    a bgn:Agent ;
   schema:name "Springer-Verlag" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Person/bettini_sergio_1916> # Sergio Bettini
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1916" ;
   schema:familyName "Bettini" ;
   schema:givenName "Sergio" ;
   schema:name "Sergio Bettini" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Series/handbook_of_experimental_pharmacology_new_series> # Handbook of experimental pharmacology : New series ;
    a bgn:PublicationSeries ;
   schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/3186517> ; # Arthropod venoms
   schema:name "Handbook of experimental pharmacology : New series ;" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Series/handbuch_der_experimentellen_pharmakologie_new_series> # Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie : New series ;
    a bgn:PublicationSeries ;
   schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/3186517> ; # Arthropod venoms
   schema:name "Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie : New series ;" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/365122612#Topic/arthropodes_venimeux_venin> # Arthropodes venimeux--Venin
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Arthropodes venimeux--Venin"@fr ;
   schema:name "Arthropodes venimeux--Venin"@en ;
    .

<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85008140> # Poisonous arthropoda--Venom
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Poisonous arthropoda--Venom"@en ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1068161> # Poisonous arthropoda--Venom
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Poisonous arthropoda--Venom"@en ;
    .

<http://viaf.org/viaf/306178411> # David W. Alsop
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1939" ;
   schema:familyName "Alsop" ;
   schema:givenName "David W." ;
   schema:name "David W. Alsop" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780387082288>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
   schema:isbn "038708228X" ;
   schema:isbn "9780387082288" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9783540082286>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
   schema:isbn "354008228X" ;
   schema:isbn "9783540082286" ;
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/561227229>
    a schema:CreativeWork ;
   rdfs:label "Arthropod venoms." ;
   schema:description "Online version:" ;
   schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/3186517> ; # Arthropod venoms
    .


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