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Biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes : soil ecosystem management in sustainable agriculture

Author: Graham R Stirling
Publisher: Wallingford, Oxfordshire ; Boston, MA : CABI, ©2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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This book integrates soil health, sustainable agriculture, nematode ecology and suppressive services provided by the soil food web to provide holistic solutions. With particular focus on integrated  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Graham R Stirling
ISBN: 9781780644158 1780644159
OCLC Number: 862400040
Description: xxiv, 510 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: SECTION I SETTING THE SCENE --
1. Ecosystem Services and the Concept of 'Integrated Soil Biology Management' --
Agriculture from an Ecological Perspective --
Biotic Interactions within the Soil Food Web --
Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes --
Sustainable Agriculture --
Soil Health --
The Rise of Conservation Agriculture --
Biological Control of Nematodes: Current Status and the Way Forward --
Integrated Soil Biology Management --
Transferring Ecological Knowledge into Practical Outcomes --
SECTION II THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT, SOIL ECOLOGY, SOIL HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE --
2. The Soil Environment and the Soil--Root Interface --
The Process of Soil Formation and the Composition of Soil --
The soil mineral fraction --
Soil organic matter --
Impact of Organic Matter on Soil Properties --
Organic matter and soil physical fertility --
Organic matter and soil chemical fertility --
Organic matter and soil biological fertility. Contents note continued: The Soil Environment and Its Impact on Nematodes and Other Soil Organisms --
Physical structure --
Soil water --
Aeration --
pH --
Soil temperature --
The Soil--Root Interface --
Roots and rhizodeposits: the energy source that sustains the soil biological community --
Microbial inhabitants of the soil and rhizosphere --
Microbial colonization of the rhizosphere --
Communication within the rhizosphere --
Plant--microbe--faunal interactions in the rhizosphere --
Effects of rhizosphere inhabitants on plant growth --
Manipulating the rhizosphere community --
Implications for Biological Control --
Impact of the soil environment --
Multitrophic interactions in a complex environment --
The soil and rhizosphere as a source of antagonists --
Establishment of biological control agents in soil and the rhizosphere --
Manipulating the soil biological community --
The role of organic matter --
3. The Soil Food Web and the Soil Nematode Community. Contents note continued: Major Groups of Organisms in Soil --
Microbiota --
Microfauna --
Mesofauna --
Macrofauna --
Structure of the Soil Food Web --
Impact of Land Management on Energy Channels within the Soil Food Web --
Interactions within the Soil Food Web --
Regulation of Populations by Resource Supply and Predation --
Impacts of the Soil Food Web on Ecosystem Processes: Storage and Cycling of Nutrients --
The Soil Nematode Community --
Trophic groups within the soil nematode community --
A functional guild classification for soil nematodes --
Ecological roles of free-living nematodes --
Microbial feeding --
Microbial transport --
Nutrient cycling --
Regulation of populations --
Plant-parasitic nematodes --
Major groups of plant-feeding nematodes and their economic impact --
Population dynamics and damage thresholds --
Implications for Biological Control --
The role of the soil food web and the soil environment. Contents note continued: Major crops and nematode pests: their relevance to biological control --
Endoparasitic nematodes as a target for biological control agents --
Sedentary endoparasites --
Migratory endoparasites --
Features that protect plant-parasitic nematodes from parasitism and predation --
4. Global Food Security, Soil Health and Sustainable Agriculture --
Global Food Security --
Sustainable Farming Systems --
Sustainable agricultural intensification --
Reduced tillage --
Continual cropping and maintenance of a permanent cover of plant residues --
Greater plant diversity --
Improved crop yield potential --
Optimized crop nutrition --
Efficient water management --
Site-specific management --
Integrated pest management --
Integrated crop and livestock production --
Soil Health --
Management impacts on soil health and the role of conservation agriculture --
Other management practices to improve soil health --
Well-adapted, high-yielding varieties. Contents note continued: Optimal nutrient management --
Efficient water management --
Integrated pest management --
Variable-rate application and site-specific management --
Integrated crop and livestock production --
Ecologically sound management systems: the pathway to healthy soils --
Soil-health benefits from conservation agriculture and precision farming: Australian examples --
Indicators of soil health --
Ecological Knowledge, Biotic Interactions and Agricultural Management --
Management effects on the soil biota and the limiting role of the environment --
Provision of ecosystem services by the soil biota and the role of management --
Integrated Soil Biology Management --
Ecologically Based Management Systems and the Role of Farmers --
Implications for Biological Control --
