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The Biology of Alcoholism : Volume 2: Physiology and Behavior

Author: Benjamin Kissin; Henri Begleiter
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1972.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Alcoholism is a uniquely human condition. Although some forms of alcohol dependence can be induced experimentally in a variety of laboratory animals, the complete spectrum of alcoholism with all of its physical, psychological, and social implications occurs only in man. The special quality of this relationship becomes more significant when one considers that the manifestations of most physical disease syndromes in  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Benjamin Kissin; Henri Begleiter
ISBN: 9781468408973 1468408976 9781468408959 146840895X
OCLC Number: 851811617
Description: 1 online resource (volumes)
Contents: of Volume 2 Physiology and Behavior.- 1 Effects of Alcohol on the Neuron.- The Phenomenology of Physiological Depression.- Basic Theory of Depressant Molecular Action.- Alcohols as Depressant Molecules.- Summary.- References.- 2 Peripheral Nerve and Muscle Disorders Associated with Alcoholism.- Peripheral Nerve.- Clinical Description.- Studies of Nerve Conduction Velocities.- Pathological Description of Nerve Fibers in Chronic Alcoholics with Polyneuropathy.- Pathogenesis of the Neuropathy Associated with Alcoholism.- Treatment and Prognosis.- Muscle.- Clinical Description.- Pathological Description of Muscle Fibers in Chronic Alcoholics.- Pathogenesis of the Myopathies Associated with Alcoholism.- Treatment and Prognosis.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 3 The Effects of Alcohol on Evoked Potentials of Various Parts of the Central Nervous System of the Cat.- Experimental Methods.- Acute Studies.- Chronic Studies.- Results of Various Types of Stimulation.- Electrical Stimulation of the Radial and Sciatic Nerves.- Direct Cortical Stimulation.- Stimulation of Subcortical Structures with Special Reference to the Reticular Formation.- Auditory Stimulation.- Photic Stimulation.- Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 4 Brain Centers of Reinforcement and Effects of Alcohol.- History.- Topographic Organization.- Intensity of Effect.- Drive Relations.- Autonomic Relations.- Positive and Negative Reinforcement.- Anatomical Relations.- Interaction Experiment.- Lesion Experiments.- Self-stimulation, Epileptiform Activity, and Neuronal Activity.- Behavioral Aspects.- Drug Experiments.- Summary.- References.- 5 Factors Underlying Differences in Alcohol Preference of Inbred Strains of Mice.- The Inbred Mouse as Subject Introduction.- Alcoholism as a Behavior Pathology.- The Nature of Inbred Strains.- Measurement of Alcohol Preference.- Genetic Effects on Alcohol Preference.- Nutritional Effects on Alcohol Preference.- Experiential Effects on Alcohol Preference.- Physiologic Correlates of Alcohol Preference.- Pathological Effects of Long-Term Alcohol Consumption.- Pathological Effects of Alcohol Not Voluntarily Ingested.- Summary and Implications.- References.- 6 The Determinants of Alcohol Preference in Animals.- The Meaning of Alcohol Selection.- Measuring Alcohol Preference in Animals.- Techniques of Self-Selection.- Position Habit.- Interpreting Self-Selection Data.- Biological Mechanisms in Alcohol Selection.- Innate Factors.- Endocrine Systems and Internal Factors.- Aging.- Environmental Changes and Alcohol Preference.- Habituation, Acclimation, and Tolerance to Alcohol.- Nutrition, Taste, Smell, and Alcohol Preference.- Stress-Induced Drinking.- Psychogenic Polydipsia and Alcohol.- Biochemical Factors in Self-selection of Alcohol.- Action of Alcohol on the Brain and Other Systems.- Drugs and Other Systemic Alterations.- Biogenic Amines and Alcohol Preference.- Conclusions.- References.- 7 Voluntary Alcohol Consumption in Apes.- Use of Nonhuman Primates in Studies of Alcohol Consumption.- General Variables Related to Alcohol Consumption in Apes.- Preferences for Alcohols.- Ranges of Alcohol Consumption.- Patterns of Drinking Behavior.- Effects of Alcohol Consumption in Apes.- Physiological Variables.- Behavioral Variables.- Overview.- References.- 8 State-Dependent Learning Produced by Alcohol and Its Relevance to Alcoholism.- Available Information.- Experimental Procedures.- Properties of Drug Discriminability.- Discriminative Control by Alcohol.- Animal Dissociation Experiments.- State-Dependent Learning in Humans.- Drug Discrimination in Humans.- Dissociation and the Alcoholic Blackout.- Can Dissociation Cause Dependence?.