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Bio-based plastics : materials and applications

Author: Stephan Kabasci
Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom : John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2014.
Series: Wiley series in renewable resources.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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This book serves as an up-to-date, broad, but concise overview of basic and applied aspects of bio-based plastics, focusing primarily on thermoplastic polymers for material use. Chapters focus on  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Bio-based plastics.
Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom : John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2014
(DLC) 2013026528
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Stephan Kabasci
ISBN: 9781118676738 1118676734 9781118676783 1118676785 9781118676646 1118676645 1119994004 9781119994008
OCLC Number: 852958602
Description: 1 online resource.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1. Bio-Based Plastics --
Introduction / Stephan Kabasci --
1.1. Definition of Bio-Based Plastics --
1.2. A Brief History of Bio-Based Plastics --
1.3. Market for Bio-Based Plastics --
1.4. Scope of the Book --
2. Starch / Sebastia Gesti Garcia --
2.1. Introduction --
2.2. Starch --
2.3. Starch-Filled Plastics --
2.4. Structural Starch Modifications --
2.4.1. Starch Gelatinization and Retrogradation --
2.4.2. Starch Jet-Cooking --
2.4.3. Starch Extrusion Cooking --
2.4.4. Starch Destructurization in Absence of Synthetic Polymers --
2.4.5. Starch Destructurization in Presence of Synthetic Polymers --
2.4.6. Additional Information on Starch Complexation --
2.5. Starch-Based Materials on the Market --
2.6. Conclusions --
References --
3. Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate / Hans-Peter Fink --
3.1. Introduction --
3.2. Raw Materials --
3.3. Structure --
3.3.1. Cellulose --
3.3.2. Cellulose Derivatives --
3.4. Principles of Cellulose Technology 3.4.1. Regenerated Cellulose --
3.4.2. Organic Cellulose Esters --
Cellulose Acetate --
3.5. Properties and Applications of Cellulose-Based Plastics --
3.5.1. Fibres --
3.5.2. Films --
3.5.3. Moulded Articles --
3.6. Some Recent Developments --
3.6.1. Cellulose --
3.6.2. Cellulose Acetate and Mixed Esters --
3.7. Conclusion --
References --
4. Materials Based on Chitin and Chitosan / Marguerite Rinaudo --
4.1. Introduction --
4.2. Preparation and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan --
4.2.1. Chitin: Characteristics and Characterization --
4.2.2. Chitosan: Preparation and Characterization --
4.3. Processing of Chitin to Materials and Applications --
4.3.1. Processing of Chitin and Physical Properties of Materials --
4.3.2. Applications of Chitin-Based Materials --
4.4. Chitosan Processing to Materials and Applications --
4.4.1. Processing of Chitosan --
4.4.2. Application of Chitosan-Based Materials --
4.5. Conclusion --
References --
5. Lignin Matrix Composites from Natural Resources --
ARBOFORM® / Norbert Eisenreich 5.1. Introduction --
5.2. Approaches for Plastics Completely Made from Natural Resources --
5.3. Formulation of Lignin Matrix Composites (ARBOFORM) --
5.3.1. Lignin --
5.3.2. Basic Formulations and Processing of ARBOFORM --
5.3.3. The Influence of the Fibre Content --
5.4. Chemical Free Lignin from High Pressure Thermo-Hydrolysis (Aquasolv) --
5.4.1. Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Lignin Types --
5.4.2. Lignin Extraction by High-Pressure Hydrothermolysis (HPH) --
5.4.3. Thermoplastic Processing of Aquasolv Lignin --
5.5. Functionalizing Lignin Matrix Composites --
5.5.1. Impact Strength --
5.5.2. Flame Retardancy --
5.5.3. Electrical Conductivity with Nanoparticles --
5.5.4. Pyrolysis to Porous Carbonaceous Structures --
5.6. Injection Moulding of Parts --
Case Studies --
5.6.1. Loudspeaker Boxes --
5.6.2. Precision Parts --
5.6.3. Thin Walled and Decorative Gift Boxes and Toys --
Acknowledgements --
References --
6. Bioplastics from Lipids / Stuart Coles --
6.1. Introduction --
6.2. Definition and Structure of Lipids 6.2.1. Fatty Acids --
