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Assembly language for x86 processors

Author: Kip R Irvine
Publisher: Boston : Pearson, [2015] ©2015
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Seventh editionView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Kip R Irvine
ISBN: 9780133769401 0133769402
OCLC Number: 867024505
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xxxi, 680 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Preface xxiii 1 Basic Concepts 1 1.1 Welcome to Assembly Language 1 1.1.1 Questions You Might Ask 3 1.1.2 Assembly Language Applications 6 1.1.3 Section Review 6 1.2 Virtual Machine Concept 7 1.2.1 Section Review 9 1.3 Data Representation 9 1.3.1 Binary Integers 10 1.3.2 Binary Addition 12 1.3.3 Integer Storage Sizes 13 1.3.4 Hexadecimal Integers 13 1.3.5 Hexadecimal Addition 15 1.3.6 Signed Binary Integers 16 1.3.7 Binary Subtraction 18 1.3.8 Character Storage 19 1.3.9 Section Review 21 1.4 Boolean Expressions 22 1.4.1 Truth Tables for Boolean Functions 24 1.4.2 Section Review 26 1.5 Chapter Summary 26 1.6 Key Terms 27 1.7 Review Questions and Exercises 28 1.7.1 Short Answer 28 1.7.2 Algorithm Workbench 30 2 x86 Processor Architecture 32 2.1 General Concepts 33 2.1.1 Basic Microcomputer Design 33 2.1.2 Instruction Execution Cycle 34 2.1.3 Reading from Memory 36 2.1.4 Loading and Executing a Program 36 2.1.5 Section Review 37 2.2 32-Bit x86 Processors 37 2.2.1 Modes of Operation 37 2.2.2 Basic Execution Environment 38 2.2.3 x86 Memory Management 41 2.2.4 Section Review 42 2.3 64-Bit x86-64 Processors 42 2.3.1 64-Bit Operation Modes 43 2.3.2 Basic 64-Bit Execution Environment 43 2.4 Components of a Typical x86 Computer 44 2.4.1 Motherboard 44 2.4.2 Memory 46 2.4.3 Section Review 46 2.5 Input-Output System 47 2.5.1 Levels of I/O Access 47 2.5.2 Section Review 49 2.6 Chapter Summary 50 2.7 Key Terms 51 2.8 Review Questions 52 3 Assembly Language Fundamentals 53 3.1 Basic Language Elements 54 3.1.1 First Assembly Language Program 54 3.1.2 Integer Literals 55 3.1.3 Constant Integer Expressions 56 3.1.4 Real Number Literals 57 3.1.5 Character Literals 57 3.1.6 String Literals 58 3.1.7 Reserved Words 58 3.1.8 Identifiers 58 3.1.9 Directives 59 3.1.10 Instructions 60 3.1.11 Section Review 63 3.2 Example: Adding and Subtracting Integers 63 3.2.1 The AddTwo Program 63 3.2.2 Running and Debugging the AddTwo Program 65 3.2.3 Program Template 70 3.2.4 Section Review 70 3.3 Assembling, Linking, and Running Programs 71 3.3.1 The Assemble-Link-Execute Cycle 71 3.3.2 Listing File 71 3.3.3 Section Review 73 3.4 Defining Data 74 3.4.1 Intrinsic Data Types 74 3.4.2 Data Definition Statement 74 3.4.3 Adding a Variable to the AddTwo Program 75 3.4.4 Defining BYTE and SBYTE Data 76 3.4.5 Defining WORD and SWORD Data 78 3.4.6 Defining DWORD and SDWORD Data 79 3.4.7 Defining QWORD Data 79 3.4.8 Defining Packed BCD (TBYTE) Data 80 3.4.9 Defining Floating-Point Types 81 3.4.10 A Program That Adds Variables 81 3.4.11 Little-Endian Order 82 3.4.12 Declaring Uninitialized