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Automation in the food industry

Author: C A Moore
Publisher: Glasgow : Blackie ; New York : AVI, 1991.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: C A Moore
ISBN: 0216929768 9780216929760 0442314329 9780442314323
OCLC Number: 23014846
Description: xix, 212 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: 1 Introduction to food processing.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Raw materials handling and storage.- 1.2.1 Categories of materials.- 1.2.2 Identifying incoming materials.- 1.2.3 Control and information requirements.- 1.2.4 Example of tank farm.- 1.2.5 Example of flour blending.- 1.2.6 Example of milk reception and storage with CIP system.- 1.3 Primary processing.- 1.3.1 Batch versus continuous processes.- 1.3.2 Modularity.- 1.3.3 Mixing.- 1.3.4 Evaporators and heat exchangers.- 1.3.5 Vacuum and pressure cooking.- 1.3.6 Variable flowrates.- 1.3.7 Effluent.- 1.3.8 Dispensing and container handling.- 1.3.9 Shaping and forming.- 1.3.10 Example of a confectionery assortment.- 1.4 Secondary processing.- 1.4.1 Packaging systems.- 1.4.2 Machine control and coordination.- 1.4.3 Assembly automation.- 1.4.4 Example of confectionery assortment packing.- 1.4.5 Finished goods storage and despatch.- 1.5 Weighing and metering.- 1.5.1 Weighing.- 1.5.2 Metering.- 1.5.3 Example of a 'loss in weight' metering system.- 1.6 Summary 27 Further reading.- 2 Total systems.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Current systems concepts.- 2.3 General requirements.- 2.3.1 The pragmatic approach.- 2.3.2 Utilise existing technology.- 2.3.3 Identify measurable benefits.- 2.3.4 Commonality of use.- 2.3.5 Transfer of information.- 2.3.6 Utilise a modular platform.- 2.3.7 Resilience.- 2.3.8 Adaptability and expandibility.- 2.3.9 Use industry recognised vendors.- 2.3.10 Maintainability.- 2.3.11 Allow for external factors.- 2.4 Food processing industry issues.- 2.4.1 Conversion factors.- 2.4.2 Quality.- 2.4.3 Safety.- 2.4.4 Cost.- 2.4.5 Repeatability.- 2.5 Manufacturing process system.- 2.5.1 Pre-production issues.- 2.5.2 Production issues.- 2.5.3 Post-production issues.- 2.6 Total systems.- 2.6.1 Functional blocks.- 2.6.2 Method of implementation.- 2.6.3 Benefits of total systems.- 2.6.4 Engineering the facility.- 2.6.5 Training and education.- 2.7 Examples of total systems approach.- 2.7.1 Example 1: the design phase.- 2.7.2 Example 2: the planning phase.- 2.7.3 Example 3: the implementation phase.- 2.8 Summary 46 Further reading.- 3 Integrated factory systems.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Integration objectives.- 3.3 Integration phases.- 3.4 Process control and factory automation.- 3.5 Human interface.- 3.6 Summary 57 Further reading.- 4 Specification for success.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Control system concepts.- 4.3 Hardware requirements.- 4.4 Software requirements.- 4.5 Case studies.- 4.5.1 Soft drinks plant.- 4.5.2 Edible oil plant.- 4.6 Summary.- References.- 5 Computers in control.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Types of computer.- 5.2.1 Programmable controller.- 5.2.2 Personal computers.- 5.2.3 Mini- and mainframe computers.- 5.2.4 Summary of computer types.- 5.3 SCADA and DCS systems.- 5.3.1 SCADA system.- 5.3.2 DCS equipment.- 5.4 Stand-alone controllers.- 5.5 Three term control.- 5.5.1 The purpose of three term control.- 5.5.2 Algorithm based three term control.- 5.5.3 Auto tuning.- 5.6 Hardware configuration.- 5.6.1 Single system.- 5.6.2 Single controller with remote I/O.- 5.6.3 Hierarchical system.- 5.6.4 Intelligent field sensors.- 5.7 Secure system configurations.- 5.7.1 Dual processor single I/O.- 5.7.2 Dual channel.- 5.7.3 Triple (or more) channels.- 5.7.4 Single channel with non-computer back-up.- 5.7.5 Safety considerations.- 5.7.6 Reboot and auto synchronising.- 5.8 Operator interfaces and maintenance aids.- 5.8.1 Operator interfaces.- 5.8.2 Maintenance data.- 5.9 Summary.- 6 Operator interfaces.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Operator functions.- 6.2.1 Supervision and alarm handling.