- Implications for the Treatment of Alcoholism.- Summary.- References.- 9 Behavioral Studies of Alcoholism.- The Concept of Addiction.- Selection of Subjects.- Methods of Alcohol Administration.- Drinking Patterns.- Techniques Used to Study Alcohol Acquisition and Periodicity of Drinking.- Factors Which Affect Drinking Patterns.- Comparison of Alcohol with Other Reinforcers.- The Effects of Alcohol on Behavioral and Biological Factors.- Craving: An Unvalidated Construct.- Affect and Self-Esteem.- Memory and Dissociative Phenomena.- Sleep Patterns.- Summary and Conclusions.- Evidence of Alcohol Addiction.- "The Alcoholic (?)".- Control over Drinking.- Manipulation of Intoxication.- Affect and Memory.- Sleep Patterns.- Conclusions.- References.- 10 The Effects of Alcohol on the Central Nervous System in Humans.- Introduction: Research Questions and Methodological Problems.- The Effects of Alcohol on the Electroencephalogram.- Comparison of EEG Recordings in Alcoholics vs. Nonalcoholics.- The Electroencephalogram During Acute Alcoholic Psychosis.- Definition of the Chronic Alcoholic and Selection of Study Samples.- Nature of the Control Group.- Longitudinal vs. Cross-Sectional Studies.- Time of Testing and Concurrent Medication.- The Electroencephalogram in Chronic Alcoholics.- Experimental Studies of CNS Activity During Acute Administration of Alcohol.- The Effects of Long-Term Administration on the Electroencephalogram.- The Effects of Alcohol in Brain-Evoked Responses.- Technique.- Drug Effects.- The Effects of Alcohol on the Recovery Function of Evoked Potentials.- Summary.- References.- 11 Changes in Cardiovascular Activity as a Function of Alcohol Intake.- Mythology of Alcohol and the Cardiovascular System..- Alcohol and the Central Circulation.- Alcohol and Cardiac Metabolism.- Alcohol and Cardiac Mechanical Performance.- Alcohol and Cardiac Morphology.- Alcohol and Electrophysiology of the Heart.- Alcohol and the Peripheral Circulation.- Alcohol and Specific Cardiovascular Disorders.- Cardiovascular Abnormalities Associated with the Acute Withdrawal Syndrome.- Alcoholic Myocardiopathy.- Beriberi Heart Disease.- Alcoholic Perimyocardiopathy.- Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease.- References.- 12 The Effect of Alcohol on the Autonomic Nervous System of Humans: Psychophysiological Approach.- Alcoholics and Nonalcoholies.- Autonomie Nervous System (ANS).- ANS, Psychophysiology, and Alcoholism.- Autonomie Nervous System.- Anatomical Overview.- ANS Integration.- Psychophysiological Studies of Human ANS.- Some Psychophysiological Experiments.- Psychophysiological Concepts and Alcoholism.- Psychophysiological Studies of Alcohol Effect on the Human ANS.- Questions of Experimental Design.- Cardiovascular System and Alcohol.- Electrodermal System and Alcohol.- Salivation, Eye Movements, Respiration, Digestive System, EMG, and Alcohol.- Summary.- References.- 13 Alcohol and Sleep.- Phenomena of Human Sleep.- Electroencephalographic (EEG) Patterns.- Autonomic Patterns.- The Need for Sleep.- Effects of Alcohol on Sleep.- Acute Studies (Normal Subjects).- Chronic Effects (Alcoholic Patients).- Neural Mechanisms of Sleep.- Slow-Wave Sleep.- REM Sleep.- Sites of Action of Alcohol in the CNS.- Sleep and the Biogenic Amines.- Tryptophan and Phenylalanine.- Reserpine.- Alcohol and the Biogenic Amines.- The MAO Inhibition Model.- The Reserpine Model.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 14 Alcoholism and Learning.- Learning Terms and Principles.- Reinforcement.- Extinction.- Punishment.- Learning Principles and Research Relevant to Alcoholism.- Reinforcing Properties of Alcohol.- Development of Excessive Drinking.- Maintenance of Excessive Drinking.- Control of Excessive Drinking.- Evaluation.- Conceptualizing Alcoholism as Learned Behavior.- Stimulation of Research.- Summary.- References.- 15 Some Behavioral Effects of Alcohol on Man.- Sexual Behavior and Alcohol.- Animal Experiments.- Human Experiments.- Discussion.- Alcohol and Aggression.- Discussion.- Direct Observation of Aggression.- Indirect Observation of Aggression.- Alcohol as a Disinhibitor of Aggression.- Other Sources of Information About Alcohol and Aggression.- Comment.- Conclusion.- References.
Responsibility: edited by Benjamin Kissin, Henri Begleiter.


Although some forms of alcohol dependence can be induced experimentally in a variety of laboratory animals, the complete spectrum of alcoholism with all of its physical, psychological, and social  Read more...


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