SECTION III NATURAL ENEMIES OF NEMATODES --
5. Nematophagous Fungi and Oomycetes --
Taxonomy, Infection Mechanisms, General Biology and Ecology --
Nematode-trapping fungi in the order Orbiliales. Contents note continued: Trapping structures --
Taxonomy --
Occurrence --
General biology and ecology --
Fungal and oomycete parasites of vermiform nematodes --
Stylopage --
Catenaria --
Nematoctonus, Hohenbuehelia and Pleurotus --
Drechmeria --
Harposporium --
Hirsutella --
Nematophagous oomycetes: Myzocytiopsis, Haptoglossa, Nematophthora and Lagenidiaceae --
Cyst and egg parasites --
Pochonia --
Purpureocillium --
Brachyphoris, Vermispora and the ARF fungus --
Other fungi --
Fungal-Nematode Interactions in Soil --
Saprophytic and parasitic modes of nutrition --
Factors influencing the saprophytic and parasitic activity of nematophagous fungi in soil --
Density-dependent response as nematode populations increase --
Competition from other soil organisms for nutrients --
Competition for nitrogen in high-carbon, low-nitrogen environments --
Nematophagous Fungi as Agents for Suppressing Nematode Populations --
Occurrence in agricultural soils. Contents note continued: Population density and predacious activity in soil --
The regulatory capacity of nematophagous fungi --
Endoparasitic fungi --
Nematode-trapping fungi --
Cyst and egg parasites --
Host specificity within the nematophagous fungi --
Interactions between nematophagous fungi and nematodes in the rhizosphere --
Association of nematode-trapping and endoparasitic fungi with roots --
Rhizosphere competence of fungi and oomycetes capable of parasitizing nematode cysts and eggs --
Nematophagous fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes --
Citrus root weevil, entomopathogenic nematodes and nematophagous fungi in citrus soil --
Moth larvae, entomopathogenic nematodes and nematophagous fungi in natural shrub-land soil --
The impact of organic matter on predacious activity --
Other factors influencing predacious activity --
Maximizing the Predacious Activity of Nematophagous Fungi in Agricultural Soils. Contents note continued: 6. Nematodes, Mites and Collembola as Predators of Nematodes, and the Role of Generalist Predators --
Predatory Nematodes --
Characteristics of the five major groups of predatory nematodes --
The prey of predatory soil nematodes --
Predatory nematodes as regulatory forces in the soil food web --
Impacts of agricultural management on omnivorous nematodes and generalist predators --
Short- and long-term effects of soil fumigation --
Negative effects of other agricultural management practices --
Management to maintain a well-structured soil food web --
Maintaining the suppressive services provided by predatory nematodes and other generalist predators --
Predatory nematodes and inundative biocontrol --
Microarthropods as Predators of Nematodes --
The main members of the soil mesofauna: mites, Collembola and Symphyla --
Evidence of nematophagy in various groups of microarthropods. Contents note continued: Results from field observations, feeding studies and analyses of gut contents --
Detection of predation using stable isotope ratios and molecular techniques --
Studies of 'fungivorous' and 'predatory' arthropods in microcosms --
Mesostigmata as predators of nematodes in agroecosystems --
Management to enhance microarthropod abundance and diversity in agricultural soils --
Miscellaneous Predators of Nematodes --
Generalist Predators as Suppressive Agents --
Concluding Remarks --
Generalist predators as indicators of ecological complexity and a capacity to suppress pests --
Conservation (or autonomous) biological control --
Practices associated with developing self-regulating agroecosystems --
The disconnect between agricultural scientists, soil ecologists and the farming community --
7. Obligate Parasites of Nematodes: Viruses and Bacteria in the Genus Pasteuria --
Viral Infectious Agents of Nematodes --
Bacteria in the Genus Pasteuria. Contents note continued: Distribution, host range and diversity --
Taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny --
Pasteuria penetrans: A Parasite of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) --
Life cycle and development --
Pathogenicity, pathogenesis and the impact of temperature --
Host specificity --
Estimating endospore numbers in soil --
The interaction between P. penetrans and its nematode host in soil --
Endospore production and release into soil --
The impact of the physical and chemical environment on endospores, and on the spore-attachment process --
Impact of spore concentration on nematode infectivity and fecundity --
Miscellaneous factors influencing the production and survival of endospores in soil --
The potential of P. penetrans as a biological control agent --
Pasteuria as a Parasite of Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) --
Taxonomy, phylogeny and host specificity --
Ecology and biological control potential. Contents note continued: Candidatus Pasteuria usgae Parasitic on Sting Nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) --
Taxonomy and host specificity --
Ecology and biological control potential --
Commercial products created by in vitro culture --
Pasteuria as a Parasite of Other Plant-parasitic and Free-living Nematodes --
Parasitism of root-lesion nematodes (Pratyknchns spp.) by Pasteuria thornei --
Parasitism of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) by Pasteuria --
