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The Bedford handbook for writers

Author: Diana Hacker
Publisher: Boston : Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, ©1994.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 4th edView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
Unlike the instructor's editions that accompany other handbooks, this one can be held in your hand. This hardcover annotated edition extends the handbook lengthwise, so that it is a convenient size to bring to class. Information for instructors is placed at the bottom of the appropriate page, leaving the text page itself clean and uncluttered. This material is clearly distinguished from the student edition by a rule  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Handbooks and manuals
Handbooks, manuals, etc
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Diana Hacker
ISBN: 0312075308 9780312075309 0312075294 9780312075293 0312096003 9780312096007 0312137044 9780312137045 0312137036 9780312137038
OCLC Number: 30023187
Description: xlvi, 721, 28 pages : illustrations ; 19 cm
Contents: Preface for instructors --
How to use this book --
Part 1: Composing And Revising: --
Generate ideas and sketch a plan: --
Assessing the writing situation: --
Subject --
Sources of information --
Chart: Ways to narrow a subject to a topic --
Purpose --
Audience --
Length, document design, and deadlines --
Chart: Checklist for assessing the writing situation --
Exploring your subject: --
Listing --
Clustering or branching --
Asking questions --
Freewriting --
Keeping a journal --
Talking --
Settling on a tentative focus --
Sketching a tentative plan --
Rough out an initial draft: --
Letting it be rough --
Drafting an introduction that includes a thesis --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-the thesis sentence --
Filling out the body --
Attempting a conclusion --
Make global revisions: think big: --
Getting distance --
Approaching global revision in cycles --
Chart: Guidelines for peer reviewers --
Strengthening the content --
Sharpening the focus --
Improving the organization --
Clarifying the point of view --
Refining the tone --
Chart: Cycles of global revision --
Revise and edit sentences; proofread the final draft: --
Chart: Cycles of sentence-level revision --
Chart: Editing checklist --
Composing and revising on a word processor --
Expository student essay: Explaining an insight --
Descriptive student essay: Profiling a person or a place --
Narrative student essay: Re-creating an experience --
Part 2: Constructing Paragraphs: --
Focus on a main point: --
Stating the main point in a topic sentence --
Sticking to the point --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-topic sentences --
Develop the main point: --
Developing skimpy paragraphs --
Choosing a suitable pattern of development: --
Examples and illustrations --
Narration --
Description --
Process --
Comparison and contrast --
Analogy --
Cause and effect --
Classification and division --
Definition --
Arranging information: --
Order of time --
Order of space --
Order of climax --
Adjusting paragraph length --
Improve coherence: --
Linking ideas clearly --
Repeating key words --
Using parallel structures --
Maintaining consistency --
Providing transitions --Part 3: Crafting Sentences: --
Coordinate equal ideas; subordinate minor ideas: --
Chart: Using coordination to combine sentences of equal importance --
Chart: Using subordination to combine sentences of unequal importance --
Choppy sentences --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-choppy sentences --
Ineffective or excessive coordination --
Subordination for emphasis --
Excessive subordination --
Balance parallel ideas: --
In a series --
Presented as pairs --
Repetition of function words --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-parallelism --
Add needed words: --
In compound structures --
That --
In comparisons --
A, an, and the --
Untangle mixed constructions: --
Mixed grammar --
Illogical connections --
Is when, is where, and reason-is because --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-mixed constructions --
Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers: --
Limiting modifiers --
Misplaced phrases and clauses --
Awkwardly placed modifiers --
Split infinitives --
Dangling modifiers --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-dangling modifiers --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for dangling modifiers --
Eliminate distracting shifts: --
Person, number --
Verb tense --
Verb mood, voice --
Indirect to direct questions or quotations --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-shifts --
Emphasize your point: --
Active verbs --
Subject that names actor --
Special techniques --
Provide some variety: --
Sentence openings --
Sentence structures --
Inverted order --
Adding a question or quotation --
Part 4: Choosing Words: --
Tighten wordy sentences: --
Redundancies --
Unnecessary repetition --