Data 83 3.4.13 Section Review 83 3.5 Symbolic Constants 84 3.5.1 Equal-Sign Directive 84 3.5.2 Calculating the Sizes of Arrays and Strings 85 3.5.3 EQU Directive 86 3.5.4 TEXTEQU Directive 87 3.5.5 Section Review 88 3.6 64-Bit Programming 88 3.7 Chapter Summary 90 3.8 Key Terms 91 3.8.1 Terms 91 3.8.2 Instructions, Operators, and Directives 92 3.9 Review Questions and Exercises 92 3.9.1 Short Answer 92 3.9.2 Algorithm Workbench 93 3.10 Programming Exercises 94 4 Data Transfers, Addressing, and Arithmetic 95 4.1 Data Transfer Instructions 96 4.1.1 Introduction 96 4.1.2 Operand Types 96 4.1.3 Direct Memory Operands 96 4.1.4 MOV Instruction 98 4.1.5 Zero/Sign Extension of Integers 99 4.1.6 LAHF and SAHF Instructions 101 4.1.7 XCHG Instruction 102 4.1.8 Direct-Offset Operands 102 4.1.9 Example Program (Moves) 103 4.1.10 Section Review 104 4.2 Addition and Subtraction 105 4.2.1 INC and DEC Instructions 105 4.2.2 ADD Instruction 105 4.2.3 SUB Instruction 106 4.2.4 NEG Instruction 106 4.2.5 Implementing Arithmetic Expressions 106 4.2.6 Flags Affected by Addition and Subtraction 107 4.2.7 Example Program (AddSubTest) 111 4.2.8 Section Review 112 4.3 Data-Related Operators and Directives 112 4.3.1 OFFSET Operator 112 4.3.2 ALIGN Directive 113 4.3.3 PTR Operator 114 4.3.4 TYPE Operator 115 4.3.5 LENGTHOF Operator 116 4.3.6 SIZEOF Operator 116 4.3.7 LABEL Directive 116 4.3.8 Section Review 117 4.4 Indirect Addressing 117 4.4.1 Indirect Operands 117 4.4.2 Arrays 118 4.4.3 Indexed Operands 119 4.4.4 Pointers 121 4.4.5 Section Review 122 4.5 JMP and LOOP Instructions 123 4.5.1 JMP Instruction 123 4.5.2 LOOP Instruction 124 4.5.3 Displaying an Array in the Visual Studio Debugger 125 4.5.4 Summing an Integer Array 126 4.5.5 Copying a String 127 4.5.6 Section Review 128 4.6 64-Bit Programming 128 4.6.1 MOV Instruction 128 4.6.2 64-Bit Version of SumArray 130 4.6.3 Addition and Subtraction 130 4.6.4 Section Review 131 4.7 Chapter Summary 132 4.8 Key Terms 133 4.8.1 Terms 133 4.8.2 Instructions, Operators, and Directives 133 4.9 Review Questions and Exercises 134 4.9.1 Short Answer 134 4.9.2 Algorithm Workbench 136 4.10 Programming Exercises 137 5 Procedures 139 5.1 Stack Operations 140 5.1.1 Runtime Stack (32-bit mode) 140 5.1.2 PUSH and POP Instructions 142 5.1.3 Section Review 145 5.2 Defining and Using Procedures 145 5.2.1 PROC Directive 145 5.2.2 CALL and RET Instructions 147 5.2.3 Nested Procedure Calls 148 5.2.4 Passing Register Arguments to Procedures 150 5.2.5 Example: Summing an Integer Array 150 5.2.6 Saving and Restoring Registers 152 5.2.7 Section Review 153 5.3 Linking to an External Library 153 5.3.1 Background Information 154 5.3.2 Section Review 155 5.4 The Irvine32 Library 155 5.4.1 Motivation for Creating the Library 155 5.4.2 Overview 157 5.4.3 Individual Procedure Descriptions 158 5.4.4 Library Test Programs 170 5.4.5 Section Review 178 5.5 64-Bit Assembly Programming 178 5.5.1 The Irvine64 Library 178 5.5.2 Calling 64-Bit Subroutines 179 5.5.3 The x64 Calling Convention 179 5.5.4 Sample