An isolate of Pasteuria parasitizing a reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) --
Density-dependent parasitism of Xiphinema diversicaudalum by Pasteuria --
Associations between Pasteuria and other nematodes --
Concluding Remarks --
SECTION IV PLANT-MICROBIAL SYMBIONT-NEMATODE INTERACTIONS --
8. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Endophytic Fungi, Bacterial Endophytes and Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria --
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. Contents note continued: Benefits to plants from a symbiotic relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi --
Enhanced nutrient uptake --
Drought tolerance --
Improved soil structure --
Disease resistance --
Interactions between plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant-parasitic nematodes --
Management to enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi --
Reduced tillage --
Fallow management, cropping intensity, crop sequence and cover cropping --
Other crop and soil management practices --
Improving soil and plant health, and managing nematodes with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi --
Endophytic Fungi --
Grass endophytes --
Fusarium endophytes --
Nematode control with endophytic strains of Fusarium oxysporum --
Approaches to utilizing Fusarium-mediated resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes --
Endophytic nematophagous fungi --
Concluding remarks on fungal endophytes: moving into uncharted waters --
Bacterial Endophytes and Rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacteria. Contents note continued: Mechanisms associated with growth promotion by rhizobacteria --
Provision of nutrients --
Production of plant growth regulators --
Suppression of soilborne pathogens --
The impact of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on plant-parasitic nematodes --
Interactions between rhizosphere- and root-inhabiting bacteria and plant-parasitic nematodes --
Mechanisms by which root-associated bacteria influence plant-parasitic nematodes --
Production of bioactive compounds --
Chitinolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activity --
Induction of systemic resistance --
Manipulating populations of rhizobacteria for nematode management --
Impact of crop rotation, organic amendments and other practices --
Root-associated Symbionts: Only One Component of the Rhizosphere Microbiome --
SECTION V NATURAL SUPPRESSION AND INUNDATIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL --
9. Suppression of Nematodes and Other Soilborne Pathogens with Organic Amendments. Contents note continued: Organic Matter-mediated Suppressiveness for Managing Soilborne Diseases --
Sources of organic matter for use as amendments, and their beneficial effects --
Impact of organic source and application rate on disease suppression --
Effects on pathogen populations and disease --
Variation in responses to organic inputs --
Mechanisms of action --
Indicators of broad-spectrum disease suppressiveness --
Organic Matter-mediated Suppressiveness to Plant-parasitic Nematodes --
Soil fertility and plant nutrition effects of organic amendments --
Nematicidal compounds from decomposing organic matter --
Pre-formed chemicals in plant materials --
Chemicals released during the decomposition process --
The contribution of phytochemicals to the nematicidal effects of organic amendments --
Nematicidal properties of nitrogenous amendments --
Enhancing biological control mechanisms with organic amendments. Contents note continued: Impact of amendments on natural enemies, particularly nematophagous fungi --
The capacity of different types of organic matter to enhance biological mechanisms of nematode suppression --
Amendments with a high C:N ratio: are they the key to more sustained suppressiveness? --
Temporal effects of amending soil with organic matter --
Incorporation of amendments versus mulching --
The way forward: combining multiple mechanisms of action --
10. Specific Suppression of Plant-parasitic Nematodes --
The Role of Fungi and Oomycetes in the Decline of Heterodera avenae --
Parasitism of Meloidogyne spp. on Peach by Brachyphoris oviparasitica --
Suppression of Heterodera schachtii by Brachyphoris oviparasitica and Other Fungi --
Parasitism of Mesocriconema xenoplax and Heterodera spp. by Hirsutella rhossiliensis --
Decline of Heterodera glycines and the Possible Role of Egg-parasitic Fungi. Contents note continued: Suppression of Root-knot Nematode by Pochonia chlamydosporia and Other Organisms --
Suppression of Heterodera glycines and Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean --
Suppression of Root-knot Nematodes by Pasteuria penetrans --
Suppression of Heterodera glycines by Pasteuria nishizawae --
Management Options to Enhance Specific Suppressiveness --
The role of tolerance, resistance and crop rotation --
The impact of tillage --
Integrated management to improve the efficacy of Pasteuria --
Making Better Use of Natural Control: The Way Forward --
11. Integrated Soil Biology Management: The Pathway to Enhanced Natural Suppression of Plant-parasitic Nematodes --
Assessing Soils for Suppressiveness to Plant-parasitic Nematodes --
Survey methods to identify nematode-suppressive soils --
Bioassays for suppressiveness --
Indicators of suppressiveness --
Modifying Farming Systems to Enhance Suppressiveness --