Empty or inflated phrases --
Simplifying the structure --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for wordy sentences --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-wordy sentences --
Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words --
Choose appropriate language: --
Jargon --
Pretentious language, euphemisms, "doublespeak" --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-jargon and pretentious language --
Obsolete, archaic, and invented words --
Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English --
Levels of formality --
Sexist language --
Chart: Avoiding sexist language --
Find the exact words: --
Connotations --
Specific, concrete nouns --
Misused words --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-misused words --
Standard idioms --
Worn-out expressions --
Figures of speech --
Part 5: Editing For Grammar: --
Repair sentence fragments: --
Subordinate clauses --
Phrases --
Other fragmented word groups --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-sentence fragments --
Acceptable fragments --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for sentence fragments --
Revise comma splices and fused sentences: --
Correction with coordinating conjunction --
Correction with semicolon, colon, dash --
Correction by separating sentences --
Correction by restructuring --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-comma splices and fused sentences --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for comma splices and fused sentences --
Make subjects and verbs agree: --
Words between subject and verb --
Compound subjects with and --
Compound subjects with or, nor, either-or, or neither-nor --
Indefinite pronouns --
Collective nouns --
Subject following verb --
Subject complement --
Who, which, and that --
Words with plural form, singular meaning --
Titles of works, words mentioned as words --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-subject-verb agreement --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with subject-verb agreement --
Make pronouns and antecedents agree: --
Singular with singular, plural with plural: --
Indefinite pronouns --
Generic nouns --
Collective nouns --
Compound antecedents with and --
Compound antecedents with or, nor, either-or, or neither-not --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-pronoun-antecedent agreement --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with pronoun-antecedent agreement --
Make pronoun references clear: --
Ambiguous or remote reference --
Broad reference of this, that, which, and it --
Implied antecedents --
Indefinite use of they, it, and you --
Who for persons, that or which for things --
Use personal pronouns and nouns in the proper case: --
Subjects and subject complements --
Objects --
Appositives --
Elliptical constructions --
We or us before a noun --
Subjects and objects of infinitives --
Pronoun modifying a gerund --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with pronoun case --
Use who and whom in the proper case: --
In subordinate clauses --
In questions --
Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with who and whom --
Choose adjectives and adverbs with care: --
Adverbs as modifiers --
Adjectives as complements --
Comparatives and superlatives --
Double negatives --
Choose standard English verb forms: --
Irregular verbs --
lie and lay --
S(or -es) endings --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-problems with -s endings on verbs --
Ed endings --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-problems with -ed endings on verbs --
Omitted verbs --
Use verbs in the appropriate tense, mood, and voice: --
Verb tense --
Subjunctive mood --
Active and passive voice. Part 6: Editing For ESL Problems: --
Be alert to special problems with verbs: --
Helping verbs and main verbs --
Verbs in conditional sentences --
Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives --
Two-word verbs --
Omitted verbs --
Use the articles a, an, and the appropriately: --
When to use a (or an) --
When not to use a (or an) --
When to use the --
When not to use the --
Be aware of other potential trouble spots: --
Omitted subjects, omitted there, it --
Repeated subjects --
Repeated objects, adverbs in adjective clauses --
Placement of adjectives and adverbs --
Chart: Usual order of cumulative adjectives --
Confusion of present and past participles --
Prepositions showing time and place --
Chart: At, on, and in to show time and place --
Part 7: Editing For Punctuation: --
Comma: --
Independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunction --
Introductory clauses or phrases --
Items in a series --
Coordinate adjectives --
Nonrestrictive elements --
Transitional and parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasted elements --
Nouns of direct address, the words yes and no, interrogative tags, mild interjections --
Expressions such as he said --
Dates, addresses, titles, numbers --
