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|Additional Physical Format:||Online version:
Hartmann, William K.
Belmont, Calif. : Wadsworth Pub., ©1994
|All Authors / Contributors:||
William K Hartmann; Chris Impey
|Description:||728 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm|
|Contents:||Invitation to the cosmic journey. Our definition of astronomy - A survey of the universe - A word about mathematics - A note about names of people - A hint on using this book - Face to face with the universe --
pt. I. The early discoveries. Prehistoric astronomy : origins of science and superstition. The earliest astronomy : motives and artifacts (c. 30,000 BC) - Calendar refinements (10,000 - 3,000 BC) - Other early discoveries - Origin of the constellations - The seasons : solstices, equinoxes, and their applications - Astrology : ancient origins of a superstition - Eclipses : occasions for awe ; Historic advances : worlds in the sky. Early cosmologies and the abstract thinking (2500 - 100 BC) - The system of angular measurement - Early Greek astronomy (c. 600 BC to AD 150). Optional basic equation I : the small - angle equation - Ancient astronomy beyond the Mediterranean ; Discovering the layout of the solar system. Clues to the solar system's configuration - Problems with the Ptolemaic model - The Copernican Revolution - Bode's rule - The solar system as we know it today --
pt. II. Two methods for exploring space : understanding gravity and understanding light. Gravity and the conquest of space. Dreams of escaping Earth - Newton's law of gravitational force. Optional basic equation II : Newton's universal law of gravitation , Optional basic equation III : calculating circular and escape velocities - Rockets and spaceships - The decision to explore the Moon : science and the national policy - After Apollo - Space exploration and science : cost and results - Looking to the future ; Light and the spectrum : messages from space. The nature of light : waves vs. particles - The spectrum - Origins of light : electromagnetic disturbances - Emission lines and bands - Optional basic equation IV : measuring temperatures of astronomical bodies : Wien's law - Absorption lines and bands - Analyzing spectra - The three functions of telescopes - Using visual telescopes - Photography with telescopes - Photometry - Image processing spectrophotometry - Light pollution : a threat to astronomy - Detecting nature's messages from space - Interferometry - New frontiers --
pt. III. Exploring the Earth - Moon system. Earth as a planet. Earth's age - Earth's internal structure - Lithospheres and plate tectonics : an explanation of planetary landscapes - Other important processes in Earth's evolution - Earth's magnetic field - Earth's atmosphere and oceans - The cosmic connection - Environmental changes on today's Earth ; The Moon's phases and rotation - Tidal evolution of the Earth - Moon system - Surface features of the moon - Flights to the Moon - Lunar rocks : implications for the Moon and Earth - The interior of the Moon - Cratering of the Moon and Earth. Optional basic equation V : the definition of mean density - Ice deposits at the lunar poles? Where did the moon come from?. Talking about the Moon with Carlé Pieters - Return to the Moon? --
pt. IV. The solar system. Introducing the planets - Mercury. A survey of the planets - Comparative planetology : an approach to studying planets - The planet Mercury - Undiscovered worlds among the terrestrial planets? ; Venus. The slow retrograde rotation of Venus - Venus' infernal atmosphere - The rocky landscapes of Venus - Lesson 1 in comparative planetology : surface features vs. planet size - Lesson 2 in comparative planetology : why do some planets lack atmospheres? ; Mars. Mars as seen with Earth - based telescopes - The lure of Mars - Voyages to the surface of Mars - Major geological features - Two great mysteries of Mars : ancient climate and ancient life - Martian satellites : Phobos and Deimos - Expeditions to Mars. Talking about Mars with Leonid Ksanfomality - A lesson in comparative planetology : The topography of Earth, Venus, and Mars ; Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons. Introducing the outer solar system - Jupiter and Saturn - the planets - Rings of Jupiter and Saturn - Satellite systems of giant planets : general properties - Satellites of Jupiter - Satellites of Saturn - Future studies of Jupiter and Saturn ; The outermost planets and their moons. Uranus and Neptune - the planets - A lesson in comparative planetology : why giant planets have massive atmospheres - Rings of Uranus and Neptune. Optional basic equation VI : typical velocities of atoms and molecules in a gas - The satellite system of Uranus - The satellite system of Neptune - Pluto : ninth planet or interplanetary body? "Planet X"? ; Comets, meteors, asteroids, and meteorites. Comets - Meteors and meteor showers - Asteroids. Talking about asteroids with Richard Binzel - Meteorites - Zodiacal light - Asteroid threat or asteroid opportunity? ; The origin of the solar system. Facts to be explained by a theory of origin - Catastrophic vs. evolutionary theories - The protosun - The solar nebula - a presolar explosion? - From planetesimals to planets - Evolution plus a few catastrophes - The chemical compositions of planets - Magnetic effects and the Sun's spin - A lesson in comparative paleontology : comparisons among moon systems - Stellar evidence for other planetary systems --