Organic Matter Management: The Key to General Suppressiveness. Contents note continued: Management impacts on soil carbon, and flow-on effects to the soil biota --
Tillage and its impact on suppressiveness --
Using organic amendments, cover crops and mulches to enhance suppressiveness --
Impact of Management on Specific Suppressiveness --
Integrated Nematode Management or Integrated Soil Biology Management? --
Integrated Soil Biology Management in Various Farming Systems: The Pathway to Enhanced Suppressiveness --
Grains, oilseeds, pulses, fibre crops and pastures --
The key role of conservation agriculture --
Integration of pastures into crop-based farming systems --
Impact of management on soil biological parameters --
Vegetable crops --
Organic amendments --
Crop rotation, cover cropping and other practices --
Integrated management --
Perennial crops --
Enhancement of general suppressiveness --
Enhancement of specific suppressiveness --
An example of progress: nematode-suppressive soils in sugarcane --
Organic farming systems. Contents note continued: Impediments to the Development and Adoption of Farming Systems that Improve Soil Health and Enhance Suppressiveness --
Sustainable Weed Management Systems for Minimum-till Agriculture: A Priority for Research --
The Way Forward: A Farming Systems Approach to Managing Nematodes --
12. Biological Products for Nematode Management --
Experimental Methods --
General Soil Biostasis and the Fate of Introduced Organisms --
Monitoring Introduced Biological Control Agents --
Commercial Implementation of Biological Control --
Inundative Biological Control of Nematodes: An Assessment of Progress with a Diverse Range of Potentially Useful Organisms --
Nematode-trapping fungi --
Endoparasitic fungi --
Cyst and egg parasites --
Pochonia --
Purpureocillium --
Trichoderma --
Other fungi --
Pasteuria --
Predatory and entomopathogenic nematodes, and microarthropods --
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and endophytes --
Rhizobacteria and bacterial endophytes. Contents note continued: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi --
Fusarium endophytes --
Combinations of Biocontrol Agents --
The Role of Organic Amendments in Enhancing the Performance of Biological Products for Nematode Control --
Inundative Biological Control as a Component of Integrated Nematode Management --
Summary and Conclusions --
SECTION VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, PRACTICAL GUIDELINES AND FUTURE RESEARCH --
13. Biological Control as a Component of Integrated Nematode Management: The Way Forward --
Ecosystem Services Provided by the Soil Biological Community, and the Key Role of Organic Matter --
Farming Systems to Improve Soil Health and Sustainability --
Will Suppressiveness be Enhanced by Modifying the Farming System? --
The impact of plant residues, root exudates and other sources of organic matter on natural enemies of nematodes --
The role of continual cropping and increased cropping intensities. Contents note continued: Reducing tillage results in multiple benefits that will improve soil health and enhance suppressiveness --
The Role of Inundative and Inoculative Biological Control --
Moving from Theory to Practice: Issues Requiring Attention --
Assessment of suppressive services in long-term trials --
Relationships between soil carbon status, biological activity, biodiversity and general suppressiveness --
Management of specific suppressiveness --
Understanding interactions between the nematode community, natural enemies and organic matter --
Food preferences of parasites and predators in the soil environment --
Improved monitoring and diagnostic services for nematode pests and their natural enemies --
Coping with biological complexity --
Multidisciplinary research, innovation networks, research/extension models and the role of farmers --
The efficacy of inundative biological control in complex and dynamic soil environments --
Concluding Remarks. Contents note continued: 14.A Practical Guide to Improving Soil Health and Enhancing Suppressiveness to Nematode Pests --
Sustainable Agriculture and its Ecological Basis --
Biological communities and ecosystem services --
Soil biological communities --
The soil food web --
Soil physical and chemical fertility, and the role of organic matter --
Soil fertility decline and the impact of management --
Excessive tillage --
Inadequate residue management --
Excessive fertilizer and pesticide inputs --
Soil compaction --
Sustainable farming systems --
A Guide to Improving Soil Health and Minimizing Losses from Soilborne Diseases --
Step 1 Assess soil health --
Step 2 Assess impacts of the farming system on soil health and consider options for improvement --
Step 3 Modify soil and crop management practices and assess the outcomes --
Biological Control of Nematodes: One of Many Important Ecosystem Services --
Nematode-suppressive soils. Contents note continued: Nematode Management within Sustainable Farming Systems --
Examples of potentially sustainable farming systems --
Large-scale production of grains, oilseeds, fibre crops and pastures --
Vegetable crops --
Perennial trees and vines --
Other crops --
Indicators of improvement --
Potential problems and possible solutions --
Conclusions --
Questions Related to Soil Health, Soil Organic Matter and Nematode Management --
Useful Information on Soil Health.
Responsibility: Graham R. Stirling.