Preventing confusion --
Chart: Major uses of the comma --
Unnecessary commas: --
Between compound elements that are not independent clauses --
After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence --
Before the first or after the last item in a series --
Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective --
Before and after restrictive or mildly parenthetical elements --
Before essential adverbial concluding elements --
Between a verb and its subject or object --
Other misuses --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-the comma and unnecessary commas --
Semicolon: --
Independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction --
Independent clauses linked with a conjunctive adverb or transitional phrase --
Series containing internal punctuation --
Misuses --
Colon: --
Before a list, an appositive, or a quotation introduced by an independent clause --
Between independent clauses --
Salutations, hours and minutes, proportions, titles and subtitles, bibliographic entries --
Misuses --
Apostrophe: --
Possessive nouns --
Possessive indefinite pronouns --
Contractions --
Plurals of numbers mentioned as numbers, letters mentioned as letters, words mentioned as words, abbreviations --
Misuses --
Quotation marks: --
Direct quotations --
Long quotations --
Quotation within a quotation --
Titles --
Words as words --
With other punctuation marks --
Misuses --
End punctuation: --
Period --
Question mark --
Exclamation point --
Other punctuation marks: the dash, parentheses, brackets, the ellipsis mark, the slash: --
Dash --
Parentheses --
Brackets --
Ellipsis mark --
Slash --Part 8: Editing For Mechanics: --
Abbreviations: --
Titles with proper names --
Organizations, corporations, and countries --
Conventional abbreviations --
Latin abbreviations --
Misuses --
Numbers: --
Spelling out --
Using figures --
Italics (underlining): --
Titles of works --
Names of spacecraft, aircraft, ships, and trains --
Foreign words --
Words mentioned as words, letters mentioned as letters, and numbers mentioned as numbers --
Misuses --
Spelling: --
Dictionary --
Words that sound alike --
Spelling rules --
Commonly misspelled words --
Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-spelling --
Hyphen: --
Compound words --
Hyphenated adjectives --
Fractions and compound numbers --
With certain prefixes and suffixes --
To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters --
Word division --
Capital letters: --
Proper versus common nouns --
Titles with proper names --
Titles and subtitles of works --
First word of a sentence --
First word of a quoted sentence --
First word after a colon --
Abbreviations --
Part 9: Research Guide: --
Conducting research: --
Posing questions worth exploring: --
Narrowing your focus --
Becoming familiar with your library --
Following a search strategy: --
Reference works --
Books --
Periodicals --
Other library sources --
Sources beyond the library --
Reading critically: --
Reading selectively --
Maintaining a working bibliography --
Reading with a critical eye: --
Distinguishing between primary and secondary sources --
Being alert for signs of bias --
Assessing the author's argument --
Taking notes: --
Taking systematic notes --
Avoiding plagiarism while taking notes: --
Notes that summarize --
Notes that paraphrase --
Notes that quote --
Personal notes --
Writing the research paper: --
Forming a thesis and constructing an outline --
Drafting the paper --
Documenting sources --
Avoiding plagiarism: --
Documenting quotations and borrowed ideas --
Avoiding close paraphrases --
Limiting and integrating quotations: --
Integrating quotations --
Handling long quotations --
Using the ellipsis mark and brackets --
Chart: Reviewing your use of quotations --
Chart: Reviewing your use of summaries and paraphrases --
Revising the paper --
Preparing a list of works cited --
Using the MLA system for documenting sources: --
MLA in-text citations --
Chart: Directory to the MLA system --
MLA information notes --
MLA list of works cited: --
Books --
Articles in periodicals --
Other sources --
Sample student research paper: MLA style --
Alternative systems for documenting sources: --
Chart: Directory to the APA system --
Chart: Directory to footnotes or endnotes --
APA in-text citations --
APA references (bibliographic list): --
Books --
Articles in periodicals --
Other sources --
Sample student paper: APA style --
Footnotes or endnotes --
Style manuals for various disciplines --
Part 10: Special Types Of Writing: --
Writing arguments: --
Planning a strategy --
Framing a thesis and stating your major arguments --
Drafting an introduction --
Providing specific evidence --
Anticipating objections and refuting opposing arguments --
Avoiding common mistakes in reasoning --
Writing about literature: --
Reading actively: --
Annotating the work and taking notes --
Forming an interpretation --
Chart: Questions to ask about literature --
Planning the essay: --
Drafting a tentative thesis --