Program that Calls a Procedure 180 5.6 Chapter Summary 182 5.7 Key Terms 183 5.7.1 Terms 183 5.7.2 Instructions, Operators, and Directives 183 5.8 Review Questions and Exercises 183 5.8.1 Short Answer 183 5.8.2 Algorithm Workbench 186 5.9 Programming Exercises 187 6 Conditional Processing 189 6.1 Conditional Branching 190 6.2 Boolean and Comparison Instructions 190 6.2.1 The CPU Status Flags 191 6.2.2 AND Instruction 191 6.2.3 OR Instruction 192 6.2.4 Bit-Mapped Sets 194 6.2.5 XOR Instruction 195 6.2.6 NOT Instruction 196 6.2.7 TEST Instruction 196 6.2.8 CMP Instruction 197 6.2.9 Setting and Clearing Individual CPU Flags 198 6.2.10 Boolean Instructions in 64-Bit Mode 199 6.2.11 Section Review 199 6.3 Conditional Jumps 199 6.3.1 Conditional Structures 199 6.3.2 J cond Instruction 200 6.3.3 Types of Conditional Jump Instructions 201 6.3.4 Conditional Jump Applications 204 6.3.5 Section Review 208 6.4 Conditional Loop Instructions 209 6.4.1 LOOPZ and LOOPE Instructions 209 6.4.2 LOOPNZ and LOOPNE Instructions 209 6.4.3 Section Review 210 6.5 Conditional Structures 210 6.5.1 Block-Structured IF Statements 210 6.5.2 Compound Expressions 213 6.5.3 WHILE Loops 214 6.5.4 Table-Driven Selection 216 6.5.5 Section Review 219 6.6 Application: Finite-State Machines 219 6.6.1 Validating an Input String 219 6.6.2 Validating a Signed Integer 220 6.6.3 Section Review 224 6.7 Conditional Control Flow Directives 225 6.7.1 Creating IF Statements 226 6.7.2 Signed and Unsigned Comparisons 227 6.7.3 Compound Expressions 228 6.7.4 Creating Loops with .REPEAT and .WHILE 231 6.8 Chapter Summary 232 6.9 Key Terms 233 6.9.1 Terms 233 6.9.2 Instructions, Operators, and Directives 234 6.10 Review Questions and Exercises 234 6.10.1 Short Answer 234 6.10.2 Algorithm Workbench 236 6.11 Programming Exercises 237 6.11.1 Suggestions for Testing Your Code 237 6.11.2 Exercise Descriptions 238 7 Integer Arithmetic 242 7.1 Shift and Rotate Instructions 243 7.1.1 Logical Shifts and Arithmetic Shifts 243 7.1.2 SHL Instruction 244 7.1.3 SHR Instruction 245 7.1.4 SAL and SAR Instructions 246 7.1.5 ROL Instruction 247 7.1.6 ROR Instruction 247 7.1.7 RCL and RCR Instructions 248 7.1.8 Signed Overflow 249 7.1.9 SHLD/SHRD Instructions 249 7.1.10 Section Review 251 7.2 Shift and Rotate Applications 251 7.2.1 Shifting Multiple Doublewords 252 7.2.2 Binary Multiplication 253 7.2.3 Displaying Binary Bits 254 7.2.4 Extracting File Date Fields 254 7.2.5 Section Review 255 7.3 Multiplication and Division Instructions 255 7.3.1 MUL Instruction 255 7.3.2 IMUL Instruction 257 7.3.3 Measuring Program Execution Times 260 7.3.4 DIV Instruction 262 7.3.5 Signed Integer Division 264 7.3.6 Implementing Arithmetic Expressions 267 7.3.7 Section Review 269 7.4 Extended Addition and Subtraction 269 7.4.1 ADC Instruction 269 7.4.2 Extended Addition Example 270 7.4.3 SBB Instruction 272 7.4.4 Section Review 272 7.5 ASCII and Unpacked Decimal Arithmetic 273 7.5.1 AAA Instruction 274 7.5.2 AAS Instruction 276 7.5.3 AAM Instruction 276 7.5.4 AAD Instruction 