6.2.2. Mono-, Di- and Tri-Substituted Glycerols --
6.2.3. Phospholipids --
6.2.4. Other Compounds --
6.3. Sources and Biosynthesis of Lipids --
6.3.1. Sources of Lipids --
6.3.2. Biosynthesis of Lipids --
6.3.3. Composition of Triglycerides --
6.4. Extraction of Plant Oils, Triglycerides and Their Associated Compounds --
6.4.1. Seed Cleaning and Preparation --
6.4.2. Seed Pressing --
6.4.3. Liquid Extraction --
6.4.4. Post Extraction Processing --
6.5. Biopolymers from Plant Oils, Triglycerides and Their Associated Compounds --
6.5.1. Generic Triglycerides --
6.5.2. Common Manipulations of Triglycerides --
6.5.3. Soybean Oil-Based Bioplastics --
6.5.4. Castor Oil-Based Bioplastics --
6.5.5. Linseed Oil-Based Bioplastics --
6.5.6. Other Plant Oil-Based Bioplastics --
6.5.7. Biological Synthesis of Polymers --
6.6. Applications --
6.6.1. Mimicking to Reduce R & D Risk --
6.6.2. Composites --
6.6.3. Coatings --
6.6.4. Packaging Materials --
6.6.5. Foams --
6.6.6. Biomedical Applications --
6.6.7. Other Applications 6.7. Conclusions --
References --
7. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Basics, Production and Applications of Microbial Biopolyesters / Gerhart Braunegg --
7.1. Microbial PHA Production, Metabolism, and Structure --
7.1.1. Occurrence of PHAs --
7.1.2. In Vivo Characteristics and Biological Role of PHAs --
7.1.3. Structure and Composition of PHAs --
7.1.4. Metabolic Aspects --
7.2. Available Raw Materials for PHA Production --
7.3. Recovery of PHA from Biomass --
7.3.1. General Aspects of PHA Recovery --
7.3.2. Direct Extraction of PHA from Biomass --
7.3.3. Digestion of the non-PHA Cellular Material --
7.3.4. Disruption of Cells of Osmophilic Microbes in Hypotonic Medium --
7.4. Different Types of PHA --
7.4.1. Short Chain Length vs. Medium Chain Length PHAs --
7.4.2. Enzymatic Background: PHA Synthases --
7.5. Global PHA Production --
7.6. Applications of PHAs --
7.6.1. General --
7.6.2. Packaging and Commodity Items --
7.6.3. Medical Applications --
7.6.4. Application of the Monomeric Building Blocks --
7.6.5. Smart Materials --
7.6.6. Controlled Release of Active Agents. 7.7. Economic Challenges in the Production of PHAs and Attempts to Overcome Them --
7.7.1. PHA Production as a Holistic Process --
7.7.2. Substrates as Economic Factor --
7.7.3. Downstream Processing --
7.7.4. Process Design --
7.7.5. Contemporary Attempts to Enhance PHA Production in Terms of Economics and Product Quality --
7.8. Process Design --
7.9. Conclusion --
References --
8. Poly(Lactic Acid) / Hideto Tsuji --
8.1. Introduction --
8.2. Historical Outline --
8.3. Synthesis of Monomer --
8.4. Synthesis of Poly(Lactic Acid) --
8.4.1. Homopolymers --
8.4.2. Linear Copolymers --
8.5. Processing --
8.6. Crystallization --
8.6.1. Crystal Structures --
8.6.2. Crystalline Morphology --
8.6.3. Crystallization Behaviour --
8.7. Physical Properties --
8.7.1. Mechanical Properties --
8.7.2. Thermal Properties --
8.7.3. Permeability --
8.7.4. Surface Properties --
8.7.5. Electrical Properties --
8.7.6. Optical Properties --
8.8. Hydrolytic Degradation --
8.8.1. Degradation Mechanism --
8.8.2. Effects of Surrounding Media --
8.8.3. Effects of Material Parameters 8.9. Thermal Degradation --
8.10. Biodegradation --
8.11. Photodegradation --
8.12. High-Performance Poly(Lactic Acid)-Based Materials --
8.12.1. Nucleating or Crystallization-Accelerating Fillers --
8.12.2. Composites and Nanocomposites --
8.12.3. Fibre-Reinforced Plastics (FRPs) --
8.12.4. Stereocomplexation --
8.13. Applications --
8.13.1. Alternatives to Petro-Based Polymers --
8.13.2. Biomedical --
8.13.3. Environmental Applications --
8.14. Recycling --
8.15. Conclusions --
References --
9. Other Polyesters from Biomass Derived Monomers / Jacco van Haveren --
9.1. Introduction --
9.2. Isohexide Polyesters --
9.2.1. Introduction --
9.2.2. Semi-Aromatic Homo-Polyesters --
9.2.3. Semi-Aromatic Co-Polyesters --
9.2.4. Aliphatic Polyesters --
9.2.5. Modified Isohexides --
9.3. Furan-Based Polyesters --
9.3.1. Introduction --
9.3.2. 2,5-Dihydroxymethylfuran (DHMF)-Based Polyesters --
9.3.3. 5-Hydroxymethylfuroic Acid (HMFA) Based Polyesters --