Sketching an outline --
Supporting your interpretation with evidence from the text: --
Avoiding simple plot summary --
Observing the conventions --
Documenting sources: avoiding plagiarism --
Sample student essay (without secondary sources) --
Sample student essay (with secondary sources) --
Part 11: Document Design: --
Principles of document design: --
Selecting appropriate format options: --
Margins, line spacing, and justification --
Fonts --
Columns --
Using headings: --
Phrasing headings --
Placing and formatting headings --
Using displayed lists --
Using visuals: --
Using charts, graphs, tables, and diagrams --
Placing visuals --
Academic essay formats: --
MLA guidelines --
APA guidelines --
Business formats: --
Business letters --
Resumes --
Memos --
Part 12: Grammar Basics: --
Parts of speech: --
Nouns --
Pronouns --
Verbs --
Adjectives --
Adverbs --
Prepositions --
Conjunctions --
Interjections --
Chart: Parts of speech --
Sentence patterns: --
Subjects --
Verbs, objects, and complements --
Chart: Sentence patterns --
Pattern variations --
Subordinate word groups: --
Prepositional phrases --
Subordinate clauses --
Chart: Words that introduce subordinate clauses --
Verbal phrases --
Appositive phrases --
Absolute phrases --
Sentence types: --
Sentence structures --
Sentence purposes --
Glossary of usage --
Answers to lettered exercises --
Index.
Responsibility: Diana Hacker.

Abstract:

Unlike the instructor's editions that accompany other handbooks, this one can be held in your hand. This hardcover annotated edition extends the handbook lengthwise, so that it is a convenient size to bring to class. Information for instructors is placed at the bottom of the appropriate page, leaving the text page itself clean and uncluttered. This material is clearly distinguished from the student edition by a rule and by a colored screen. The annotations include the following information: answers to all of the lettered and numbered exercises in a convenient place for classroom use; Scholars on writing-annotated bibliographic references to pertinent scholarly and professional articles and books; and Writers on Writing-quotations from well-known writers on the composing process. In addition, the annotations include cross-references to the handbook's ancillaries, so that instructors can quickly see what additional resources are available in the ancillary package.--page IAE-2.

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Primary Entity

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   library:placeOfPublication <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Boston> ; # Boston
   library:placeOfPublication <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/mau> ;
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2260973664#Topic/english_language_grammar> ; # English language--Grammar
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2260973664#Topic/report_writing> ; # Report writing
   schema:about <http://dewey.info/class/808.042/e20/> ;
   schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/911209> ; # English language--Grammar
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2260973664#Topic/english_language_rhetoric> ; # English language--Rhetoric
   schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/911581> ; # English language--Rhetoric
   schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1094836> ; # Report writing
   schema:bookEdition "4th ed." ;
   schema:bookFormat bgn:PrintBook ;
   schema:copyrightYear "1994" ;
   schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/55407402> ; # Diana Hacker
   schema:datePublished "1994" ;
   schema:description "Unlike the instructor's editions that accompany other handbooks, this one can be held in your hand. This hardcover annotated edition extends the handbook lengthwise, so that it is a convenient size to bring to class. Information for instructors is placed at the bottom of the appropriate page, leaving the text page itself clean and uncluttered. This material is clearly distinguished from the student edition by a rule and by a colored screen. The annotations include the following information: answers to all of the lettered and numbered exercises in a convenient place for classroom use; Scholars on writing-annotated bibliographic references to pertinent scholarly and professional articles and books; and Writers on Writing-quotations from well-known writers on the composing process. In addition, the annotations include cross-references to the handbook's ancillaries, so that instructors can quickly see what additional resources are available in the ancillary package.--page IAE-2."@en ;