pt. V. Stars and their evolution. The Sun : the nature of the nearest star. Spectroscopic discoveries - Composition of the Sun - Solar energy from nuclear reactions - The Sun's interior structure - The photosphere : the solar surface ; Chromosphere and corona : the solar atmosphere ; Sunspots and sunspot activity - Solar wind - Aurorae and solar - terrestrial relations - Is the Sun constant? - Solar energy and other cosmic fuels ; Measuring the basic properties of stars. Names of stars - Images of stars - Defining a stellar distance scale : apparent magnitude - A magnitude scale for expressing "true" brightness of stars - Basic principles of stellar spectra. Optional basic equation VII. The Doppler effect : approach and recession velocities - Measuring 12 important stellar properties. Optional basic equation VIII : the Stefan - Boltzmann law : rate of energy radiation ; The systematics of nearby stars : the H - R diagram. Classifying star types : the H - R diagram - The nearby stars as a representative sample of all stars - Representative stars vs. prominent stars - Explaining the types of stars : different masses and different ages - Philosophical implications of theoretical astrophysics ; Stellar evolution I : birth and middle age. Three proofs of "present - day" star formation - The protostar stage - The pre - main - sequence stage - Examples of pre - main - sequence objects - The main - sequence stage ; Stellar evolution II : death and transfiguration. Hydrostatic equilibrium - The giant stage - The variable stage - Mass loss among evolved stars - The demise of sun - like stars : white dwarfs - The demise of very massive stars : supernovae - Neutron stars (pulsars) : new light on old stars - The most compact stellar remnants : black holes --
pt. VI. Environment and groupings of stars. Interstellar atoms, dust, and nebulae. The effects of interstellar material on starlight - Observed types of interstellar material - Four types of interstellar regions - Classes of nebulae ; Companions to stars : binaries, multiples, and possible planetary systems. Optical doubles vs. physical binaries - Discovery of physical binaries - What can we learn from binary stars? - How many stars are binary or multiple? - Evolution of binary systems : mass transfer - Novae : exploding members of binary pairs - Contact binaries and other unusual phenomena - Examples of binary and multiple systems. Talking about cataclysmic variable stars with Danuta Dobrzycka - The search for alien planets - The origin of binary and multiple stars ; Star clusters and associations. Three types of star groupings -. Discoveries and catalogs of clusters - Measuring distances of clusters - The nature of open clusters and associations - The nature of globular clusters - Origin of clusters and associations --
pt. VII. Galaxies. The Milky Way galaxy. Discovering and mapping the galactic disk - The rotation of the galaxy - The age of the galaxy - Mapping the spiral arms - Measuring the galaxy's mass - Comprehending galactic distances - The two populations of stars - Probing the galactic center - Homing in on the galactic nucleus ; The local galaxies. Distances to galaxies - The nearby galaxies - Surveying and classifying galaxies - The formation and evolution of galaxies ; Galaxies and the expanding universe. Interpreting the redshift - Large - scale structure - Active galaxies and quasars. Optional basic equation IX : the Hubble law and the age of the universe - Active galaxies and quasars. Optional basic equation X : the relativistic redshift , Talking about quasars and intergalactic clouds with Adam Dobrzycki --
pt. VIII. Frontiers. Size and structure of the universe. Early cosmologies - Modern cosmology - Age and structure ; Origin and evolution of the universe. The big bang - The very early universe - The evolving universe --
Epilogue : the universe, life, and you. Our place in the universe - a cosmic perspective ; Where are the aliens? ; A personal relationship to the universe. Talking about life in the universe with Carl Sagan ; Astronomical ascension and declination coordinates ; The effect of precession on right ascension and declination ; Another celestial coordinate system ; Systems of timekeeping ; Toward the modern calendar --
Appendix 1. Powers of 10 --
Appendix 2. Units of measurement.
|Responsibility:||William K. Hartmann, Chris Impey.|