276 7.5.5 Section Review 277 7.6 Packed Decimal Arithmetic 277 7.6.1 DAA Instruction 277 7.6.2 DAS Instruction 279 7.6.3 Section Review 279 7.7 Chapter Summary 279 7.8 Key Terms 280 7.8.1 Terms 280 7.8.2 Instructions, Operators, and Directives 280 7.9 Review Questions and Exercises 281 7.9.1 Short Answer 281 7.9.2 Algorithm Workbench 282 7.10 Programming Exercises 284 8 Advanced Procedures 286 8.1 Introduction 287 8.2 Stack Frames 287 8.2.1 Stack Parameters 288 8.2.2 Disadvantages of Register Parameters 288 8.2.3 Accessing Stack Parameters 290 8.2.4 32-Bit Calling Conventions 293 8.2.5 Local Variables 295 8.2.6 Reference Parameters 297 8.2.7 LEA Instruction 298 8.2.8 ENTER and LEAVE Instructions 298 8.2.9 LOCAL Directive 300 8.2.10 The Microsoft x64 Calling Convention 301 8.2.11 Section Review 302 8.3 Recursion 302 8.3.1 Recursively Calculating a Sum 303 8.3.2 Calculating a Factorial 304 8.3.3 Section Review 311 8.4 INVOKE, ADDR, PROC, and PROTO 311 8.4.1 INVOKE Directive 311 8.4.2 ADDR Operator 312 8.4.3 PROC Directive 313 8.4.4 PROTO Directive 316 8.4.5 Parameter Classifications 319 8.4.6 Example: Exchanging Two Integers 320 8.4.7 Debugging Tips 321 8.4.8 WriteStackFrame Procedure 322 8.4.9 Section Review 323 8.5 Creating Multimodule Programs 323 8.5.1 Hiding and Exporting Procedure Names 323 8.5.2 Calling External Procedures 324 8.5.3 Using Variables and Symbols across Module Boundaries 325 8.5.4 Example: ArraySum Program 326 8.5.5 Creating the Modules Using Extern 326 8.5.6 Creating the Modules Using INVOKE and PROTO 330 8.5.7 Section Review 333 8.6 Advanced Use of Parameters (Optional Topic) 333 8.6.1 Stack Affected by the USES Operator 333 8.6.2 Passing 8-Bit and 16-Bit Arguments on the Stack 335 8.6.3 Passing 64-Bit Arguments 336 8.6.4 Non-Doubleword Local Variables 337 8.7 Java Bytecodes (Optional Topic) 339 8.7.1 Java Virtual Machine 339 8.7.2 Instruction Set 340 8.7.3 Java Disassembly Examples 341 8.7.4 Example: Conditional Branch 344 8.8 Chapter Summary 346 8.9 Key Terms 347 8.9.1 Terms 347 8.9.2 Instructions, Operators, and Directives 348 8.10 Review Questions and Exercises 348 8.10.1 Short Answer 348 8.10.2 Algorithm Workbench 348 8.11 Programming Exercises 349 9 Strings and Arrays 352 9.1 Introduction 352 9.2 String Primitive Instructions 353 9.2.1 MOVSB, MOVSW, and MOVSD 354 9.2.2 CMPSB, CMPSW, and CMPSD 355 9.2.3 SCASB, SCASW, and SCASD 356 9.2.4 STOSB, STOSW, and STOSD 356 9.2.5 LODSB, LODSW, and LODSD 356 9.2.6 Section Review 357 9.3 Selected String Procedures 357 9.3.1 Str_compare Procedure 358 9.3.2 Str_length Procedure 359 9.3.3 Str_copy Procedure 359 9.3.4 Str_trim Procedure 360 9.3.5 Str_ucase Procedure 363 9.3.6 String Library Demo Program 364 9.3.7 String Procedures in the Irvine64 Library 365 9.3.8 Section Review 368 9.4 Two-Dimensional Arrays 368 9.4.1 Ordering of Rows and Columns 368 9.4.2 Base-Index Operands 369 9.4.3 Base-Index-Displacement Operands 371 9.4.4 Base-Index Operands in 64-Bit Mode 372 9.4.5 Section Review 373 9.5 Searching and Sorting Integer Arrays 