   schema:description "Part 6: Editing For ESL Problems: -- Be alert to special problems with verbs: -- Helping verbs and main verbs -- Verbs in conditional sentences -- Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives -- Two-word verbs -- Omitted verbs -- Use the articles a, an, and the appropriately: -- When to use a (or an) -- When not to use a (or an) -- When to use the -- When not to use the -- Be aware of other potential trouble spots: -- Omitted subjects, omitted there, it -- Repeated subjects -- Repeated objects, adverbs in adjective clauses -- Placement of adjectives and adverbs -- Chart: Usual order of cumulative adjectives -- Confusion of present and past participles -- Prepositions showing time and place -- Chart: At, on, and in to show time and place -- Part 7: Editing For Punctuation: -- Comma: -- Independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunction -- Introductory clauses or phrases -- Items in a series -- Coordinate adjectives -- Nonrestrictive elements -- Transitional and parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasted elements -- Nouns of direct address, the words yes and no, interrogative tags, mild interjections -- Expressions such as he said -- Dates, addresses, titles, numbers -- Preventing confusion -- Chart: Major uses of the comma -- Unnecessary commas: -- Between compound elements that are not independent clauses -- After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence -- Before the first or after the last item in a series -- Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective -- Before and after restrictive or mildly parenthetical elements -- Before essential adverbial concluding elements -- Between a verb and its subject or object -- Other misuses -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-the comma and unnecessary commas -- Semicolon: -- Independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction -- Independent clauses linked with a conjunctive adverb or transitional phrase -- Series containing internal punctuation -- Misuses -- Colon: -- Before a list, an appositive, or a quotation introduced by an independent clause -- Between independent clauses -- Salutations, hours and minutes, proportions, titles and subtitles, bibliographic entries -- Misuses -- Apostrophe: -- Possessive nouns -- Possessive indefinite pronouns -- Contractions -- Plurals of numbers mentioned as numbers, letters mentioned as letters, words mentioned as words, abbreviations -- Misuses -- Quotation marks: -- Direct quotations -- Long quotations -- Quotation within a quotation -- Titles -- Words as words -- With other punctuation marks -- Misuses -- End punctuation: -- Period -- Question mark -- Exclamation point -- Other punctuation marks: the dash, parentheses, brackets, the ellipsis mark, the slash: -- Dash -- Parentheses -- Brackets -- Ellipsis mark -- Slash --Part 8: Editing For Mechanics: -- Abbreviations: -- Titles with proper names -- Organizations, corporations, and countries -- Conventional abbreviations -- Latin abbreviations -- Misuses -- Numbers: -- Spelling out -- Using figures -- Italics (underlining): -- Titles of works -- Names of spacecraft, aircraft, ships, and trains -- Foreign words -- Words mentioned as words, letters mentioned as letters, and numbers mentioned as numbers -- Misuses -- Spelling: -- Dictionary -- Words that sound alike -- Spelling rules -- Commonly misspelled words -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-spelling -- Hyphen: -- Compound words -- Hyphenated adjectives -- Fractions and compound numbers -- With certain prefixes and suffixes -- To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters -- Word division -- Capital letters: -- Proper versus common nouns -- Titles with proper names -- Titles and subtitles of works -- First word of a sentence -- First word of a quoted sentence -- First word after a colon -- Abbreviations -- Part 9: Research Guide: -- Conducting research: -- Posing questions worth exploring: -- Narrowing your focus -- Becoming familiar with your library -- Following a search strategy: -- Reference works -- Books -- Periodicals -- Other library sources -- Sources beyond the library -- Reading critically: -- Reading selectively -- Maintaining a working bibliography -- Reading with a critical eye: -- Distinguishing between primary and secondary sources -- Being alert for signs of bias -- Assessing the author's argument -- Taking notes: -- Taking systematic notes -- Avoiding plagiarism while taking notes: -- Notes that summarize -- Notes that paraphrase -- Notes that quote -- Personal notes -- Writing the research paper: -- Forming a thesis and constructing an outline -- Drafting the paper -- Documenting sources -- Avoiding plagiarism: -- Documenting quotations and borrowed ideas -- Avoiding close paraphrases -- Limiting and integrating quotations: -- Integrating quotations -- Handling long quotations -- Using the ellipsis mark and brackets -- Chart: Reviewing your use of quotations -- Chart: Reviewing your use of summaries and paraphrases -- Revising the paper -- Preparing a list of works cited -- Using the MLA system for documenting sources: -- MLA in-text citations -- Chart: Directory to the MLA system -- MLA information notes -- MLA list of works cited: -- Books -- Articles in