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   library:oclcnum "862400040" ;
   library:placeOfPublication <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1890653931#Place/boston_ma> ; # Boston, MA
   library:placeOfPublication <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1890653931#Place/wallingford_oxfordshire> ; # Wallingford, Oxfordshire
   library:placeOfPublication <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/enk> ;
   schema:about <http://dewey.info/class/632.6257/e23/> ;
   schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1065576> ; # Plant nematodes--Biological control
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1890653931#Topic/nematodos_de_plantas_control_biologico> ; # Nemátodos de plantas--Control biológico
   schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1124446> ; # Soil management
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1890653931#Topic/manejo_de_suelos> ; # Manejo de suelos
   schema:about <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2010002182> ; # Plant nematodes--Biological control
   schema:bookEdition "2nd ed." ;
   schema:bookFormat bgn:PrintBook ;
   schema:copyrightYear "2014" ;
   schema:creator <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1890653931#Person/stirling_graham_r> ; # Graham R. Stirling
   schema:datePublished "2014" ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Organic Matter-mediated Suppressiveness for Managing Soilborne Diseases -- Sources of organic matter for use as amendments, and their beneficial effects -- Impact of organic source and application rate on disease suppression -- Effects on pathogen populations and disease -- Variation in responses to organic inputs -- Mechanisms of action -- Indicators of broad-spectrum disease suppressiveness -- Organic Matter-mediated Suppressiveness to Plant-parasitic Nematodes -- Soil fertility and plant nutrition effects of organic amendments -- Nematicidal compounds from decomposing organic matter -- Pre-formed chemicals in plant materials -- Chemicals released during the decomposition process -- The contribution of phytochemicals to the nematicidal effects of organic amendments -- Nematicidal properties of nitrogenous amendments -- Enhancing biological control mechanisms with organic amendments."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Impediments to the Development and Adoption of Farming Systems that Improve Soil Health and Enhance Suppressiveness -- Sustainable Weed Management Systems for Minimum-till Agriculture: A Priority for Research -- The Way Forward: A Farming Systems Approach to Managing Nematodes -- 12. Biological Products for Nematode Management -- Experimental Methods -- General Soil Biostasis and the Fate of Introduced Organisms -- Monitoring Introduced Biological Control Agents -- Commercial Implementation of Biological Control -- Inundative Biological Control of Nematodes: An Assessment of Progress with a Diverse Range of Potentially Useful Organisms -- Nematode-trapping fungi -- Endoparasitic fungi -- Cyst and egg parasites -- Pochonia -- Purpureocillium -- Trichoderma -- Other fungi -- Pasteuria -- Predatory and entomopathogenic nematodes, and microarthropods -- Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and endophytes -- Rhizobacteria and bacterial endophytes."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Optimal nutrient management -- Efficient water management -- Integrated pest management -- Variable-rate application and site-specific management -- Integrated crop and livestock production -- Ecologically sound management systems: the pathway to healthy soils -- Soil-health benefits from conservation agriculture and precision farming: Australian examples -- Indicators of soil health -- Ecological Knowledge, Biotic Interactions and Agricultural Management -- Management effects on the soil biota and the limiting role of the environment -- Provision of ecosystem services by the soil biota and the role of management -- Integrated Soil Biology Management -- Ecologically Based Management Systems and the Role of Farmers -- Implications for Biological Control -- SECTION III NATURAL ENEMIES OF NEMATODES -- 5. Nematophagous Fungi and Oomycetes -- Taxonomy, Infection Mechanisms, General Biology and Ecology -- Nematode-trapping fungi in the order Orbiliales."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Distribution, host range and diversity -- Taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny -- Pasteuria penetrans: A Parasite of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) -- Life cycle and development -- Pathogenicity, pathogenesis and the impact of temperature -- Host specificity -- Estimating endospore numbers in soil -- The interaction between P. penetrans and its nematode host in soil -- Endospore production and release into soil -- The impact of the physical and chemical environment on endospores, and on the spore-attachment process -- Impact of spore concentration on nematode infectivity and fecundity -- Miscellaneous factors influencing the production and survival of endospores in soil -- The potential of P. penetrans as a biological control agent -- Pasteuria as a Parasite of Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) -- Taxonomy, phylogeny and host specificity -- Ecology and biological control potential."