Human biomonitoring has developed from a research tool in occupational and environmental health to identify and quantify exposures to harmful substances in urine and blood. The analytical methods for detection of substances in biological media have considerably improved with smaller detection limits and more precise and specific measurements. Human biomonitoring is a valuable tool in exposure estimation of selected populations and currently used in surveillance programs all over the world. This two volume set provides an overview of current available biomarkers and human biomonitoring programs in environmental health, which is timely given the present debate on adverse health effects from environmental exposures. The books decribe both previous and ongoing studies as well as the newer biomarkers of exposure and effects. Volume one describes current human biomonitoring programs in Germany, Romania, France, Canada, India and Belgium, providing convincing evidence of a global decline in human exposures to lead and increasing concern from exposure to endocrine disruptors and the genotoxic compound. Biomarkers of specific exposures to a wide range of widely used everyday compounds such as phthalates, PFCs, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, PAHs, dioxins, mercury and arsenic are also discussed. Volume two decribes human biomonitoing of exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, mycotoxins, physiological stress, hormone activity, oxidative stress and ionizing radiation, as well as effect biomarkers of hemoglobin adducts, germ cells, micronuclei and individual susceptability. The books will be essential reading for toxicologists, environmental scientists and all those working in the safety and risk assessment of chemicals.