373 9.5.1 Bubble Sort 373 9.5.2 Binary Search 375 9.5.3 Section Review 382 9.6 Java Bytecodes: String Processing (Optional Topic) 382 9.7 Chapter Summary 383 9.8 Key Terms and Instructions 384 9.9 Review Questions and Exercises 384 9.9.1 Short Answer 384 9.9.2 Algorithm Workbench 385 9.10 Programming Exercises 386 10 Structures and Macros 390 10.1 Structures 390 10.1.1 Defining Structures 391 10.1.2 Declaring Structure Variables 393 10.1.3 Referencing Structure Variables 394 10.1.4 Example: Displaying the System Time 397 10.1.5 Structures Containing Structures 399 10.1.6 Example: Drunkard's Walk 399 10.1.7 Declaring and Using Unions 403 10.1.8 Section Review 405 10.2 Macros 405 10.2.1 Overview 405 10.2.2 Defining Macros 406 10.2.3 Invoking Macros 407 10.2.4 Additional Macro Features 408 10.2.5 Using the Book's Macro Library (32-bit mode only) 412 10.2.6 Example Program: Wrappers 419 10.2.7 Section Review 420 10.3 Conditional-Assembly Directives 420 10.3.1 Checking for Missing Arguments 421 10.3.2 Default Argument Initializers 422 10.3.3 Boolean Expressions 423 10.3.4 IF, ELSE, and ENDIF Directives 423 10.3.5 The IFIDN and IFIDNI Directives 424 10.3.6 Example: Summing a Matrix Row 425 10.3.7 Special Operators 428 10.3.8 Macro Functions 431 10.3.9 Section Review 433 10.4 Defining Repeat Blocks 433 10.4.1 WHILE Directive 433 10.4.2 REPEAT Directive 434 10.4.3 FOR Directive 434 10.4.4 FORC Directive 435 10.4.5 Example: Linked List 436 10.4.6 Section Review 437 10.5 Chapter Summary 438 10.6 Key Terms 439 10.6.1 Terms 439 10.6.2 Operators and Directives 439 10.7 Review Questions and Exercises 440 10.7.1 Short Answer 440 10.7.2 Algorithm Workbench 440 10.8 Programming Exercises 442 11 MS-Windows Programming 445 11.1 Win32 Console Programming 445 11.1.1 Background Information 446 11.1.2 Win32 Console Functions 450 11.1.3 Displaying a Message Box 452 11.1.4 Console Input 455 11.1.5 Console Output 461 11.1.6 Reading and Writing Files 463 11.1.7 File I/O in the Irvine32 Library 468 11.1.8 Testing the File I/O Procedures 470 11.1.9 Console Window Manipulation 473 11.1.10 Controlling the Cursor 476 11.1.11 Controlling the Text Color 477 11.1.12 Time and Date Functions 479 11.1.13 Using the 64-Bit Windows API 482 11.1.14 Section Review 484 11.2 Writing a Graphical Windows Application 484 11.2.1 Necessary Structures 484 11.2.2 The MessageBox Function 486 11.2.3 The WinMain Procedure 486 11.2.4 The WinProc Procedure 487 11.2.5 The ErrorHandler Procedure 488 11.2.6 Program Listing 488 11.2.7 Section Review 492 11.3 Dynamic Memory Allocation 492 11.3.1 HeapTest Programs 496 11.3.2 Section Review 499 11.4 x86 Memory Management 499 11.4.1 Linear Addresses 500 11.4.2 Page Translation 503 11.4.3 Section Review 505 11.5 Chapter Summary 505 11.6 Key Terms 507 11.7 Review Questions and Exercises 507 11.7.1 Short Answer 507 11.7.2 Algorithm Workbench 508 11.8 Programming Exercises 509 12 Floating-Point Processing and Instruction Encoding 511 12.1 Floating-Point Binary Representation 511 12.1.1 IEEE Binary Floating-Point