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Major Groups of Organisms in Soil -- Microbiota -- Microfauna -- Mesofauna -- Macrofauna -- Structure of the Soil Food Web -- Impact of Land Management on Energy Channels within the Soil Food Web -- Interactions within the Soil Food Web -- Regulation of Populations by Resource Supply and Predation -- Impacts of the Soil Food Web on Ecosystem Processes: Storage and Cycling of Nutrients -- The Soil Nematode Community -- Trophic groups within the soil nematode community -- A functional guild classification for soil nematodes -- Ecological roles of free-living nematodes -- Microbial feeding -- Microbial transport -- Nutrient cycling -- Regulation of populations -- Plant-parasitic nematodes -- Major groups of plant-feeding nematodes and their economic impact -- Population dynamics and damage thresholds -- Implications for Biological Control -- The role of the soil food web and the soil environment."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Population density and predacious activity in soil -- The regulatory capacity of nematophagous fungi -- Endoparasitic fungi -- Nematode-trapping fungi -- Cyst and egg parasites -- Host specificity within the nematophagous fungi -- Interactions between nematophagous fungi and nematodes in the rhizosphere -- Association of nematode-trapping and endoparasitic fungi with roots -- Rhizosphere competence of fungi and oomycetes capable of parasitizing nematode cysts and eggs -- Nematophagous fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes -- Citrus root weevil, entomopathogenic nematodes and nematophagous fungi in citrus soil -- Moth larvae, entomopathogenic nematodes and nematophagous fungi in natural shrub-land soil -- The impact of organic matter on predacious activity -- Other factors influencing predacious activity -- Maximizing the Predacious Activity of Nematophagous Fungi in Agricultural Soils."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Benefits to plants from a symbiotic relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi -- Enhanced nutrient uptake -- Drought tolerance -- Improved soil structure -- Disease resistance -- Interactions between plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant-parasitic nematodes -- Management to enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi -- Reduced tillage -- Fallow management, cropping intensity, crop sequence and cover cropping -- Other crop and soil management practices -- Improving soil and plant health, and managing nematodes with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi -- Endophytic Fungi -- Grass endophytes -- Fusarium endophytes -- Nematode control with endophytic strains of Fusarium oxysporum -- Approaches to utilizing Fusarium-mediated resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes -- Endophytic nematophagous fungi -- Concluding remarks on fungal endophytes: moving into uncharted waters -- Bacterial Endophytes and Rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacteria."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi -- Fusarium endophytes -- Combinations of Biocontrol Agents -- The Role of Organic Amendments in Enhancing the Performance of Biological Products for Nematode Control -- Inundative Biological Control as a Component of Integrated Nematode Management -- Summary and Conclusions -- SECTION VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, PRACTICAL GUIDELINES AND FUTURE RESEARCH -- 13. Biological Control as a Component of Integrated Nematode Management: The Way Forward -- Ecosystem Services Provided by the Soil Biological Community, and the Key Role of Organic Matter -- Farming Systems to Improve Soil Health and Sustainability -- Will Suppressiveness be Enhanced by Modifying the Farming System? -- The impact of plant residues, root exudates and other sources of organic matter on natural enemies of nematodes -- The role of continual cropping and increased cropping intensities."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Nematode Management within Sustainable Farming Systems -- Examples of potentially sustainable farming systems -- Large-scale production of grains, oilseeds, fibre crops and pastures -- Vegetable crops -- Perennial trees and vines -- Other crops -- Indicators of improvement -- Potential problems and possible solutions -- Conclusions -- Questions Related to Soil Health, Soil Organic Matter and Nematode Management -- Useful Information on Soil Health."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Impact of amendments on natural enemies, particularly nematophagous fungi -- The capacity of different types of organic matter to enhance biological mechanisms of nematode suppression -- Amendments with a high C:N ratio: are they the key to more sustained suppressiveness? -- Temporal effects of amending soil with organic matter -- Incorporation of amendments versus mulching -- The way forward: combining multiple mechanisms of action -- 10. Specific Suppression of Plant-parasitic Nematodes -- The Role of Fungi and Oomycetes in the Decline of Heterodera avenae -- Parasitism of Meloidogyne spp. on Peach by Brachyphoris oviparasitica -- Suppression of Heterodera schachtii by Brachyphoris oviparasitica and Other Fungi -- Parasitism of Mesocriconema xenoplax and Heterodera spp. by Hirsutella rhossiliensis -- Decline of Heterodera glycines and the Possible Role of Egg-parasitic Fungi."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Results from field observations, feeding studies and analyses of gut contents -- Detection of predation using stable isotope ratios and molecular techniques -- Studies of 'fungivorous' and 'predatory' arthropods in microcosms -- Mesostigmata as predators of nematodes in agroecosystems -- Management to enhance microarthropod abundance and diversity in agricultural soils -- Miscellaneous Predators of Nematodes -- Generalist Predators as Suppressive Agents -- Concluding Remarks -- Generalist predators as indicators of ecological complexity and a capacity to suppress pests -- Conservation (or autonomous) biological control -- Practices associated with developing self-regulating agroecosystems -- The disconnect between agricultural scientists, soil ecologists and the farming community -- 7. Obligate Parasites of Nematodes: Viruses and Bacteria in the Genus Pasteuria -- Viral Infectious Agents of Nematodes -- Bacteria in the Genus Pasteuria."