periodicals -- Other sources -- Sample student research paper: MLA style -- Alternative systems for documenting sources: -- Chart: Directory to the APA system -- Chart: Directory to footnotes or endnotes -- APA in-text citations -- APA references (bibliographic list): -- Books -- Articles in periodicals -- Other sources -- Sample student paper: APA style -- Footnotes or endnotes -- Style manuals for various disciplines -- Part 10: Special Types Of Writing: -- Writing arguments: -- Planning a strategy -- Framing a thesis and stating your major arguments -- Drafting an introduction -- Providing specific evidence -- Anticipating objections and refuting opposing arguments -- Avoiding common mistakes in reasoning -- Writing about literature: -- Reading actively: -- Annotating the work and taking notes -- Forming an interpretation -- Chart: Questions to ask about literature -- Planning the essay: -- Drafting a tentative thesis -- Sketching an outline -- Supporting your interpretation with evidence from the text: -- Avoiding simple plot summary -- Observing the conventions -- Documenting sources: avoiding plagiarism -- Sample student essay (without secondary sources) -- Sample student essay (with secondary sources) -- Part 11: Document Design: -- Principles of document design: -- Selecting appropriate format options: -- Margins, line spacing, and justification -- Fonts -- Columns -- Using headings: -- Phrasing headings -- Placing and formatting headings -- Using displayed lists -- Using visuals: -- Using charts, graphs, tables, and diagrams -- Placing visuals -- Academic essay formats: -- MLA guidelines -- APA guidelines -- Business formats: -- Business letters -- Resumes -- Memos -- Part 12: Grammar Basics: -- Parts of speech: -- Nouns -- Pronouns -- Verbs -- Adjectives -- Adverbs -- Prepositions -- Conjunctions -- Interjections -- Chart: Parts of speech -- Sentence patterns: -- Subjects -- Verbs, objects, and complements -- Chart: Sentence patterns -- Pattern variations -- Subordinate word groups: -- Prepositional phrases -- Subordinate clauses -- Chart: Words that introduce subordinate clauses -- Verbal phrases -- Appositive phrases -- Absolute phrases -- Sentence types: -- Sentence structures -- Sentence purposes -- Glossary of usage -- Answers to lettered exercises -- Index."@en ;
   schema:description "Preface for instructors -- How to use this book -- Part 1: Composing And Revising: -- Generate ideas and sketch a plan: -- Assessing the writing situation: -- Subject -- Sources of information -- Chart: Ways to narrow a subject to a topic -- Purpose -- Audience -- Length, document design, and deadlines -- Chart: Checklist for assessing the writing situation -- Exploring your subject: -- Listing -- Clustering or branching -- Asking questions -- Freewriting -- Keeping a journal -- Talking -- Settling on a tentative focus -- Sketching a tentative plan -- Rough out an initial draft: -- Letting it be rough -- Drafting an introduction that includes a thesis -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-the thesis sentence -- Filling out the body -- Attempting a conclusion -- Make global revisions: think big: -- Getting distance -- Approaching global revision in cycles -- Chart: Guidelines for peer reviewers -- Strengthening the content -- Sharpening the focus -- Improving the organization -- Clarifying the point of view -- Refining the tone -- Chart: Cycles of global revision -- Revise and edit sentences; proofread the final draft: -- Chart: Cycles of sentence-level revision -- Chart: Editing checklist -- Composing and revising on a word processor -- Expository student essay: Explaining an insight -- Descriptive student essay: Profiling a person or a place -- Narrative student essay: Re-creating an experience -- Part 2: Constructing Paragraphs: -- Focus on a main point: -- Stating the main point in a topic sentence -- Sticking to the point -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-topic sentences -- Develop the main point: -- Developing skimpy paragraphs -- Choosing a suitable pattern of development: -- Examples and illustrations -- Narration -- Description -- Process -- Comparison and contrast -- Analogy -- Cause and effect -- Classification and division -- Definition -- Arranging information: -- Order of time -- Order of space -- Order of climax -- Adjusting paragraph length -- Improve coherence: -- Linking ideas clearly -- Repeating key words -- Using parallel structures -- Maintaining consistency -- Providing transitions --Part 3: Crafting Sentences: -- Coordinate equal ideas; subordinate minor ideas: -- Chart: Using coordination to combine sentences of equal importance -- Chart: Using subordination to combine sentences of unequal importance -- Choppy sentences -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-choppy sentences -- Ineffective or excessive coordination -- Subordination for emphasis -- Excessive subordination -- Balance parallel ideas: -- In a series -- Presented as