9.3.4. Furan-2,5-Dicarboxylic Acid (FDCA) Based Polyesters --
9.3.5. Future Outlook --
9.4. Poly(Butylene Succinate) (PBS) and Its Copolymers 9.4.1. Succinic Acid --
9.4.2. 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) --
9.4.3. Poly(Butylene Succinate) (PBS) --
9.4.4. PBS Copolymers --
9.4.5. PBS Biodegradability --
9.4.6. PBS Processability --
9.4.7. PBS Blends --
9.4.8. PBS Markets and Applications --
9.4.9. Future Outlook --
9.5. Bio-Based Terephthalates --
9.5.1. Introduction --
9.5.2. Bio-Based Diols: Ethylene Glycol, 1,3-Propanediol, 1,4-Butanediol --
9.5.3. Bio-Based Xylenes, Isophthalic and Terephthalic Acid --
9.6. Conclusions --
References --
10. Polyamides from Biomass Derived Monomers / Benjamin Brehmer --
10.1. Introduction --
10.1.1. What are Polyamides? --
10.1.2. What is the Polymer Pyramid? --
10.1.3. Where do Polyamides from Biomass Derived Monomers Fit? --
10.2. Technical Performance of Polyamides --
10.2.1. How to Differentiate Performance --
10.2.2. Overview of Current Applications --
10.2.3. Typical Association of Biopolymers --
10.3. Chemical Synthesis --
10.3.1. Castor Bean to Intermediates --
10.3.2. Undecenoic Acid Route --
10.3.3. Sebacic Acid Route --
10.3.4. Decamethylene Diamine Route 10.4. Monomer Feedstock Supply Chain --
10.4.1. Description of Supply Chain --
10.4.2. Pricing Situation --
10.5. Producers --
10.6. Sustainability Aspects --
10.6.1. Biosourcing --
10.6.2. Lifecycle Assessments --
10.6.3. Labelling and Certification --
10.7. Improvement and Outlook --
References --
11. Polyolefin-Based Plastics from Biomass-Derived Monomers / R.J. Koopmans --
11.1. Introduction --
11.2. Polyolefin-Based Plastics --
11.3. Biomass --
11.4. Chemicals from Biomass --
11.5. Chemicals from Biotechnology --
11.6. Plastics from Biomass --
11.7. Polyolefin Plastics from Biomass and Petrochemical Technology --
11.7.1. One-Carbon Building Blocks --
11.7.2. Two-Carbon Building Blocks --
11.7.3. Three-Carbon Building Blocks --
11.8. Polyolefin Plastics from Biomass and BiotechnologyNote continued: 11.9. Bio-Polyethylene and Bio-Polypropylene --
11.10. Perspective and Outlook --
References --
12. Future Trends for Recombinant Protein-Based Polymers: The Case Study of Development and Application of Silk-Elastin-Like Polymers / Raul Machado --
12.1. Introduction --
12.2. Production of Recombinant Protein-Based Polymers (rPBPs) --
12.3. The Silk-Elastin-Like Polymers (SELPs) --
12.3.1. SELPs for Biomedical Applications: Hydrogels for Localized Delivery --
12.3.2. Mechanical Properties of SELP Hydrogels --
12.3.3. Spun Fibres --
12.3.4. Solvent Cast Films --
12.4. Final Considerations --
References --
13. Renewable Raw Materials and Feedstock for Bioplastics / Stephan Piotrowski --
13.1. Introduction --
13.2. First- and Second-Generation Crops: Advantages and Disadvantages 13.3. The Amount of Land Needed to Grow Feedstock for Bio-Based Plastics --
13.4. Productivity and Availability of Arable Land --
13.5. Research on Feedstock Optimization --
13.6. Advanced Breeding Technologies and Green Biotechnology --
13.7. Some Facts about Food Prices and Recent Food Price Increases --
13.8. Is there Enough Land for Food, Animal Feed, Bioenergy and Industrial Material Use, Including Bio-Based Plastics? --
References --
14. The Promise of Bioplastics --
Bio-Based and Biodegradable-Compostable Plastics / Ramani Narayan --
14.1. Value Proposition for Bio-Based Plastics --
14.2. Exemplars of Zero or Reduced Material Carbon Footprint --
Bio-PE, Bio-PET and PLA --
14.3. Process Carbon Footprint and LCA --
14.4. Determination of Bio-Based Carbon Content --
14.5. End-of-Life Options for Bioplastics --
Biodegradability-Compostability --
14.6. Summary --
References.
Series Title: Wiley series in renewable resources.
Responsibility: editor Stephan Kabasci.
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Most chapters are brief, but generally well supported by citations to the original literature. Useful figures and photographs supplement the text. A detailed table of contents and a useful index Read more...

 
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