|資料類型：||文獻, 政府刊物, 國家級的政府刊物, 網際網路資源|
Kandler Smith; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.)
|注意：||Title from PDF title screen (viewed on Dec. 28, 2012).
"Presented at the 2012 American Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, June 27-29, 2012."
|描述：||1 online resource (7 pages) : color illustrations.|
|詳述：||Full text available via Internet in .pdf format. Adobe Acrobat Reader required.|
|叢書名：||Conference paper (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.)), 5400-54698.|
|其他題名：||Opportunities for electric-drive vehicle battery health management|
|責任：||K. Smith [and others].|
Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.