pairs -- Repetition of function words -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-parallelism -- Add needed words: -- In compound structures -- That -- In comparisons -- A, an, and the -- Untangle mixed constructions: -- Mixed grammar -- Illogical connections -- Is when, is where, and reason-is because -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-mixed constructions -- Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers: -- Limiting modifiers -- Misplaced phrases and clauses -- Awkwardly placed modifiers -- Split infinitives -- Dangling modifiers -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-dangling modifiers -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for dangling modifiers -- Eliminate distracting shifts: -- Person, number -- Verb tense -- Verb mood, voice -- Indirect to direct questions or quotations -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-shifts -- Emphasize your point: -- Active verbs -- Subject that names actor -- Special techniques -- Provide some variety: -- Sentence openings -- Sentence structures -- Inverted order -- Adding a question or quotation -- Part 4: Choosing Words: -- Tighten wordy sentences: -- Redundancies -- Unnecessary repetition -- Empty or inflated phrases -- Simplifying the structure -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for wordy sentences -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-wordy sentences -- Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words -- Choose appropriate language: -- Jargon -- Pretentious language, euphemisms, "doublespeak" -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-jargon and pretentious language -- Obsolete, archaic, and invented words -- Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English -- Levels of formality -- Sexist language -- Chart: Avoiding sexist language -- Find the exact words: -- Connotations -- Specific, concrete nouns -- Misused words -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-misused words -- Standard idioms -- Worn-out expressions -- Figures of speech -- Part 5: Editing For Grammar: -- Repair sentence fragments: -- Subordinate clauses -- Phrases -- Other fragmented word groups -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-sentence fragments -- Acceptable fragments -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for sentence fragments -- Revise comma splices and fused sentences: -- Correction with coordinating conjunction -- Correction with semicolon, colon, dash -- Correction by separating sentences -- Correction by restructuring -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-comma splices and fused sentences -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for comma splices and fused sentences -- Make subjects and verbs agree: -- Words between subject and verb -- Compound subjects with and -- Compound subjects with or, nor, either-or, or neither-nor -- Indefinite pronouns -- Collective nouns -- Subject following verb -- Subject complement -- Who, which, and that -- Words with plural form, singular meaning -- Titles of works, words mentioned as words -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-subject-verb agreement -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with subject-verb agreement -- Make pronouns and antecedents agree: -- Singular with singular, plural with plural: -- Indefinite pronouns -- Generic nouns -- Collective nouns -- Compound antecedents with and -- Compound antecedents with or, nor, either-or, or neither-not -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-pronoun-antecedent agreement -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with pronoun-antecedent agreement -- Make pronoun references clear: -- Ambiguous or remote reference -- Broad reference of this, that, which, and it -- Implied antecedents -- Indefinite use of they, it, and you -- Who for persons, that or which for things -- Use personal pronouns and nouns in the proper case: -- Subjects and subject complements -- Objects -- Appositives -- Elliptical constructions -- We or us before a noun -- Subjects and objects of infinitives -- Pronoun modifying a gerund -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with pronoun case -- Use who and whom in the proper case: -- In subordinate clauses -- In questions -- Chart: Reviewing your writing for problems with who and whom -- Choose adjectives and adverbs with care: -- Adverbs as modifiers -- Adjectives as complements -- Comparatives and superlatives -- Double negatives -- Choose standard English verb forms: -- Irregular verbs -- lie and lay -- S(or -es) endings -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-problems with -s endings on verbs -- Ed endings -- Chart: Looking at yourself as a writer-problems with -ed endings on verbs -- Omitted verbs -- Use verbs in the appropriate tense, mood, and voice: -- Verb tense -- Subjunctive mood -- Active and passive voice."@en ;
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