- 6.2.2 Process overview.- 6.2.3 Production control.- 6.2.4 Maintenance.- 6.2.5 Which system?.- 6.3 Serving the person behind the machine.- 6.3.1 Ergonomics.- 6.3.2 Picture hierarchy.- 6.3.3 The need to know and the need for speed.- 6.3.4 How much information?.- 6.3.5 Alternatives to keyboards.- 6.3.6 Control-room design.- 6.4 The right system on the right level.- 6.4.1 The local operator interface.- 6.4.2 Centralised operator interface systems.- 6.4.3 Mimic panels.- 6.4.4 Monochrome VDUs.- 6.4.5 Printers.- 6.4.6 Interaction devices.- 6.4.7 Colour graphics.- 6.4.8 Management-level operator systems.- 6.5 Future operator interface systems.- 6.5.1 Presentation, simulation, evaluation.- 6.5.2 Back to the mimic, down to the process level.- 6.5.3 Integrated functions.- 6.6 Summary 118 Further reading.- 7 System accuracy and reliability.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Accuracy.- 7.2.1 General concepts.- 7.2.2 Why is accuracy important?.- 7.2.3 Terminology.- 7.2.4 System configuration.- 7.2.5 Processor arithmetic capability.- 7.2.6 Analog and digital signals.- 7.2.7 Digital integration.- 7.2.8 Example of weigh system accuracy.- 7.2.9 Example of metering accuracy.- 7.2.10 Example of level measurement accuracy.- 7.2.11 Estimation of overall system accuracy.- 7.3 Statistical quality control.- 7.3.1 Automated data acquisition.- 7.4 Reliability.- 7.4.1 General concepts.- 7.4.2 System reliability analysis.- 7.4.3 Mean time between failure (MTBF).- 7.4.4 Failure rate.- 7.4.5 System availability.- 7.4.6 System configuration.- 7.4.7 Failure mode analysis.- 7.4.8 Series system.- 7.4.9 Redundant system.- 7.5 Software quality assurance.- 7.5.1 Software failure.- 7.5.2 Software error rate.- 7.5.3 Assuring software quality.- 7.5.4 Software quality assurance policy.- 7.5.5 Analysis and design methodology.- 7.5.6 Programming standards.- 7.6 Summary 148 Further reading.- 8 Achieving integration.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Integration.- 8.2.1 Background.- 8.2.2 Why integrate?.- 8.2.3 Information transfer requirements.- 8.2.4 System coordination.- 8.2.5 Connecting elements together.- 8.2.6 Defining integration.- 8.3 Feed forward.- 8.4 Feedback.- 8.5 Production management information.- 8.5.1 Resource optimisation.- 8.5.2 Manufacturing information.- 8.5.3 Material audit.- 8.5.4 Quality assurance.- 8.5.5 Telemetry systems.- 8.6 Summary.- 9 Computer enhancements.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Background.- 9.2.1 Why do you want a computer anyway?.- 9.2.2 Technology is well in advance of what you can buy.- 9.2.3 Who is going to specify and program the automation?.- 9.2.4 Who is going to maintain the system?.- 9.2.5 The push behind current developments.- 9.2.6 State of the art: what does it mean?.- 9.3 Hardware enhancements.- 9.3.1 Miniaturisation at operator and plant level.- 9.3.2 The rate of development for speed and size of processors.- 9.3.3 Transputers.- 9.3.4 Parallel processors.- 9.3.5 Multi processors.- 9.3.6 Dual systems.- 9.3.7 Dual standby systems.- 9.3.8 Dual and triple redundant systems.- 9.3.9 Inventions still waiting for technology to catch up.- 9.3.10 Production methods.- 9.3.11 Adaptive control.- 9.3.12 Opto electronics.- 9.3.13 Intelligent peripherals and input/output.- 9.4 Software enhancements.- 9.4.1 Standardisation.- 9.4.2 Software developments.- 9.4.3 Management information systems.- 9.4.4 Data acquisition and SCADA packages.- 9.4.5 Computer-aided process engineering.- 9.5 Hardware and software together.- 9.5.1 Reduced instruction set computers.- 9.5.2 Computer integrated manufacture.- 9.5.3 Factory of the future.- 9.6 Summary.- Further reading.- 10 Expert or knowledge-based systems.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Experts.- 10.3 Non-experts.- 10.4 Building expert systems.- 10.5 Technology.- 10.6 A practical guide.- 10.6.1 The very hard way: write it yourself.- 10.6.2 The quite hard and very very expensive way: use an AI toolkit.- 10.6.3 The cheapish but still fun way.- 10.7 Summary 195 Further reading.
Responsibility: edited by C.A. Moore.

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