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 14.A Practical Guide to Improving Soil Health and Enhancing Suppressiveness to Nematode Pests -- Sustainable Agriculture and its Ecological Basis -- Biological communities and ecosystem services -- Soil biological communities -- The soil food web -- Soil physical and chemical fertility, and the role of organic matter -- Soil fertility decline and the impact of management -- Excessive tillage -- Inadequate residue management -- Excessive fertilizer and pesticide inputs -- Soil compaction -- Sustainable farming systems -- A Guide to Improving Soil Health and Minimizing Losses from Soilborne Diseases -- Step 1 Assess soil health -- Step 2 Assess impacts of the farming system on soil health and consider options for improvement -- Step 3 Modify soil and crop management practices and assess the outcomes -- Biological Control of Nematodes: One of Many Important Ecosystem Services -- Nematode-suppressive soils."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Management impacts on soil carbon, and flow-on effects to the soil biota -- Tillage and its impact on suppressiveness -- Using organic amendments, cover crops and mulches to enhance suppressiveness -- Impact of Management on Specific Suppressiveness -- Integrated Nematode Management or Integrated Soil Biology Management? -- Integrated Soil Biology Management in Various Farming Systems: The Pathway to Enhanced Suppressiveness -- Grains, oilseeds, pulses, fibre crops and pastures -- The key role of conservation agriculture -- Integration of pastures into crop-based farming systems -- Impact of management on soil biological parameters -- Vegetable crops -- Organic amendments -- Crop rotation, cover cropping and other practices -- Integrated management -- Perennial crops -- Enhancement of general suppressiveness -- Enhancement of specific suppressiveness -- An example of progress: nematode-suppressive soils in sugarcane -- Organic farming systems."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Candidatus Pasteuria usgae Parasitic on Sting Nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) -- Taxonomy and host specificity -- Ecology and biological control potential -- Commercial products created by in vitro culture -- Pasteuria as a Parasite of Other Plant-parasitic and Free-living Nematodes -- Parasitism of root-lesion nematodes (Pratyknchns spp.) by Pasteuria thornei -- Parasitism of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) by Pasteuria -- An isolate of Pasteuria parasitizing a reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) -- Density-dependent parasitism of Xiphinema diversicaudalum by Pasteuria -- Associations between Pasteuria and other nematodes -- Concluding Remarks -- SECTION IV PLANT-MICROBIAL SYMBIONT-NEMATODE INTERACTIONS -- 8. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Endophytic Fungi, Bacterial Endophytes and Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria -- Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Major crops and nematode pests: their relevance to biological control -- Endoparasitic nematodes as a target for biological control agents -- Sedentary endoparasites -- Migratory endoparasites -- Features that protect plant-parasitic nematodes from parasitism and predation -- 4. Global Food Security, Soil Health and Sustainable Agriculture -- Global Food Security -- Sustainable Farming Systems -- Sustainable agricultural intensification -- Reduced tillage -- Continual cropping and maintenance of a permanent cover of plant residues -- Greater plant diversity -- Improved crop yield potential -- Optimized crop nutrition -- Efficient water management -- Site-specific management -- Integrated pest management -- Integrated crop and livestock production -- Soil Health -- Management impacts on soil health and the role of conservation agriculture -- Other management practices to improve soil health -- Well-adapted, high-yielding varieties."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Mechanisms associated with growth promotion by rhizobacteria -- Provision of nutrients -- Production of plant growth regulators -- Suppression of soilborne pathogens -- The impact of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on plant-parasitic nematodes -- Interactions between rhizosphere- and root-inhabiting bacteria and plant-parasitic nematodes -- Mechanisms by which root-associated bacteria influence plant-parasitic nematodes -- Production of bioactive compounds -- Chitinolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activity -- Induction of systemic resistance -- Manipulating populations of rhizobacteria for nematode management -- Impact of crop rotation, organic amendments and other practices -- Root-associated Symbionts: Only One Component of the Rhizosphere Microbiome -- SECTION V NATURAL SUPPRESSION AND INUNDATIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL -- 9. Suppression of Nematodes and Other Soilborne Pathogens with Organic Amendments."