Representation 512 12.1.2 The Exponent 514 12.1.3 Normalized Binary Floating-Point Numbers 514 12.1.4 Creating the IEEE Representation 514 12.1.5 Converting Decimal Fractions to Binary Reals 516 12.1.6 Section Review 518 12.2 Floating-Point Unit 518 12.2.1 FPU Register Stack 519 12.2.2 Rounding 521 12.2.3 Floating-Point Exceptions 523 12.2.4 Floating-Point Instruction Set 523 12.2.5 Arithmetic Instructions 526 12.2.6 Comparing Floating-Point Values 530 12.2.7 Reading and Writing Floating-Point Values 533 12.2.8 Exception Synchronization 534 12.2.9 Code Examples 535 12.2.10 Mixed-Mode Arithmetic 537 12.2.11 Masking and Unmasking Exceptions 538 12.2.12 Section Review 539 12.3 x86 Instruction Encoding 539 12.3.1 Instruction Format 540 12.3.2 Single-Byte Instructions 541 12.3.3 Move Immediate to Register 541 12.3.4 Register-Mode Instructions 542 12.3.5 Processor Operand-Size Prefix 543 12.3.6 Memory-Mode Instructions 544 12.3.7 Section Review 547 12.4 Chapter Summary 547 12.5 Key Terms 549 12.6 Review Questions and Exercises 549 12.6.1 Short Answer 549 12.6.2 Algorithm Workbench 550 12.7 Programming Exercises 551 13 High-Level Language Interface 555 13.1 Introduction 555 13.1.1 General Conventions 556 13.1.2 .MODEL Directive 557 13.1.3 Examining Compiler-Generated Code 559 13.1.4 Section Review 564 13.2 Inline Assembly Code 564 13.2.1 __asm Directive in Visual C++ 564 13.2.2 File Encryption Example 566 13.2.3 Section Review 569 13.3 Linking 32-Bit Assembly Language Code to C/C++ 570 13.3.1 IndexOf Example 570 13.3.2 Calling C and C++ Functions 574 13.3.3 Multiplication Table Example 576 13.3.4 Calling C Library Functions 579 13.3.5 Directory Listing Program 582 13.3.6 Section Review 583 13.4 Chapter Summary 583 13.5 Key Terms 584 13.6 Review Questions 584 13.7 Programming Exercises 585 Chapters 14-17 are available on the Companion Web site 14 16-Bit MS-DOS Programming 14.1 14.1 MS-DOS and the IBM-PC 14.1 14.1.1 Memory Organization 14.2 14.1.2 Redirecting Input-Output 14.3 14.1.3 Software Interrupts 14.4 14.1.4 INT Instruction 14.5 14.1.5 Coding for 16-Bit Programs 14.6 14.1.6 Section Review 14.7 14.2 MS-DOS Function Calls (INT 21h) 14.7 14.2.1 Selected Output Functions 14.9 14.2.2 Hello World Program Example 14.11 14.2.3 Selected Input Functions 14.12 14.2.4 Date/Time Functions 14.16 14.2.5 Section Review 14.20 14.3 Standard MS-DOS File I/O Services 14.20 14.3.1 Create or Open File (716Ch) 14.22 14.3.2 Close File Handle (3Eh) 14.23 14.3.3 Move File Pointer (42h) 14.23 14.3.4 Get File Creation Date and Time 14.24 14.3.5 Selected Library Procedures 14.24 14.3.6 Example: Read and Copy a Text File 14.25 14.3.7 Reading the MS-DOS Command Tail 14.27 14.3.8 Example: Creating a Binary File 14.30 14.3.9 Section Review 14.33 14.4 Chapter Summary 14.33 14.5 Programming Exercises 14.35 15 Disk Fundamentals 15.1 15.1 Disk Storage Systems 15.1 15.1.1 Tracks, Cylinders, and Sectors 15.2 15.1.2 Disk Partitions (Volumes) 15.4 15.1.3 Section Review 15.4 15.2 File Systems 15.5 15.2.1 FAT12 15.6 15.2.2 FAT16 15.6 