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Suppression of Root-knot Nematode by Pochonia chlamydosporia and Other Organisms -- Suppression of Heterodera glycines and Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean -- Suppression of Root-knot Nematodes by Pasteuria penetrans -- Suppression of Heterodera glycines by Pasteuria nishizawae -- Management Options to Enhance Specific Suppressiveness -- The role of tolerance, resistance and crop rotation -- The impact of tillage -- Integrated management to improve the efficacy of Pasteuria -- Making Better Use of Natural Control: The Way Forward -- 11. Integrated Soil Biology Management: The Pathway to Enhanced Natural Suppression of Plant-parasitic Nematodes -- Assessing Soils for Suppressiveness to Plant-parasitic Nematodes -- Survey methods to identify nematode-suppressive soils -- Bioassays for suppressiveness -- Indicators of suppressiveness -- Modifying Farming Systems to Enhance Suppressiveness -- Organic Matter Management: The Key to General Suppressiveness."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: The Soil Environment and Its Impact on Nematodes and Other Soil Organisms -- Physical structure -- Soil water -- Aeration -- pH -- Soil temperature -- The Soil--Root Interface -- Roots and rhizodeposits: the energy source that sustains the soil biological community -- Microbial inhabitants of the soil and rhizosphere -- Microbial colonization of the rhizosphere -- Communication within the rhizosphere -- Plant--microbe--faunal interactions in the rhizosphere -- Effects of rhizosphere inhabitants on plant growth -- Manipulating the rhizosphere community -- Implications for Biological Control -- Impact of the soil environment -- Multitrophic interactions in a complex environment -- The soil and rhizosphere as a source of antagonists -- Establishment of biological control agents in soil and the rhizosphere -- Manipulating the soil biological community -- The role of organic matter -- 3. The Soil Food Web and the Soil Nematode Community."@en ;
   schema:description "Machine generated contents note: SECTION I SETTING THE SCENE -- 1. Ecosystem Services and the Concept of 'Integrated Soil Biology Management' -- Agriculture from an Ecological Perspective -- Biotic Interactions within the Soil Food Web -- Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes -- Sustainable Agriculture -- Soil Health -- The Rise of Conservation Agriculture -- Biological Control of Nematodes: Current Status and the Way Forward -- Integrated Soil Biology Management -- Transferring Ecological Knowledge into Practical Outcomes -- SECTION II THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT, SOIL ECOLOGY, SOIL HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE -- 2. The Soil Environment and the Soil--Root Interface -- The Process of Soil Formation and the Composition of Soil -- The soil mineral fraction -- Soil organic matter -- Impact of Organic Matter on Soil Properties -- Organic matter and soil physical fertility -- Organic matter and soil chemical fertility -- Organic matter and soil biological fertility."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Trapping structures -- Taxonomy -- Occurrence -- General biology and ecology -- Fungal and oomycete parasites of vermiform nematodes -- Stylopage -- Catenaria -- Nematoctonus, Hohenbuehelia and Pleurotus -- Drechmeria -- Harposporium -- Hirsutella -- Nematophagous oomycetes: Myzocytiopsis, Haptoglossa, Nematophthora and Lagenidiaceae -- Cyst and egg parasites -- Pochonia -- Purpureocillium -- Brachyphoris, Vermispora and the ARF fungus -- Other fungi -- Fungal-Nematode Interactions in Soil -- Saprophytic and parasitic modes of nutrition -- Factors influencing the saprophytic and parasitic activity of nematophagous fungi in soil -- Density-dependent response as nematode populations increase -- Competition from other soil organisms for nutrients -- Competition for nitrogen in high-carbon, low-nitrogen environments -- Nematophagous Fungi as Agents for Suppressing Nematode Populations -- Occurrence in agricultural soils."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 6. Nematodes, Mites and Collembola as Predators of Nematodes, and the Role of Generalist Predators -- Predatory Nematodes -- Characteristics of the five major groups of predatory nematodes -- The prey of predatory soil nematodes -- Predatory nematodes as regulatory forces in the soil food web -- Impacts of agricultural management on omnivorous nematodes and generalist predators -- Short- and long-term effects of soil fumigation -- Negative effects of other agricultural management practices -- Management to maintain a well-structured soil food web -- Maintaining the suppressive services provided by predatory nematodes and other generalist predators -- Predatory nematodes and inundative biocontrol -- Microarthropods as Predators of Nematodes -- The main members of the soil mesofauna: mites, Collembola and Symphyla -- Evidence of nematophagy in various groups of microarthropods."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Reducing tillage results in multiple benefits that will improve soil health and enhance suppressiveness -- The Role of Inundative and Inoculative Biological Control -- Moving from Theory to Practice: Issues Requiring Attention -- Assessment of suppressive services in long-term trials -- Relationships between soil carbon status, biological activity, biodiversity and general suppressiveness -- Management of specific suppressiveness -- Understanding interactions between the nematode community, natural enemies and organic matter -- Food preferences of parasites and predators in the soil environment -- Improved monitoring and diagnostic services for nematode pests and their natural enemies -- Coping with biological complexity -- Multidisciplinary research, innovation networks, research/extension models and the role of farmers -- The efficacy of inundative biological control in complex and dynamic soil environments -- Concluding Remarks."@en ;
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