15.2.3 FAT32 15.6 15.2.4 NTFS 15.7 15.2.5 Primary Disk Areas 15.7 15.2.6 Section Review 15.8 15.3 Disk Directory 15.9 15.3.1 MS-DOS Directory Structure 15.10 15.3.2 Long Filenames in MS-Windows 15.12 15.3.3 File Allocation Table (FAT) 15.14 15.3.4 Section Review 15.14 15.4 Reading and Writing Disk Sectors 15.15 15.4.1 Sector Display Program 15.16 15.4.2 Section Review 15.19 15.5 System-Level File Functions 15.20 15.5.1 Get Disk Free Space (7303h) 15.20 15.5.2 Create Subdirectory (39h) 15.23 15.5.3 Remove Subdirectory (3Ah) 15.23 15.5.4 Set Current Directory (3Bh) 15.23 15.5.5 Get Current Directory (47h) 15.24 15.5.6 Get and Set File Attributes (7143h) 15.24 15.5.7 Section Review 15.25 15.6 Chapter Summary 15.25 15.7 Programming Exercises 15.26 16 BIOS-Level Programming 16.1 16.1 Introduction 16.1 16.1.1 BIOS Data Area 16.2 16.2 Keyboard Input with INT 16h 16.3 16.2.1 How the Keyboard Works 16.3 16.2.2 INT 16h Functions 16.4 16.2.3 Section Review 16.8 16.3 VIDEO Programming with INT 10h 16.8 16.3.1 Basic Background 16.8 16.3.2 Controlling the Color 16.10 16.3.3 INT 10h Video Functions 16.12 16.3.4 Library Procedure Examples 16.22 16.3.5 Section Review 16.23 16.4 Drawing Graphics Using INT 10h 16.23 16.4.1 INT 10h Pixel-Related Functions 16.24 16.4.2 DrawLine Program 16.25 16.4.3 Cartesian Coordinates Program 16.27 16.4.4 Converting Cartesian Coordinates to Screen Coordinates 16.29 16.4.5 Section Review 16.30 16.5 Memory-Mapped Graphics 16.30 16.5.1 Mode 13h: 320 X 200, 256 Colors 16.30 16.5.2 Memory-Mapped Graphics Program 16.32 16.5.3 Section Review 16.34 16.6 Mouse Programming 16.35 16.6.1 Mouse INT 33h Functions 16.35 16.6.2 Mouse Tracking Program 16.40 16.6.3 Section Review 16.44 16.7 Chapter Summary 16.45 16.8 Programming Exercises 16.46 17 Expert MS-DOS Programming 17.1 17.1 Introduction 17.1 17.2 Defining Segments 17.2 17.2.1 Simplified Segment Directives 17.2 17.2.2 Explicit Segment Definitions 17.4 17.2.3 Segment Overrides 17.7 17.2.4 Combining Segments 17.7 17.2.5 Section Review 17.9 17.3 Runtime Program Structure 17.9 17.3.1 Program Segment Prefix 17.10 17.3.2 COM Programs 17.10 17.3.3 EXE Programs 17.11 17.3.4 Section Review 17.13 17.4 Interrupt Handling 17.13 17.4.1 Hardware Interrupts 17.14 17.4.2 Interrupt Control Instructions 17.16 17.4.3 Writing a Custom Interrupt Handler 17.16 17.4.4 Terminate and Stay Resident Programs 17.19 17.4.5 Application: The No_Reset Program 17.19 17.4.6 Section Review 17.23 17.5 Hardware Control Using I/O Ports 17.23 17.5.1 Input-Output Ports 17.24 17.5.2 PC Sound Program 17.24 17.6 Chapter Summary 17.26 Appendix A MASM Reference 587 Appendix B The x86 Instruction Set 609 Appendix C Answers to Section Review Questions 644 Appendices D-E are available on the Companion Web site Appendix D BIOS and MS-DOS Interrupts D.1 Appendix E Answers to Review Questions (Chapters 14-17) E.1 Index 664
Responsibility: Kip R. Irvine, Florida International University, School of Computing and Information Sciences.

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